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Nubia And The Americas Overview


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Nubia And The Americas Overview

  1. 1. NUBIA (1000 B.C. – A.D. 150) • Conquered and was conquered by Egypt • Built up wide trade network • Exported ivory, animal skins, gold, perfume, slaves • Produced iron tools and weapons • Developed system of writing • Adopted Egyptian traditions
  2. 2. Nubia was a great civilization that developed along the Nile River south of Egypt. They shared many of the same cultural traits as Egypt such as religion, architecture and art.
  3. 3. Nubian Pyramids
  4. 4. Nubian Pyramids
  5. 5. Nubian Pyramids
  6. 6. same different different This is a Venn Diagram used to show things that are the same, and the things that are different between the Nubian and Egyptian pyramids. •Smaller •Steeper •Triangular •Tombs •Large •Big blocks
  7. 7. Nubian Hieroglyphs Cursive Version Nubian Hieroglyphs Cursive Version I K W T N D One reason little was known about the culture was that they did not write down their history until late in ancient times. Another reason is that they were isolated geographically. Outside people would need to cross harsh desert or many waterfalls, called cataracts, to reach Nubia. Nubian writing was similar to Egyptian writing but developed into a completely separate language later in time.
  8. 8. Ancient Nubia was a great kingdom that produced many resources like gold, ivory, copper, frankincense and ebony. Nubia was also known as Kush and The Land of the Bow. Nubian archers (warriors who used a bow and arrow) were feared by all who saw them in battle. Nubia had a long line of powerful kings. They were often at war with Egypt, to the North. From about 2,000 to 1,000 BC, Egypt controlled Nubia but when Egypt weakened, Nubia came north and conquered Egypt (800-700 BC.) A frankincense tree. The resin was used to make good smelling incense.
  9. 9. Kingdom of Kush • The Kingdom of Kush developed in southern part of Nubia by 1750 B.C.E. • Kush noted from metalworking and construction • Egypt invaded Kush during New Kingdom period. – Resulted in Egyptian occupation that exploited Nubian laborers
  10. 10. Kingdom of Meroë • 800 B.C.E. - 350 C.E. • This kingdom ruled Egypt as the 25th Dynasty. • Nubian Kingdom had a capital at Napata. • Napata period characterized by Egyptian cultural influence. • In 4th century, moved capital to Meroë. – Better for agriculture and trade
  11. 11. Meroë • Ruling dynasty of Meroë practiced a matrilineal family system • Queens were very influential • Dominated trade routes • Became important center for iron smelting • Declined because of shift in trade routes, rise of the Kingdom of Aksum, and raids by camel-riding nomads
  12. 12. First Civilizations of the Americas: The Olmec and Chavin: 1200-250 B.C.E. Olmec Chavin
  13. 13. The Olmecs • 1200-400 B.C.E. • Built the first pyramids in America • Major centers of civilization were located along the coast of Mexico • Political structure built around kingship • Power rested on extensive trade and dominant religion
  14. 14. • Center of early civilization was San Lorenzo. • Surpassed by La Venta around 900 B.C.E. • Gave way to Tres Zapotes around 600 B.C.E. • Large earthen mounds dominated urban centers
  15. 15. Olmec Sculpture
  16. 16. Chavín Civilization • First major urban civilization in South America • Politically and economically dominant between 900 and 250 B.C.E. • Had military strength and religious appeal • Used clan-based system of labor • Warfare led to fall of Chavín around 200 B.C.E.
  17. 17. Chavín Art