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FLOWERING

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capable of producing flowers, especially in contrast to a similar plant with the flowers inconspicuous or absent.
producing flowers at a specified time or of a specified type.
To produce flowers; blossom; come to full bloom.
(of certain species of plants) capable of producing conspicuous flowers

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FLOWERING

  1. 1. FLOWERING
  2. 2. Flowering Plants - Angiosperms
  3. 3. Flowering Plants - Angiosperms • Largest group of Land Plants! • Most important economically! • Apomorphies: 1. Flowers 2. Carpels 3. Fruits 4. Double fertilization with triploid endosperm 5. Specialized conductive cells
  4. 4. Why have Angiosperms been so successful?
  5. 5. 1) Flowers What is a flower? = Shoot system bearing modified leaves: Perianth Calyx (sepals) - green, protective Corolla (petals) - colored, attractant Stamens - male Carpels - female modified leaves
  6. 6. Fig. 30.7 pistil
  7. 7. Flower parts:
  8. 8. Flower pollination (transfer of pollen to ovule): Animal pollination Ancestral for Angiosperms Much more efficient means of transporting pollen All Gymnosperms are wind pollinated (Some Angiosperms secondarily wind pollinated)
  9. 9. Strategy of animal pollination: Attractant Visual: large or brightly colored perianth Olfactory (smell): sweet or rotten (fetid) odor Reward Usually nectar or pollen (Rarely waxes, oils)
  10. 10. Pollination Mechanisms Insects Bees Butterflies/Moths Flies Birds Bats Water Wind
  11. 11. Bee-pollinated
  12. 12. Moth-pollinated
  13. 13. Fly-pollinated
  14. 14. Bird-pollinated
  15. 15. Bat-pollinated
  16. 16. Wind pollination in grasses
  17. 17. Phyllospadix torreyi Surf-Grass Water- pollinated
  18. 18. 2) Carpels Carpel = conduplicate megasporophyll Conduplicate = folded Megasporophyll = “female leaf, bearing seeds” Carpel totally encloses ovules/seeds
  19. 19. Carpels can fuse together Gynoecium = all female parts Pistil = ovary + style + stigma Pistil can be one carpel or many
  20. 20. carpel orange: 8 fused carpels
  21. 21. 1.Function of Carpel 1. Protects young seeds 2. Site of pollen germination - Can induce self-incompatibility reactions 3. Fruits
  22. 22. Self-incompatibility - Pollen will not germinate on genetically similar individuals - Promotes outcrossing
  23. 23. 3) Fruits Fruit = mature ovary (plus accessory parts) Function: seed dispersal
  24. 24. Fruit types: dry - dispersed mechanically, by wind, water, etc. fleshy - dispersed by animals
  25. 25. 4) Double fertilization in Angiosperms Assignment: Study Figs. 38.2, 38.3, 38.5
  26. 26. Double fertilization in Angiosperms Pollen produces 2 sperm cells:
  27. 27. Double fertilization in Angiosperms Pollen produces 2 sperm cells: sperm (n) + egg (n) ----> zygote (2n) sperm (n) + 2 polar nuclei (n) ----> endosperm (3n)
  28. 28. Triploid endosperm is nutritive tissue in seeds of Angiosperms. Extra set of genes may help in: 1) rapid development 2) increase genetic variation
  29. 29. Gymnosperms: - Fertilization occurs long after pollination - Seeds mature slowly (1-2 years) Angiosperms: - Fertilization occurs soon after pollination - Seeds produced rapidly - Selective advantage (e.g., annual herbs)
  30. 30. perforation plate 5) Specialized conductive cells Most Angiosperms have vessels Specialized in having perforation plates vessel
  31. 31. big callose-lined pores All Angiosperms have sieve tube members -with sieve plates: bigger pores in end walls
  32. 32. Angiosperms Vessels and sieve tube members more efficient in water /sugar conduction
  33. 33. Angiosperm Classification
  34. 34. Old classification: Dicots - 2 cotyledons (seed leaves) Monocots - 1 cotyledon embryo seed coat radicle epicotyl hypocotyl 2 cotyledons endosperm NON-MONOCOT { radicle epicotyl hypocotyl 1 cotyledon embryo coleorhiza coleoptile radicle epicotyl 1 cotyledon MONOCOTS
  35. 35. Monocots monophyletic
  36. 36. Monocot apomorphies
  37. 37. parallel venation Monocot apomorphies 1 cotyledon radicle epicotyl hypocotyl 1 cotyledon embryo coleorhiza coleoptile radicle epicotyl 1 cotyledon MONOCOTS stem an atactostele -many scattered vascular bundles (wood lost!)
  38. 38. Monocots include: Palms Orchids Irises Grasses, etc.
  39. 39. “Dicots” paraphyletic!
  40. 40. Features that defined “Dicots” are primitive (not apomorphies)
  41. 41. Eudicots monophyletic!
  42. 42. Eudicot apomorphy: Pollen tricolpate - 3 apertures A A A
  43. 43. All other Angiosperms: Pollen has 1 aperture aperture
  44. 44. Eudicots include most angiosperms: Roses Legumes Daisies Oaks, etc.

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