Beginnings of the New Deal
Failure of Hoover to adequately respond
to the Great Depression.
Rugged Individualism approach? Not quite.
End of Republican political domination
Election of FDR (1932)
Deepening economic crisis during the
Dust Bowl and Great Depression
First Hundred Days
First Hundred Days
FDR institutes sweeping reform in his
first 100 days in office.
Calls session of Congress for three
Creates a slew of New Deal agencies
– including TVA, CCC, and WPA
15 major bills pass Congress in first 100
“The whole country is with him, just so he
does something. If he burned down the
Capitol, we would all cheer and say,
well, we at least got a fire started
anyhow.” – Will Rogers
The fireside chats: A series of 20
evening radio addresses by FDR.
First used as governor of New York.
Uses “chats” to outline policies and
gain public support
Most notably introduces the New
Deal on May 7.1933.
Completely changes relationship
between executive and public.
The New Deal
Relief for the unemployed poor.
Recovery of the economy to pre-
Reform of the financial system to prevent
Leads to greater federal control of the
Remains controversial to this day to the
rapid expansion of the federal
Quote from head of the NRA
“There is no choice presented to American
business between intelligently planned and
uncontrolled industrial operations and a return to
the gold-plated anarchy that masqueraded as
"rugged individualism" ... Unless industry is
sufficiently socialized by its private owners and
managers so that great essential industries are
operated under public obligation appropriate to
the public interest in them, the advance of
political control over private industry is inevitable.”
Do you agree or disagree? Should essential industries be
“operated under public obligation appropriate to the
What are some industries that should be socialized?
Which businesses should not be?
Recession of 1937
Recession of 1937: Unemployment
rises from 14.3% to 19% between 1937
FDR had claimed responsibility for
improving economic conditions – this
backfires with the recession.
Four years later, the US would reach
full employment following their entry in
to World War II.