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Extension ppt icar jrf exam

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Extension ppt icar jrf exam

  1. 1. ICAR JRF/SRF STUDY MATERIAL on Extension Education Presented by Dr. Prakashkumar Rathod Assistant Professor and I/C Head Dept. of Veterinary & A.H Extension Education Veterinary College, Bidar (Karnataka)
  2. 2. Extension     Latin word which means Ex-out, Tensio- Stretch Word was coined in Cambridge university(1853) which means stretching or educating the rural masses Education is a process where a person changes his behaviour in a desirable way which includes knowledge skill and attitude Types of Education according to Comb & Ahmad (1974)- Informal, formal and non-formal
  3. 3.  Informal education is a life long process which every   person acquires and accumulates knowledge, skill, attitudes and insides from daily experiences to environment at home, work place, play etc. Formal education is highly institutionalized, chronologically graded and hierarchy structured education system spawning lower primary schools to upper reaches of university Non formal education is organized systematic education activity carried on outside the framework of formal system to provide selected type of learning to particular sub-groups in the population of adults and children Ex- Dairy Ext, Agri Ext
  4. 4. Nature of Extension Education Formal education Extension/ Non formal Starts with theory & ends with practical. Starts with practicals & ends in theory later on. Students study subjects. Farmers study problems. fixed curriculum offered. No fixed curriculum or course of study Class attendance is compulsory. Participation is voluntary. Teaching is mainly vertical. The teacher has more homogeneous audience. It is rigid. or Teaching is mainly horizontal. lessThe teacher has a large & heterogeneous audience. It is flexible. It has all pre-planned & pre-decidedIt has freedom to develop programmes programmes. locally based on needs & interests. It is more theoretical. It is more practical & intended for immediate application in the solution of
  5. 5. Objectives of extension education Development of the people or destination man  To bring desirable changes in the quality of life of the target group by helping them to change their attitude, knowledge, skill and resources (both natural and man made) like land, pasture, water, livestock, equipment etc in a right way.   Objectives are expressions of the ends towards which our efforts are directed. This could be done by; Bringing about a desirable changes in the knowledge, attitude and skill.  Assisting livestock farmers to realize their needs and problems.  
  6. 6.  Types of Objectives Fundamental objectives (All inclusive): E.g. Overall development of individuals  General objectives (Functions of extension): More definite then fundamental objectives and are directly associated with extension services. E.g. To increase the milk production in a village  Specific or Working objectives: state directly and specifically what is to be done. 
  7. 7.  Need Difference or gap between ‘what is’( Available) and ‘what ought to be’( Desirable).  This gap can be narrowed by using science and technology 1.Farmers 2. Research Stations – Scientists 3. Educational Institutions – Teachers 4. Extension Education 5. Farmers – Information - Scientists 
  8. 8. Philosophy of Extension Education Philosophy is the pursuit of wisdom, a body of general principles or laws in a field of knowledge.  According to Mildred Horton- 4 principles 1.The individual is supreme in a democracy 2. The home is the fundamental unit in a civilization 3. The family is the first training group of the human race 4. The foundation of any permanent civilization must rest on the partnership of man and land ( nature).   According to Ensminger (1961) 1. It is an educational process. Extension wants to change the knowledge, attitudes, understanding and skill of the people.
  9. 9. 2. Extension is working with men, women, youths, boys and girls to answer their needs and their wants. Extension is teaching people what to want and ways to satisfy their wants. 3. Extension is “helping people to help themselves.” 4. Extension is working on the basis of learning by doing and seeing is believing. 5. Extension wants development of individuals, their leaders, their society and their world as a whole. 6. Extension is working together to expand the welfare and happiness of the people. 7. Extension is working in harmony with the culture of the people. 8. Extension is a two-way channel process. 9. Extension is a continuous educational process.
  10. 10. Principles of extension education The specific guidelines or the base for any decision making process or initiating an action. It is universal truth under varied conditions and circumstances.  Widely accepted principles of extension education are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Principle of interest & need Principle of cultural difference Principle of participation Principle of adaptability The grass roots principle of organization The leadership principle 7. The whole-family principle 8. Principle of co-operation 8. 9. Principle of satisfaction 10. The evaluation principle
  11. 11. Extension Education Approaches/Systems  Extension approach Uses teaching methods for educating people  Emphasize on communication of information about innovative technical problems to improve quality of family and community life  Referred as conventional or classical model   Training approach Closely related to institutionalized training for basic skills and knowledge  Best Ex: T&V system of Benor 
  12. 12.  Cooperative self help approach Rural transformation through change of attitude  Response to expressed needs of the people  Building of local institutions   Integrated development approach Emphasize to coordinate different agencies under a single management system  Rational development 
  13. 13. Scope of Extension Education           It includes all activities of rural development. Increasing efficiency in agricultural production. Increasing efficiency in marketing, distribution and utilization of agricultural inputs and outputs Conservation, development and use of natural resources. Proper farm and home management Better family living. Youth development. Leadership development. Community and rural development. Improving public affairs for all round development.
  14. 14. Extension Educational Process       Involves 5 interlinked stepssituation analysis formulation of objectives deciding the content and teaching methods outcome evaluation and impact analysis and feedback and reconsideration Situation Objectives Teaching Reconsideration Evaluation
  15. 15. Elements of Teaching-Learning Situation SUBJECT MATTER INSTRUCTOR/ Teacher LEARNER TEACHING EQUIPMENTS PHYSICAL FACILITIES
  16. 16. Steps in Extension Teaching As per Wilson &Galup (1955)
  17. 17. Classification of Teaching Methods
  18. 18. History of Extension Education
  19. 19. Land Grant Colleges      The Morrill Act of 1862 Establishment of at least one college in each state Objective to teach agriculture and the mechanical arts without excluding other scientific and classical studies. The money from the sale of federal land -very insufficient. Lack of qualified teachers and textbooks and the suspicion of "book learning" among farmers In 1890 - second Morrill Act  Provided funds to sustain these colleges  Research - Hatch Act of 1887.  Created an experiment station at every land-grant college 
  20. 20. The 4-H Programme            Aims to provide educational training for youth aged 5-19 through project work, leadership and citizenship programs, and numerous educational activities. Head - managing, thinking Heart - relating, caring Hands - giving, working Health - being, living The 4-H Pledge I pledge my head to clearer thinking, my heart to greater loyalty, my hands to larger service, and my health to better living, for my club, my community, my country, and my world.
  21. 21. Early Extension Efforts in India
  22. 22. Servants of India Society  Gopal Krishna Gokhale, 1905 at Mayapur Village, Madras Sriniketan Rabindra Nath Tagore, 1921 Kaligram Pargana, West Bengal  Aimed at making villagers self reliant and helping people to develop their own resources.  Marthandam Project    Kanya Kumari district in Tamil Nadu Dr. Spencer Hatch, 1921,YMCA 5 sided programme – Spiritual, Mental, Physical, Economical and Social development
  23. 23. Gurgaon Project  F.L Brayne, Deputy Commissioner of the Gurgaon district Haryana, 1927- Village Guide concept  Baroda Rural Development Project Raja Sir T. Madhav Rao, a minister of state of Baroda  Started Rural Reconstruction Centres (RRCs) in 1932    Rural Reconstruction Project Started by Mahatma Gandhi -Sevagram, 1936
  24. 24.         Firka Development Scheme Madras Province, 1943- For the economic development of villages by promoting khadi and village industries Nilokheri Project Refugee Rehabilitation Project- Started in 1943 and became fully operational in 1948 Mazdoor Manzil – aimed at self sufficiency for the rural cum urban township. Etawah Pilot Project Etawah, Uttar Pradesh in 1948 -Albert Mayor Intensive all-round development work in a compact area- Forerunner of the CD Project multipurpose concept of village level worker
  25. 25. The Community Development Project(1952)      As a result of the Grow-More-Food Enquiry Committee Report and the successful experience of the Etawah Project. New programme, India & U.S.A under the Technical Cooperation Programme Agreement 55 Community Development Projects - on 2 October,1952 for three years. Starting with 55 Community Development Projects in 1952, the entire country was covered with the Community Develpoment Programme by 1963. Block is the unit of planning and development.
  26. 26. Community Development Project (1952) 55 Community Development Projects - 25,260 villages and a population of 6.4 millions Each project 300 villages covering 400-500 sq. miles and a population of about 2 lakhs Each project area divided into 3 development blocks Each block 100 villages and a population of 60,000 to 70,000. Each block divided into groups of 5-10 villages Each group of villages Population of 6,000 to 7,000 and one multipurpose VLW
  27. 27. Sociology        Study of human/individual in society/environment Sociology is the study of human relationships. In Latin, Socius means companion and In Greek, logos means scientific study Auguste Comte-Father of Sociology. Rural sociology: Focuses on man living in rural areas. Urban sociology: Focuses on man living in urban areas. Tribal sociology: Focuses on man living in tribal areas.
  28. 28. Differentiation of Societies is based on             Contact with nature Occupation Size of the community Density of population Homogeneity of population Social stratification Social mobility Social interaction Social control Social solidarity Leadership pattern Standard of living
  29. 29. Sociology:Terms and Concepts          Society Community- continuos geographical area, sense of belonging, sharing common values, norms, interests Socialization-Process of conducting in socicety Social System- set of interrelated units Social Stratification- hierarchically arranged strata in community Social Mobility- movement of people among strata Social InteractionAssociation-organizing for fulfilling common interests Institution- crystallized mechanisms/ways in which society meets its needs through social structures
  30. 30.        Major Institutions In Rural Society Family Religious Economic Government/Political Educational CULTURE: Complex which includes knowledge, belief, art, mortals, law, customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by the people as member of the society. Can be either materialistic (house, food, clothing) or non-materialistic ( family, caste, education)
  31. 31.       Traditional Culture –Indigenous knowledge/practice Ethnocentrism- Considering own culture superior Cultural Lag- Lagging behind of one culture with other Value- what people consider valuable/desirable Beliefs- Mental convictions about something Social Role – Expected behavious of one member of society in relation to others (Ascribed or achieved)
  32. 32.       Social Control- Pattern of influence by society Social Norms- Established behavioral pattern Folkways- Informal rules of behaviour/ no punishment Mores – Socially acceptable behaviour/ May be punished Laws –Legal and political enforcement Social Groups- Collection of 2/more people having interaction/ contacts
  33. 33. Types of Social Groups      Primary and secondary groups Formal and informal groups In group and out group Involuntary and voluntary group Delegate and reference group Primary group Secondary group Small size often < 20- 30 Large Personal and intimate relationship Impersonal and aloof More face to face communication Little Permanency for long time Temporary period of time Ex: Family, group of close friends Cooperative, Society, Council
  34. 34. Social Change and its factors       Demographic factor Technological factor Economic factor Cultural factor Legislation Education
  35. 35.  Leader and leadership  Types of Leaders Democratic, Autocratic and Laissez Faire Formal leader and Informal leader Professional leader and Lay leader Operational , Popularity leader and Prominent leader Elected , Selected and Nominated leader Selection/Identification of leaders Group observer method. Discussion method. Election method. Workshop method. Key informant technique. Self-designating technique. Sociometry- Most common method          
  36. 36. ALL the best

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