Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Designing Mobile Inquiry-based Learning Activities: Learners' Agency and Technology Affordances

Inquiry-based learning (IBL) puts the learners' curiosity into the center of educational experiences. Designing IBL requires to consider the learners' agency in their own learning. As if designing learning activities is not complex enough, learner agency adds an additional layer of design decisions. Based on prior research and projects with different audiences, this workshop structures the design space for creating inquiry learning experiences.

This slidedeck is part of a hands-on workshop for designing mobile IBL experiences. The workshop took place on 11 April 2019 at IADIS Mobile Learning conferences in Utrecht.

  • Login to see the comments

Designing Mobile Inquiry-based Learning Activities: Learners' Agency and Technology Affordances

  1. 1. Designing Mobile Inquiry-Based Learning Activities: Learners’ Agency & Technological Affordances Esther Tan, Christian Glahn, & Marcus Specht Delft University of Technology, Netherlands Centre for Education and Learning
  2. 2. Part I: Mobile Learning in the Era of Digital Mobility: design challenges by C. Glahn Part II: Mobile Learning Activities: Learners’ agency & technological affordances by E. Tan Workshop Outline Centre for Education and Learning
  3. 3. Part I: Mobile Learning in the Era of Digital Mobility: Design challenges
  4. 4. When designing mobile learning experiences we need understanding about the implications of the tools we use
  5. 5. Affordances of Mobiles can expand Learning Contexts Mobler
  6. 6. Shaping mobile learning experiences cannot rely only on device affordances
  7. 7. Interactions Environment Processes Results Operators Learner Profile RulesActivities ExperiencesProducts ContextsTools & Resources Social FormsObjectives Support & Motivation Comptences Skills Knowledge Prerequisites Completion Valuing Grading Roles Learning activity Teaching activity Competences ▪ Mobility ▪ Community ▪ Network ▪ Duration ▪ Rhythm ▪ Time Goals Location Mediation Relations Time Control Collaboration Präsentation Communication Application/ Documentation Organisation/ Structure Individual Group work Class Teacher guided ▪ Lecture hall ▪ Workplace ▪ Campus ▪ Telepräsence ▪ Online Environment ▪ Virtual Reality Self-regulation Self-organisation ▪ Knowledge delivery ▪ Dokuments/Facts ▪ Practices ▪ Simulations ▪ syncroneous ▪ asyncroneous ▪ Projects ▪ Categories Subject-matter structure ▪ Home ▪ Text resources !" # $ % ! & "# $ ' based on Engeström; Gagné et al.; Merrienboer & Kirschner; Lavé & Wenger, Laurillard; Anderson et al., Koper et al.; Reigeluth; Sharples et al.; EQF; Dillenbourg; Specht et al., … The Full Design Space for Learning Experiences Learning Task Guidance Tools & Technologies
  8. 8. We need to understand the full design space but we don’t need to see it all the time…
  9. 9. Guidance Tools & Technologies Context
  10. 10. Creating mobile experiences operates not on an open and unshaped space but follows structural and procedural patterns
  11. 11. Inquiry-based Learning
  12. 12. Field Activities Desk Activities
  13. 13. Field Activities Desk Activities Mobiles help tobridge betweenactivity contexts
  14. 14. Field Activities Desk Activities Seamless Learning
  15. 15. What about Learner Agency?
  16. 16. Six-dimension framework Suárez, Specht, Prinsen, Kalz, & Ternier (2018) Optionsfor monitoring Optionsfor reflection Control over strategies Controlover actions Control over goals Controlover content
  17. 17. Uff … This is also too complicated as a design tool
  18. 18. Let’s bring this to life Tools & Technologies Guidance Context
  19. 19. An Example Aggregating Controlling Presenting Task Service Device Sensors Location Service Task Mgr Location Mgr Data store Reporting at the Desk
  20. 20. Task completion Task reminders Data granularity Data recency Pre-defined tasks Photos GPS Structured info Text Notes Task reporting Temporal sequences Reviewing collected data Forms Incident recoding Non-tasked data Geo tagging Photos Interviews Expand/update data Task arrangement Ad-hoc decisions
  21. 21. Task completion Task reminders Data granularity Data recency Pre-defined tasks Photos GPS Structured info Text Notes Task reporting Temporal sequences Reviewing collected data Forms Incident recoding Non-tasked data Geo tagging Photos Interviews Expand/update data Task arrangement Ad-hoc decisions Learner agency doesn’t have to be maximized along all dimensions
  22. 22. Part II: Mobile Learning Activities: Learners’ Agency & Technological Affordances Case Study: Singapore Future School Project - mobile inquiry-based learning trails at Sentosa Island & Singapore River https://www.visitsingapore.com/see-do-singapore/places-to-see/sentosa/ http://singaporeriverih.blogspot.com/p/singapore-river.html
  23. 23. Singapore River – Then & Now Learning objectives: § Inquiry-based Learning: BIG Question (BIG: Beyond Information Given) § Collaborative Knowledge Building § Integrated conceptual understanding (History, Geography & Biology)
  24. 24. Inquiry-based learning with a Beyond Information Given (BIG) question: Why does civilization begin at river mouth?
  25. 25. 1. Levels of pre-structuringDesign of the Mobile Learning Trail § Position the learning trail as part of formal curriculum with pre & post-trail phase § Provide an unstructured activity for small groups to pursue their own research inquiries after the completion of all trail activities Pre-Trial Tune-in Activity In-Trail Activities Post-Trial Summary of learning
  26. 26. 2. Task structuredness: from performative task to knowledge synthesis task Description of tasks Asian Civilisation Museum Performative 1. Trace the Singapore River course Performative 2. Measure the river water conditions Knowledge Generative 3. Singapore River: Then & Now Knowledge Synthesis 4. Singapore River: Source of migration Clarke Quay Performative 1. Measure the river water conditions Performative 2. Locate the ideal water conditions Knowledge Generative 3. Describe the ideal water conditions Knowledge Synthesis 4. Discuss the importance of water quality
  27. 27. 3. Technology & Learners’ Agency Immediacy of feedback & social interaction § Web-based platform hosting all trail tasks, students’ collected data & artifacts § Virtual facilitation: broadcast alert & feedback features § iPads with embedded apps
  28. 28. Geography Learning Trail The Fall of Singapore Trail British Defense Strategy Trail River MysteryTrail March 2010 Sentosa Island July 2010 World War II Battle Sites March 2011 Fort Siloso August 2012 Singapore River What are the main reasons for the fall of Singapore to Japan? What is the role of Sentosa in the British’s big plan of defence? Why does civilization start at river mouth? Time & Site BIG question Progressive Refinement & Adaptation Iterative Design of the Mobile Learning Trails
  29. 29. Geography Learning Trail The Fall of Singapore Trail British Defense Strategy Trail River MysteryTrail March 2010 Sentosa Island July 2010 World War II Battle Sites March 2011 Fort Siloso August 2012 Singapore River What are the main reasons for the fall of Singapore to Japan? What is the role of Sentosa in the British’s big plan of defence? Why does civilization start at river mouth? Time & Site BIG question Progressive Refinement & Adaptation Iterative Design of the Mobile Learning Trails Findings Lack of continuity & intentional learning 3-stage model (pre-to-post trail to connect varying contexts of learning) Repair Strategies in Design
  30. 30. Geography Learning Trail The Fall of Singapore Trail British Defense Strategy Trail River MysteryTrail March 2010 Sentosa Island July 2010 World War II Battle Sites March 2011 Fort Siloso August 2012 Singapore River What are the main reasons for the fall of Singapore to Japan? What is the role of Sentosa in the British’s big plan of defence? Why does civilization start at river mouth? Time & Site BIG question Progressive Refinement & Adaptation Iterative Design of the Mobile Learning Trails Findings Lack of continuity & intentional learning Lack of deep discourse 3-stage model (pre-to-post trail to connect varying contexts of learning) Embed unforeseen variables & contextual resources Repair Strategies in Design
  31. 31. Geography Learning Trail The Fall of Singapore Trail British Defense Strategy Trail River MysteryTrail March 2010 Sentosa Island July 2010 World War II Battle Sites March 2011 Fort Siloso August 2012 Singapore River What are the main reasons for the fall of Singapore to Japan? What is the role of Sentosa in the British’s big plan of defence? Why does civilization start at river mouth? Time & Site BIG question Progressive Refinement & Adaptation Iterative Design of the Mobile Learning Trails Findings Lack of continuity & intentional learning Lack of deep discourse Task-focused > understanding focused 3-stage model (pre-to-post trail to connect varying contexts of learning) Embed unforeseen variables & contextual resources Embed unstructured activity & facilitate common grounds Repair Strategies in Design
  32. 32. Mobile Learning Trails Key findings: § Task structuredness: the well-structured tasks leading to the ill-structured task types enabled a gradual increase of learner’s capacity for reflective inquiry (scaffolding) § Technological mediation enhanced students’ autonomy and thereby increased students’ capacity to take control of their learning journey: Students were able to re-evaluate their initial findings and re-negotiate meaning based on the immediacy of feedback.
  33. 33. Hands-on Session (1 hour) Define a contextualized inquiry-based learning experience § Define min. 5 inquiry sub-activities § Focus on the use of mobile devices § Focus on learner agency § Prepare to present your IBL experience Tools & Technologies Guidance Context
  34. 34. Challenges & Implications 1. Design Intentional learning Experiences Across Contexts, Spaces & Time § Reduce the ‘novelty space’: 3-stage Model (Pre-to-post) § Connecting the different learning contexts § Structured/ Unstructured learning activity (levels of inquiry): desired learning processes/ outcomes § Outdoor learning: open spaces vs enclosed spaces § Design for students’ capacity for autonomous learning § Promote interdisciplinary thinking and discourse
  35. 35. Outdoor open space e.g. a river trail, a nature ramble. Outdoor enclosed space e.g., tunnel at a fortress, exhibition area inside a castle. Challenges & Implications
  36. 36. 2. Teacher agency vs. learner autonomy vs. technological affordances § Learning context and content (“phygital spaces”) § Learner profile and learner readiness; and § Socio-cultural practices Challenges & Implications Tools & Technologies Guidance Context
  37. 37. Thank You for Your Participation! Centre for Education and Learning
  38. 38. References Journal Publications § Tan, E. & So, H. J. (2018). Role of Environmental Interaction in Interdisciplinary Thinking: from Knowledge Resources Perspectives. The Journal of Environmental Education. DOI: 10.1080/00958964.2018.1531280 § So, H. J., Zhang, X. J. & Tan, E. (2016). Learning about Collaborative Knowledge Building: A Case of Future School in Singapore. Journal of Learner- Centered Curriculum and Instruction. 16 (10), 565 – 591. § Cober, R., Tan, E., Slotta, J.D., So, H.J., & Könings, K.D (2015). Teachers as participatory designers: two case studies with technology-enhanced learning environments. Instructional Science (2015). DOI: 10.1007/s11251-014-9339-0 § Tan, E. & So, H. J. (2015). Rethinking the impact of activity design on a mobile learning trail: The missing dimension of the physical affordances. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies. DOI: 10.1109/TLT.2014.2376951 § So, H. J., Tan, E., & Tay, J. (2012). Collaborative mobile learning in situ from knowledge building perspectives. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher. 21:1, pp. 51-62.
  39. 39. References Book Chapters § So, H. J., Tan, E., Y. Wei., & Zhang, X. J. (2015). What makes the design of mobile learning trails effective: A retrospective analysis (pp. 335-352). In L. S. Wong., M. Milard., & M. Specht. (Eds.), Seamless learning in the age of mobile connectivity, (pp.335 – 352). Singapore: Springer. § So, H. J. & Tan, E. (2014). Designing the situation for pervasive knowledge building: Future school experiences. In Tan, S. C., So, H. J. and J. Yeo, J. (Eds.), Knowledge creation in education, (pp. 123-142). Springer. § Glahn, C. & Gruber, M.R. (2018). Mobile Blended Learning. In In C. De Witt & C. Gloerfeld (Eds.) Handbuch Mobile Learning, pp. 303-320. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. § Glahn, C. & Gruber, M.R. (2019, in press). Designing for Context-aware and Contextualized Learning. In Ally, M., Su, C. & Tsinakos, A. (Eds.), Emerging Technologies and Pedagogies in the Curriculum. Heidelberg et al.: Springer. Paper source for 15th ICML Workshop § Suárez, Á., Specht, M., Prinsen, F., Kalz, M., & Ternier, S. (2018). A review of the types of mobile activities in mobile inquiry-based learning. Computers & Education, 118, 38-55.
  40. 40. Conference Proceedings § Tan, E., Rusman, E., Firssova, O., Ternier, S., Specht, M., Klemke, R., & So, H. J. (2018). Mobile Inquiry-based Learning: Relationship among levels of inquiry, learners’ autonomy and environmental interaction. In D. Parsons, R. Power, A. Palalas, H. Hambrock & K. MacCallum (Eds.), Proceedings of 17th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (pp. 22-29). Concordia University Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Retrieved November 30, 2018 from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/184919/. § Rusman, E., Tan, E., & Firssova, O. (2018). Dreams, realism and critics of stakeholders on implementing Seamless Learning Scenario’s in Dutch Secondary education. In D. Parsons, R. Power, A. Palalas, H. Hambrock & K. MacCallum (Eds.), Proceedings of 17th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (pp. 88-96). Concordia University Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Retrieved November 30, 2018 from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/184927/. § Tan, E., & So, H. J. (2016). Students’ Use of Knowledge Resources in Environmental Interaction on an Outdoor Learning Trail. In Looi, C. K., Polman, J. L., Cress, U., and Reimann, P. (Eds.) (2016). Transforming Learning, Empowering Learners: The International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS) 2016, Volume 2, (pp. 745-752). Singapore: International Society of the Learning Sciences. References
  41. 41. § Tan, E. & So, H. J. (2015). How learners employ semiotic resources for collaborative meaning-making in outdoor mobile learning. In Lindwall, O., Häkkinen, P., Koschman, T. Tchounikine, P. & Ludvigsen, S. (Eds.) (2015). Exploring the Material Conditions of Learning: The Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Conference 2015, Volume 1, (pp. 268-275). Gothenburg, Sweden: The International Society of the Learning Sciences. § Tan, E. & So, H. J. (2013). Students’ Capacity for Autonomous Learning in an Unstructured Learning Space on a Mobile Learning Trail. In Rummel, N., Kapur, M., Nathan, M., & Puntambekar, S. (Eds.) (2013). To See the World and a Grain of Sand: Learning across Levels of Space, Time, and Scale: CSCL 2013 Conference Proceedings Volume 2, (pp. 169-172). International Society of the Learning Sciences. References
  42. 42. § Tan, E., So, H. J., & Zhang, X. J. (2012). Teacher Agency and Student Autonomy in an Inquiry-based Mobile Learning Trail. In the proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE), Nov 26 to 30, 2012, Singapore. § Tan, E. & So, H. J. (2011). Location-based collaborative learning at a Geography trail: Examining the relationship among task design, facilitation and discourse types. In H. Spada, G. Stahl, N. Miyake, & N. Law. (Eds.). Connecting computer-supported collaborative learning to policy and practice: CSCL 2011 conference proceedings Vol. 1, (pp.41-48). International Society of the Learning Sciences. References

×