FMS (University of Delhi)
Definition and Forms
• Body Language
• Space Proximities
• Voice Issues
includes pitch, speed ,tone,
and volume of voice,
gestures and facial
expressions, body posture,
stance, and proximity to the
listener, eye movements
and contact .
The person would be more difficult to handle when the hands are held high, than
he would be with the person whom hands resting on the desk position. Like all
negative gestures, some action needs to be taken to unlock the person’s fingers to
expose the palms and the front of the body, or the hostile attitude will remain
Give the opinion or
ideas and is doing
Listening rather than
Another show of confidence and feeling superior is by showing the thumbs. It could be as
shown here, but any position where the thumbs are visible will do the trick. Holding your
jacket with your thumb up, or have them stuck out of your back pockets are similar hand
gestures that will do the trick.
Functional/professional: This is touch between colleagues and professionals.
For example, a handshake or a slap on the back. It is sometimes used to show
authority and dominance.
Social/polite: This is used with acquaintances, or with people in a group
who are friends, but not necessarily close friends. It includes a light touch
on the arm to get attention, or hugging team members when you win a
match. It is generally positive, friendly and affirming.
Friendship/warmth: Touch here includes many of the lighthearted
gestures that show you like, and understand, each other. For example,
“high 5-ing” a friend when you see each other, or giving them hug when
they share bad news.
Love/intimacy: This type of touch is associated with emotional closeness,
trust and vulnerability. For example, we see this in the way a child clings to
his or her mother when they are feeling sad or afraid. Also, holding hands,
or embracing each other, as a dating couple.
Chronemics is the study of how we refer to and
perceive time. The way that one perceives and values
time, structures time and reacts to time frames
communication. Across cultures, time perception plays
a large role in the nonverbal communication process.
• Monochronic-where things are typically done one at a time, where
time is segmented into precise, small units, and where time is
scheduled, arranged and managed. In such a culture, time is viewed as
a tangible commodity than can be spent, saved or wasted, and a
paramount value is placed on regimented schedules, tasks and
“getting the job done”. United States, Germany and Switzerland, to
which could be added Britain, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Turkey,
and the Scandinavian countries.
• Polychronic – where several things can be done at once, and a
more fluid approach is taken to scheduling time. Such cultures
tend to be less focused on the precise accounting of each and
every moment, and much more steeped in tradition and
relationships rather than in tasks. Many Latin American, African,
Asian and Arab cultures fall into this category, especially
countries like Mexico, Pakistan, India, rural China, the
Philippines, Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
Paralanguage involves verbal and nonverbal aspects of speech
that influence meaning, including tone, intensity, pausing, and
even silence. Various acoustic properties of speech such as tone,
pitch and accent, collectively known as prosody, can all give off
Paralanguage may change the meaning of words .Prosody may
reflect various features of the speaker or the utterance:
- The emotional state of a speaker;
- Whether an utterance is a statement, a question, or a command;
-Whether the speaker is being ironic or sarcastic; emphasis, contrast,
Other elements of language that may not be encoded by grammar or
choice of vocabulary.
• Volume Quality:articulation, nasality, accent, pitch, range
of voice and resonance.
• Vocal characteristics:tone variations, inflections, the speed
at which you speak, whether your voice projects and
whatever emotion you may be conveying through tone and
inflection and so on.
• Voice qualifiers :bright, soft, round, light, cold or hot,
strength or weakness, breathy, texture, thick, old or child-
like and attitude (angry, chilling, seductive, convincing).
• Voice segregates are all the noises listeners make to signify
that they are listening: "uh-huh" or "um" or silences.
Office & Environment
Environment involves the physical and psychological
aspects of the communication context. More than the
tables and chairs in an office, environment is an important
part of the dynamic communication process. The
perception of one’s environment influences one’s reaction
• Physical : Physical context includes the environmental
factors in a communication encounter. The size, layout,
temperature, and lighting of a space influence our
• Psychological: Psychological context includes the mental
and emotional factors in a communication encounter.
Stress, anxiety, and emotions are just some examples of
psychological influences that can affect our
Chair Size and Accessories:
The higher the back of
the chair, the more
power and status the
person sitting in it is
perceived to have
The ATTENTION ZONE
Those sitting in the 'funnel' gave the most amount of participation, interacted most
with the presenter and had the highest recall about what was being discussed. Those
who participated the least sat in the back or to the sides, tended to be more negative
or confrontational and had the lowest recall. The rear positions also allow a delegate
a greater opportunity to doodle, sleep or escape.
The corner position
This position is used by people who are engaged in friendly, casual conversation.
The Co-Operative Position
This is one of the best positions for presenting your case and having it accepted
because it allows good eye contact and the opportunity for mirroring.
The Co-Operative Position(introducing a third person)
This allows the salesperson to
be'on the client's side' and to ask
the technician questions on
behalf of the client.
The Competitive & Defensive position
Sitting across the table from a person can create a defensive, competitive
atmosphere and can lead to each party taking a firm stand on his point of view
because the table becomes a solid barrier between both parties.
The Independent Position
This is taken by people when they don't want to interact with each other.
The Square Table
Square tables are ideal for having short, to-the-point conversations or for creating
superior or subordinate relationships.
Keeping two people involved
This technique lets B feel involved in the conversation and is particularly useful if you
need to have B on side with you.(A asks question and B remains silent)
• In general gifts are given at Chinese new year ,weddings,
births & birthdays
• The Chinese like food & a nice food basket will be a great
• Don’t wrap gifts in White ,Blue or Black paper
• Four is unlucky and eight is lucky
• Present gifts with two hands
• Gifts are not opened when received
• Gifts may be refused three times before they are accepted
• Small gifts are generally acceptable on birthdays & Christmas
• If invited to someone’e home for dinner ,it’s polite to bring a box of
chocolates or flowers to the hostess.
• A bottle of good wine is appreciated
• Gifts are opened when they are received
• Gifts are generally accepted for birthdays, anniversaries and major holidays ,
such as Christmas
• Gift can be as simple as a card
• Gift giving is not an elaborate event except at Christmas
• If invited to someone’s home for dinner ,it’s polite to bring a box of chocolates
,a bottle of wine, a potted plant or flowers to the hostess.
• Gifts are opened when they are received
• Giving a gift is highly ritualistic and meaningful
• The ceremony of presenting a gift and the way it is wrapped
is important(Pastel colors)
• Gifts are given on many occasions. Good quality of
chocolates or small cakes is a good idea. Don't give Lilies,
Lotus blossoms and with flowers as the are associated with
funeral; also potted plants associated with sickness.
• A bonsai tree is always acceptable.
• Give items in odd numbers but not nine.
• Gifts are not opened when received
• If you are invited to a german house ,carry a gift such as
chocolates or flower
• Yellow rose and tea roses are well received.
• Don’t give Red roses as it signifies romantic intentions.
• Avoid giving lilies as they are used in funerals.
• If you bring a wine ,it should be imported(french ,
italian)….giving german wine is considered as insult
• Gift giving is customary in India, and is seen as a sign of friendship.
However, it is generally not expected at the first meeting.
• It is advisable not to give expensive gifts, unless you are very close to
the person. Since Indians try to reciprocate a gift, if it is too expensive,
it can cause embarrassment for the recipient.
• Use red, yellow, green or blue coloured wrapping paper. White and
black colors are considered inauspicious.
• Normally, gifts are not opened in the presence of the giver. However,
sometimes your Indian host may insist on your opening the gift, and
would expect appreciation for his/her choice.
• If you are visiting an Indian during a festival, it is customary to carry a
box of sweets.
• If you are giving money as a gift, do remember that 11, 51, 101, 501,
etc. are considered auspicious numbers.
• Avoid giving leather or alcohol.