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DEFINITION OF DISASTERA SERIOUS DISRUPTION OF THEFUNCTIONING OF A SOCIETY,CAUSING WIDESPREAD HUMAN,MATERIAL, OR ENVIRONMENTALLOSSES WHICH EXCEED THE ABILITYOF THE AFFECTED SOCIETY TO COPEUSING ONLY ITS OWN RESOURCES
Contd...• THE UNITED NATION DEFINES DISASTER AS “THE OCCURRENCE OF A SUDDEN OR MAJOR MISFORTUNE WHICH DISRUPTS THE BASIC FABRIC AND NORMAL FUNCTIONING OF A SOCIETY (COMMUNITY).”
DEFINITION OF HAZARDA RARE OR EXTREME NATURALOR HUMAN-MADE EVENT THATTHREATENS TO ADVERSELYAFFECT HUMAN LIFE, PROPERTYOR ACTIVITY TO THE EXTENT OFCAUSING A DISASTER
Risk Risk is a measure of the expected losses due to a hazard event of a particular magnitude occurring in a given area over a specific time period. The level of risk depends upon:• Nature of the hazard.• Vulnerability of affected elements.• Economic value of affected elements.
Vulnerability of India Indian sub-continent is amongst the world’s most disaster vulnerable areas with:• 57% area to earthquake.• 28% to drought.• 8% to cyclones and• 12% to floods.• 18% to landslides• 50% area to forest fire
Types of Vulnerability• Physical Vulnerability• Social Vulnerability.• Economic Vulnerability• Political
Vulner ability Capacity to Cope High LowExposureto Hazard High Low High Vulnerability Vulnerability Low Very Low Low Vulnerability Vulnerability
A DISASTER AS THE INTERFACE BETWEEN NATURAL HAZARDS AND VULNERABLE CONDITIONS Disaster The Progression of Vulnerability Hazard 1 2 3Underlying Causes Dynamic pressures Unsafe conditions Lack ofPoverty •Local institutions Fragile physical Trigger eventsLimited access to •education environment•Power structures •training •dangerous locations Disaster •Earthquake•resources •appropriate skills •dangerous buildings = •High winds •local investment and infrastructureIdeologies •local markets Vulnerability •Flooding Fragile local + •Volcanic eruptionEconomic systems •press freedom economy Hazard •LandslideGeneral pre- Macro-forces •livelihoods at risk •Drought •population expansion •War, civil conflictconditioning •urbanization •low income levels •Technologicalfactors •environmental Public actions accident •degradation
Type of Disasters High Powered Committee (HPC) identified 33 disasters in the country, categorized into five sub groups:• Water and Climate related disasters.• Geologically related disasters.• Chemical, Industrial & Nuclear related disasters.• Accident related disasters.• Biologically related disasters.
DISASTERS IDENTIFIED BY HPCI. WATER AND CLIMATE RELATED DISASTERS1. Floods2. Cyclones3. Tornadoes4. Hailstorm5. Cloud Burst6. Heat Wave and Cold Wave7. Snow Avalanches8. Droughts9. Sea Erosion10. Thunder and Lightning11. Tsunami (added ?)
II. GEOLOGICALLY RELATEDDISASTERS1. Landslides and Mudflows2. Earthquakes3. Dam Failures/ Dam Bursts4. Mine FiresIII. CHEMICAL, INDUSTRIAL AND NUCLEAR • Chemical and Industrial Disasters • Nuclear Disasters
IV. ACCIDENT RELATEDDISASTERS 1. For est Fir es 2. Urban Fir es 3. Mine Flooding 4. Oil Spill 5. Major Building Collapse 6. Serial Bomb Blasts 7. Festival r elated disaster s 8. Electrical Disaster s and Fir es 9. Air, Road and Rail Accidents 10. Boat Capsizing 11. V illa ge Fir e
V. BIOLOGICALLY RELATED DISASTERS 1. Biological Disasters and Epidemics 2. Pest Attacks 3. Cattle Epidemics 4. Food Poisoning
DM POLICY FRAMEWORK:PARADIGM SHIFT (Yokohama 1994)• Change from response & relief centric to mitigation & preparedness• Multi dimensional , multi sectoral and Multi Tier approach with emphasis on incorporating risk reduction measures in development planning
NODAL MINISTRIES• Natural Disasters (Flood, Tsunami, Cyclone, Earthquake etc.)- Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA)• Drought-Ministry of Agriculture• Biological Disasters-Ministry of Health and Family Welfare• Chemical Disasters-Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF)• Forest related Disasters- MoEF• Nuclear Disasters-Ministry of Atomic Energy• Air Accidents-Ministry of Civil Aviation• Railway Accidents-Ministry of Railways….
INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM ATNATIONAL LEVEL• In the event of a disaster of a severe nature, National Crisis Management Committee under Cabinet Secretary gives policy directions and guidelines to the Crisis Management Group where national/international efforts are required.• Crisis Management Group in MHA reviews the situation in Inter-Ministerial meetings to coordinate various emergency support functions for the affected States.• Union Cabinet may set up a Cabinet Committee/Task Force/GoM for effective coordination of relief measures in the wake of calamities of severe nature.
INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISM ATSTATE LEVEL• A State level Crisis Management Committee under the Chairmanship of Chief Secretary is responsible for emergency management• The committee comprises of concerned functionaries in various State Departments and representatives of Central Organizations located in the State.• State Relief/Disaster Management Commissioner is the Nodal Officer for Coordinating the activities for relief operations in the event of natural disasters
DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACT 2005 • The Disaster Management Act was enacted on 23rd December,2005. The Act provides for establishment of • NDMA (National Disaster Management Authority) • SDMA (State Disaster Management Authority) • DDMA (District Disaster Management Authority) • Act provides for constitution of Disaster Response Fund and Disaster Mitigation Fund at National, State and District level. • Establishment of NIDM and NDRF. • Provides penalties for obstruction, false claims, misappropriation etc. • There shall be no discrimination on the ground of sex, caste, community, descent or religion in providing compensation and relief.
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENTAUTHORITY (NDMA) National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) headed by the Prime Minister with up to a maximum of nine members nominated by Prime Minister. The Authority may constitute an Advisory Committee consisting of experts in the field of disaster management. The Authority shall be assisted by a National Executive Committee of Secretaries to be constituted by Central Government.
NDMA Cont.• Lay down the policies, plans and guidelines for disaster management.• The National Executive Committee shall prepare a National Disaster Management Plan in consultation with the State Governments.• The National Plan shall include measures for • prevention and mitigation of disasters, • integration of mitigation measures in the plans, • preparedness and capacity building.• NDMA shall recommend guidelines for the minimum standards of relief provided to persons affected by disaster
STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENTAUTHORITY (SDMA) SDMA with eight members to be nominated by the Chief Minister and the Chairperson of the State Executive Committee. One of the members may be designated as the Vice- Chairperson of the State Authority by the Chief Minister. SDMA may constitute an Advisory Committee of experts, as and when necessary.
DISTRICT DISASTER MANAGEMENTAUTHORITY (DDMA) The State Government shall establish a District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) in each district. The District Authority will be headed by District Magistrate and shall consist of members, not exceeding seven, as may be prescribed by the State Government. The District Authority shall act as the district planning, coordinating and implementing body for disaster management.
LOCAL AUTHORITY The Local Authority shall ensure training of its officers and employees and maintenance of resources so as to be readily available for use in the event of a disaster. Ensure that all construction projects under it conform to the standards and specifications laid down. Carry out relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction activities in the affected area within its jurisdiction.
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DISASTERMANAGEMENT (NIDM)The Central Government shall constitute the NationalInstitute of Disaster Management (NIDM) , Chapter 7of DM ActNIDM shall: plan and promote training and research in disaster management Start documentation, development of national level information base of disaster management policies, prevention mechanisms, mitigation measures. Networking
NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSEFORCE (NDRF) A National Disaster Response Force shall be constituted for specialist response. The general superintendence and direction of the Force shall be vested in and exercised by the National Authority. Command and supervision of the Force shall vest in an officer to be appointed by the Central Government as the Director General of the NDRF
NDRF Cont. , Biological and Chemical Disasters 8 Battalion (8x 1158) of National Response Force raised Each battalion consist of 18 specialist response team besides other supporting staff Each Specialist Response Team of 45 persons comprising 4 SAR Team 1 Medical Support Team 1 Technical Support Team 1 Dog Squad Each battalion to have 1 diving and 1 Water Rescue Team Four of these battalion to specialize on Nuclear
NATIONAL POLICY ONDISASTER MANAGEMENT The National Policy on Disaster Management (2009) has been finalized and approved by Home Minister. Inter-Ministerial consultation process has been completed. The Policy is now under consideration of NDMA. Draft Policy lays down the roadmap/direction for all Government endeavors.
OBJECTIVES OF NATIONAL POLICY ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT• A holistic and pro-active approach for prevention, mitigation and preparedness will be adopted for disaster management.• Each Ministry/Department of the Central/State Government will set apart an appropriate quantum of funds under the Plan for specific schemes/projects addressing vulnerability reduction and preparedness.• Where there is a shelf of projects, projects addressing mitigation will be given priority. Mitigation measures shall be built into the on-going schemes/programmes• Each project in a hazard prone area will have mitigation as an essential term of reference. The project report will include a statement as to how the project addresses vulnerability reduction
National Policy Cont.• Community involvement and awareness generation, particularly that of the vulnerable segments of population and women has been emphasized as necessary for sustainable disaster risk reduction. This is a critical component of the policy since communities are the first responders to disasters and, therefore, unless they are empowered and made capable of managing disasters, any amount of external support cannot lead to optimal results.• There will be close interaction with the corporate sector, nongovernmental organizations and the media in the national efforts for disaster prevention/vulnerability reduction.• Institutional structures/appropriate chain of command will be built up and appropriate training imparted to disaster managers at various levels to ensure coordinated and quick response at all levels; and development of inter-State arrangements for sharing of resources during emergencies.• A culture of planning and preparedness is to be inculcated at all levels for capacity building measures.
NP on DM Cont.• Standard operating procedures and disaster management plans at state and district levels as well as by relevant central government departments for handling specific disasters will be laid down.• Construction designs must correspond to the requirements as laid down in relevant Indian Standards.• All lifeline buildings in seismic zones III, IV & V – hospitals, railway stations, airports/airport control towers, fire station buildings, bus stands major administrative centre will need to be evaluated and, if necessary, retro-fitted.• The existing relief codes in the States will be revised to develop them into disaster management codes/manuals for institutionalizing the planning process with particular attention to mitigation and preparedness.
MAJOR PHASES OF DISASTERMANAGEMENT CYCLE Disaster Preparedness Relief Mitigation Rehabilitation Reconstruction
LINKING DISASTERS ANDDEVELOPMENT• The cause and effect relationship between disasters and development has been ignored• Disasters were seen in the context of emergency response• Development programs were not assessed in the context of disasters• Communities under disaster stress were seen as too turbulent for development initiatives
The Relationship BetweenDisasters and Development Development Development can increase can reduce vulnerability vulnerability Disaster can Disaster set back can provide development development opportunities
IMPACT OF DISASTER ONDEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS • Loss of resources • Interruption of programs • Negative impact on investmentDisaster can climateset back • Disruption of thedevelopment non-formal sector • Political destabilization
AIMS OF DISASTERMANAGEMENT • Reduce (avoid, if possible) the potential losses from hazards • Assure prompt and appropriate assistance to victims when necessary • Achieve rapid and durable recovery
ELEMENTS OF DISASTRMANAGEMENT• Disaster preparedness planning - Vulnerability and risk assessment• Disaster response - Disaster assessment• Rehabilitation & reconstruction• Disaster mitigation
DISASTER PREPAREDNESSAIMS :• To minimize the adverse effects of a hazard• Through effective precautionary actions• To ensure timely, appropriate, and efficient organization and delivery of relief
DISASTER PREPAREDNESSFRAMEWORKVulnerability Institutional Planning Assessment Framework Information Resource Warning Systems Base Systems Response Public Education Rehearsals Mechanisms and Training
Hyogo Framework forAction• Three main Strategic Goals • Integration DRR in Sustainable Development • Capacity Building-Resilience to hazards • Systematic incorporation of risk reduction approaches in to the emergency preparedness, response and recovery programmes
Five Action Points ofHFA• Make DRR a priority• Know the risk and take action• Build Understanding and Awareness• Reduce Risk• Be prepared and Ready to Act
Linking issues of forestrysector in DM• Planning for management of forests and natural resources aimed at sustainable development• Ecosystem approach to resource management• Public participation and partnerships in natural resource management• Non-timber forest produce management• Poverty Alleviation and addressing livelihood concerns through forestry• Co-op Management, Micro-enterprises functioning, Micro-credit and Institutional finance• Forestry Extension
Issues………….cont.• Introduction and background to Global Warming & Climate Change• Forest carbon stock assessment• Managing forestry eco-system as carbon pool• Carbon mitigation potential- case studies from farm/forest lands• Preparation and Development of Clean Development Mechanisms Projects under Kyoto Protocol• Trees outside forests : Agro-forestry, Urban Forestry, Landscape planning and management• Damage assessment to disasters in forestry sector (flood, landslide,forest fire, avalanches, tsunami, pest attack and sea erosion)
Major Disasters in Forests Forest Fire Epidemics Pest Attack Invasive species Man animal conflict Climate change induced disaster s Gre garious flowering of bamboo ??? Ear thquake Landslide Floods / Flash flood Drought Cloudbur st / Hailstor ms Avalanches
Forest Fire – A MajorDisasterINDIA• Total Forest Area – 77.47 m ha (FSI, 2005)• 3.73 m ha annually affected by fire• Almost 50% of area prone to fire • 0.84% - very heavy fire • 0.14% - heavy fire • 5.16% - frequent fire • 43.06% - occasional fire
Need of Institutional Setup for For est Fir eMana gement (FFM) and Stakeholder scoor dination National level • Inspector General Forest Fire be assisted by- • International organisations • NDMA • DM Division, GOI • FSI • FRI • DIG & AIG Forest Fire • AIG – Air operation Wing & • Regional offices of MoEF State level • CCF (CCFF – State) be assisted by – • FSI • SDMA & DM Department • DDMA • CF (Forest Fire) • Divisional Forest Officer & Range Officer