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Sexually Transmitted Infections 101


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An in depth look at STIs, topics covered include: PPR services, safer sex, common STIs, testing and treatment, overview of prevention, barriers and healthy decision making.

Published in: Education
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Sexually Transmitted Infections 101

  1. 1. Planned Parenthood Regina THE SEXUAL HEALTH EDUCATION PLACE Sexually Transmitted Infections 101 Y.E.A.H. Youth Educating About Health
  2. 2. Group Guidelines 1. This is a safe space for everyone - Everything is confidential, no judgments 2. There’s no such thing as a stupid question -Every question is a good one. If you’re thinking it, other people are too -If you’re uncomfortable asking out loud, write it down for the Secret Question Box 3. Respect yourself and each other -This is important stuff, ask questions and get involved so you can protect yourself and help inform your friends, we’re all in this together so help each other out!
  3. 3. • 4. Labels are for cans -Labeling creates stigma, and that’s not cool. Don’t make judgments because of someone's sexual orientation, race, gender or background. It’s what you do that can put you at risk, not who you are. 5. Sex isn’t bad -No gross pictures or scare tactics here. Sex is a natural part of life, we want you to have accurate information so you can protect yourself and stay healthy
  4. 4. How to…
  5. 5. What is Planned Parenthood Regina? • PPR is a sexual health centre • We offer nurse and doctor services and education to promote positive sexual health for youth in our community. All of our services are free and confidential. • We use peer education to inform youth about sexual health through presentations like this one….
  6. 6. 1431 Victoria Ave Phone: 522 0902
  7. 7. What do we do? Our nurses can... Prescribe Plan B Do pregnancy tests Discuss unplanned pregnancy options Birth control consults and starts STI information, full testing and treatment Answer questions and provide education on prevention & harm reduction Our doctors & Nurse Practitioner can... Do pap tests STI testing Swabs and physical exams and treatments IUD consults and inserts Birth control consults and prescriptions
  8. 8. Sex… We all think about it, so lets talk about it. • After puberty our bodies are capable of having sex and reproducing…that doesn’t mean we automatically know everything about sex. • We want you to become a sexpert, so here are the basics of sexually transmitted infections…
  9. 9. What does STI stand for? Pop Quiz!
  10. 10. STI stands for Sexually Transmitted Infection • STIs can be bacteria, a virus or parasite that is passed on through sexual activity, skin to skin contact or exchange of bodily fluids like blood. • Some types of STIs are curable, some are not, but most can be treated or managed
  11. 11. How can I get an STI? You can get an STI from having unprotected sexual contact, simple as that. It doesn’t matter what kind of sex you have or who you do it with. If you’re not being safe, you’re putting yourself and your partner at risk of STIs. When we say sex, we mean EVERY kind of sex, including… oral, anal, vaginal, giving, receiving, skin to skin contact …with ANY person (rich, poor, black, white, straight, gay, purple with green stripes…anyone)
  12. 12. The good news? There are easy ways to prevent STI’s… 1. Wait until you and your partner are ready, informed and prepared for sex 2. Use a barrier every time you are have any type of sexual contact with anyone 3. Be honest, talk to your partner and both get tested before having sex and on a routine basis 4. Don’t participate in risky behaviours like sharing needles, homemade tattoos and piercings or using drugs and alcohol.
  13. 13. Did you know… In Canada, 15 to 24 year olds have the highest rate of STI’s 1 in 3 people will get an STI at some point in their lives
  14. 14. Pop Quiz! What’s the most common STI in Saskatchewan?
  15. 15. What is it? Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection. Not so fun Fact: In recent years, Regina has been the Chlamydia capital of Canada. Woo Hoo… How do you get it? •unprotected oral, anal or vaginal sex with a person who has it. •It can be passed along to your baby when you are giving birth. How can you tell if you have it? • Most people don’t have symptoms, the only way to know for sure is to get tested. Chlamydia
  16. 16. Chlamydia Symptoms For men, symptoms may include: • itching of the penis • pain while urinating • discharge from the penis • in some cases, there may also be pain or swelling of the testicles • about half of men will have no symptoms and many will have only mild symptoms For women, symptoms may include: • burning while urinating • vaginal discharge or a change in normal discharge • Break through bleeding, or during/after intercourse • increase in pain during menstruation or during intercourse • abdominal or lower back pain • occasionally causes fever and chills • mild symptoms Remember… -Most people don’t have symptoms -The above symptoms could be caused by many different things and can’t be used to diagnose any STI, the only way to know for sure is to get tested
  17. 17. Gonorrhea What is it? Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection. How do you get it? •unprotected oral, anal or vaginal sex with a person who has it. •Mothers can pass it to their babies during birth How can you tell if you have it? • Like Chlamydia, most people don’t have symptoms, the only way to know for sure is to get tested
  18. 18. Gonorrhea Symptoms For men, symptoms may include: • Discharge from the penis • Burning when urinating • Painful/swollen testicles For women, symptoms may include: • Burning during urination • Rectal pain, itching, bleeding discharge • Vaginal bleeding or pain • Yellowish-white vaginal discharge Remember… -Most people don’t have symptoms -The above symptoms could be caused by many different things and can’t be used to diagnose any STI, the only way to know for sure is to get tested
  19. 19. •If you test positive for Chlamydia or Gonorrhea you need to see a nurse or doctor for an antibiotic treatment, any sexual partners need to be treated as well. Remember, Chlamydia and Gonorrhea are extremely common, but they are also treatable. Left untreated these infections can cause damage in your body, so...
  20. 20. Syphilis What is it? Syphilis is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection. It is included in a standard STI blood work screening How do you get it? •unprotected oral, anal or vaginal sex with a person who has it. •Mothers can pass it to their babies during birth How can you tell if you have it? • Can cause painless sores in the mouth, vagina or rectum •Syphilis is called the “Great Imitator” because its symptoms are generic and imitate other conditions, so you need a blood test to know for sure. •Untreated syphilis can lead to damage of vital organs Syphilis can be treated with antibiotics, but like most STI’s you can become infected again
  21. 21. HPV (HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS) What is HPV? •HPV is a very common virus •Signs and symptoms can be treated and new research shows your body may shed the virus within several years •There are over 100 strains of HPV. Some cause genital warts and abnormal pap smears, some cause no symptoms How do you get it? •Unprotected skin contact with an infected area •Condoms can’t protect you 100%, but they will reduce the chance of transmission
  22. 22. HPV: Getting Tested How do you know if you have it? •Small warts on your genital area •Abnormal cells on pap tests (not all cases of abnormal cells are HPV) •May have no symptoms at all How do you get tested? •There is no “HPV test”, pap smears can detect changes due to the virus, and a physical exam can diagnose genital warts. How do you get treated? •Warts can be removed by a doctor •Abnormal pap results will need to be monitored by a doctor Prevention: • HPV vaccinations for men and women can reduce chances of contracting certain strains
  23. 23. Herpes What is it? • 2 types: Herpes simplex 1 & simplex 2. • Can cause sores around genitals or the mouth. • Many people show no symptoms or never have an outbreak How do you get it? • Unprotected skin contact, even if there are no visible symptoms • Can be transmitted through birth from a mother to her baby.
  24. 24. Herpes: Getting Tested How can you tell if you have it? •If you have a blister or sore present, see a doctor as soon as you can •Symptoms can come and go, but you can only be tested when a sore is present How do you get tested? •A doctor will take a swab of the sore •A blood test may also be done at the same time •A blood test alone is not an accurate indicator or Herpes There is no “cure” for herpes, but... • Outbreaks can be well managed with prescription medication and healthy lifestyle Prevention •Always use barriers. If you can see a sore, hold off on sex until you can see a doctor •Remember, herpes can be transmitted without the presence of any visible sores.
  25. 25. HIV What is it? • HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It’s the virus that can lead AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) if left untreated •It weakens the immune system making it hard for the body to fight off other infections. Getting Tested • Any doctor can order an HIV blood test, PPR nurses can order and draw blood for HIV testing • You must give consent to be tested for HIV, except for prenatal blood work • It can take up to 3 months after an at-risk exposure for blood work to test positive for HIV Prevention •Always use condoms and minimize high risk behaviours •People that are HIV positive can live long healthy lives with proper treatment and a healthy lifestyle, but there is still no cure or vaccination for the virus.
  26. 26. How do you get HIV? risk of HIV transmission The Transmission Equation
  27. 27. Hepatitis C (HCV) What is it? • Hep C is a virus that attacks the liver •It can lead to serious liver damage, including cirrhosis and cancer -Hep C is not contagious, it can only be passed on through blood to blood contact. How do you get it? •Primarily through sharing needles (injection drugs, snorting tools, insulin, steroids, unsterile tattoos and piercings) •It’s possible to get Hep C through sharing a toothbrush, razors or nail clippers with someone who is Hep C positive Getting Tested •Any doctor can order Hep C bloodwork. PPR nurses can order and draw blood for Hep C testing. •It takes at least 3 months after an at-risk exposure for blood work to test positive for Hep C Prevention •Never share needles or personal hygiene tools. Always use Universal Precautions!
  28. 28. Are some things riskier than others?
  29. 29. Pop Quiz! What’s the only way to protect yourself from STIs if you choose to have sex?
  30. 30. Using a Barrier! • Condoms (Receptive and Insertive) • Dental Dams
  31. 31. Dental Dams What is it? • A thin square of latex that can be used to prevent the spread of STI’s during oral sex. How does it work? • The dental dam is placed over a any area of the body receiving oral sex. It creates a barrier between the mouth and the body to prevent STIs from getting passed on. • Oral sex is still risky for getting and passing STIs. Using a dental dam every time you have oral sex is the best way to protect yourself and your partner. • Just like a condom, never reuse a dental dam or flip it over. Once it’s been used, throw it away.
  32. 32. How to make a Dental Dam 1. Carefully take the condom out of its package and unroll it. 2. Cut off the tip and base of the condom and cut down the length of the tube 3. Unroll the condom into a rectangular sheet. Here’s a tip… Try using flavoured , ultra sensitive or textured condoms and use a latex free condom if you have a latex allergy!
  33. 33. Condoms
  34. 34. Condoms External Condom used to cover the penis/object that is inserted into the body Internal Condom used to cover the area where the penis/ object is inserted • Internal and External condoms should never be used at the same time • When used correctly they are between 95-97% effective. • The only form of birth control (besides abstinence) that helps protect against STIs
  35. 35. External Condom What is it? • A latex or non-latex sleeve that covers any object that is inserted into the body. The sleeve prevents the exchange of bodily fluids, including sperm and prevents skin to skin contact during sex. Pros • They are less expensive, easily accessible and come in a huge variety of brands, textures and flavours. • They are fast and easy to use properly • Can be used for vaginal, anal or oral sex Cons • cover less skin than internal condoms and cannot be put on in advance. • You have to store them properly and use before the expiration date • Some people think they reduce sensation, but there are so many different specialty condoms available now, there's something for everyone. Plus, using a condom feels a lot better then getting an STI…
  36. 36. Before you use a condom… •Check the expiration date •Make sure the package isn’t damaged •Use the right type of lubricant •Open carefully! •Follow directions…if you accidently put the condom on/in wrong, throw it away and start again. It could have come into contact with body fluids containing sperm, bacteria or a virus that causes STI’s.
  37. 37. Putting on an External Condom STEP 1: Squeeze the end of the condom so there is no air in the tip, and place it on the tip of the erect penis/object STEP 2: Carefully unroll the condom down STEP 3: After sex, hold the rim of the condom to keep it from slipping off, and withdraw the penis before the erection is lost. STEP 4: Remove the condom carefully, wrap it in tissue and place it in a garbage can -- not in a toilet.
  38. 38. Internal Condom What is it? • A polyurethane sheath that is inserted into the body before sex. The condom holds in the sperm, preventing it from entering the body cavity and prevents skin to skin contact during sex. Pros • More skin protection because they cover a larger area • They can be inserted several hours before sex • Can be used for both vaginal and anal sex • Can be used by people with latex allergies Cons • They may be difficult to insert, but practice makes perfect. • May make a “rustling” sound during sex. • They are more expensive (around $3 each) and can be difficult to find in stores
  39. 39. Using a Receptive Condom • Check the expiry date and remove from package • One end of the condom will have an opening for the penis/object to enter. This end will remain outside the body • Squeeze the flexible inner ring at the closed end of the condom and insert it into the cavity you are using for sex (vagina or anus)
  40. 40. • Gently push the inner ring as far as it will go. Be careful not to twist the condom. • The outer ring of the condom should remain outside of the body. • Make sure the penis/object enters inside the condom, not to one side. • When removing the condom after sex, twist the outer ring so that no fluids leak out during removal. • Throw the used condom into the garbage. Do not flush it down the toilet or reuse the condom.
  41. 41. Condom Tips • Condoms hate extreme temperatures, keep them out of extreme heat or cold. We live in Saskatchewan...never leave condoms in your car. • Treat your condoms with respect, don't keep them in your pocket or wallet. Friction, rubbing and pressure can weaken the latex, increasing the chance of condom breakage. Hard condom cases are best. • If you are going to carry one condom you might as well carry a few. Just in case your condom breaks or a friend needs one. PPR always has FREE condoms, plus a big selection for $3/dozen
  42. 42. Pop Quiz! There are 4 easy ways to reduce your STI risk…can you remember what they are?
  43. 43. 1. Wait until you and your partner are ready, informed and prepared for sex 2. Use a barrier every time you are have any type of sexual contact with anyone 3. Be honest, talk to your partner and both get tested before having sex and on a routine basis 4. Don’t participate in risky behaviours like sharing needles, homemade tattoos and piercings or using drugs and alcohol.
  44. 44. How can I get tested? Here are your options... •PPR nurses and doctors can do full STI testing in a quick appointment •Any doctor can order STI testing, you can take the requisition to the lab where they will take your samples. •The STI clinic offers full STI testing
  45. 45. Remember… • All STI testing is free and confidential. You do not need permission from your parents and no one else has the right to see your results without your permission. • Having an STI does not make you dirty, or a bad person… It is a medical condition, just like any other infection
  46. 46. Spermicides Spermicides use chemicals to destroy the sperm on contact. They come in gel, foam, film and sponge form…some condoms even have spermicide pre- applied Spermicides are sometimes used to make condoms more effective at preventing pregnancy, but… They can also cause skin irritation that can make it easier to get an STI, including HIV, so they’re not ideal if there is any risk of getting an STI
  47. 47. Pop Quiz! What’s the only way to guarantee 100% protection against STIs?
  48. 48. Abstinence • It’s important to know not everyone is having sex, and that’s ok. • Everyone has a different definition of abstinence, decide what it means to you. • Talk about your boundaries with your partner before things get hot and heavy Sex is a big responsibility, there’s lots to consider and there can be some major consequences. So do yourself and your partner a favour…make sure you’re ready. • It’s ok to wait. Ask yourself … Can I handle the possibility of getting a sexually transmitted infection? If the answer is a definite “no”, you may need to decide if you’re really ready for sex.
  49. 49. How it works: Choosing to not have certain types of sexual contact. Everyone has their own definition of abstinence, decide what’s right for you. If there’s no sexual contact, there’s no risk of STIs. If sexual contact is limited to certain activities, the STI risk is also reduced to those acts Effectiveness: 100% effective, depending on your level of abstaining Possible Advantages: No chemicals or barriers necessary You can choose it at any time, even if you’re already had sex You and your partner can focus on other ways to feel good Possible Disadvantages: Abstinence is a choice, some may feel it’s not a realistic option for them.
  50. 50. Pop Quiz! What’s the most important part of sex?
  51. 51. Consent • Everyone has the right to say no to sex at any time • It’s illegal to have sex without consent • If you’re legally too drunk to drive, you can’t legally consent to sex • No always means no, only “yes” means yes • Consent should be out loud and enthusiastic! • Never pressure anyone into having sex
  52. 52. Pop Quiz! If you choose to have sex, what’s the best Protection Plan to prevent STIs?
  53. 53. We all know abstinence is the best form protection against STIs, but if/when you choose to have sex…. The best Protection Plan is: Barrier + One Partner + Routine STI testing
  54. 54. Healthy Decisions Drugs and Alcohol • Alcohol and drugs can make it harder to stick to your decision not to have sex, they can also put you in a dangerous situation • If you’re drunk or high it’s easy to make decisions or do things that you would never do if you were sober • Know your limits and stay within them. Not knowing what happened last night is scary and dangerous, especially if you don’t know if you had sex or participated in another risky activity • Use the buddy system to keep each other accountable and safe • Be prepared and be responsible, preventing an unsafe situation is your best defense • Being intoxicated is never an excuse for pressuring or forcing someone into sex
  55. 55. Tattoos, piercings & sharing needles • Never share any kind of needle. Whether you use it for injecting drugs, steroids, insulin or an at home belly button piercing…sharing a needle with someone is a major risk factor for transmitting viruses like HIV and Hepatitis C • Only get a tattoo or piercing from a professional who follows sterile practices in their shop, never get a tattoo or piercing unless you are 100% sure the equipment is sterile • If you use needles or similar equipment for any reason: – Never share with friends – Use only new or sterilized equipment – Dispose of your equipment properly, using a sharps container or needle exchange drop off to prevent accidental needle pokes
  56. 56. Get and give consent! Sex can be a great thing…when you’re ready. When you don’t have to worry about STI’s, you can focus on the fun stuff Having sex comes with responsibilities and consequences There is nothing wrong with waiting Unplanned pregnancy is not the only risk STI’s don’t discriminate No one deserves to be pressured into anything they don’t want to do Alcohol and drugs can affect your decision making and safety It’s good to ask questions! Don’t forget…
  57. 57. Don’t just it! Make sure information is from reliable websites. , Sex, etc. & are great ones to try out Call us to talk to a nurse!
  58. 58. Let’s get social!