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- 1. Presentation on Boosting Approach For Classification Problems Presenter: Prithvi Raj Paneru M.Sc. CSIT(2013-15) Roll no: 1
- 2. 1. Introduction 2. Combining Classifiers 3. Bagging 4. Boosting 5. AdaBoost Algorithm 6. Conclusion 10. References Overview
- 3. Supervised learning is the machine learning task . infer a function from labeled training data. The training data consist of a set of training examples. In supervised learning, each example is a pair consisting of a input object and a desired output value called a supervisory signal. Optimal scenario ? Target: generalize the learning algorithm from the training data to unseen situation in reasonable way. Introduction
- 4. Classification is a type of supervised learning. Classification relies on a priori reference structures that divide the space of all possible data points into a set of classes that are usually, but not necessarily, non- overlapping. A very familiar example is the email spam-catching system. Classification
- 5. The main issue in the classification is miss classification. which leads to the under-fitting and over-fitting problems. Like in the case of spam filtering due to miss classification the spam may be classified as not spam which is not considerable sometime. So the major issue here to improve the accuracy of the classification. Contd……
- 6. Combining classifiers makes the use of some weak classifiers and combining such classifier gives a strong classifier. Combining Classifiers
- 7. Contd…….
- 8. Bagging (Bootstrap aggregating) operates using bootstrap sampling. Given a training data set D containing m examples, bootstrap sampling draws a sample of training examples, Di, by selecting m examples uniformly at random with replacement from D. The replacement means that examples may be repeated in Di. Bagging
- 9. Contd…..
- 10. Training Phase Initialize the parameters D={Ф} h=the number of classification For k=1 to h Take a bootstrap sample Sk from training set S Build the classifier Dk using Sk as training set D=DUDi Return D Classification Phase Run D1,D2,………..Dk on the input k The class with maximum number of vote is choosen as the label for X. Bagging Algorithm
- 11. Boosting has been a very successful technique for solving the two-class classification problem. It was first introduced by Freund & Schapire (1997), with their AdaBoost algorithm . Rather than just combining the isolated classifiers boosting use the mechanism of increasing the weights of misclassified data in preceding classifiers. A weak learner is defined to be a classifier which is only slightly correlated with the true classification. In contrast, a strong learner is a classifier that is arbitrarily well- correlated with the true classification. Boosting
- 12. Contd……
- 13. 1. Initialize the data weighting coefficients {Wn } by setting Wi = 1/n, for n=1,2……..,N 2. For m=1 to m a. Fit a classifier y 𝑚(x) to the training data by minimizing the weighted error function. b. Evaluate the quantities The term I(ym(xn)≠tn) is indication function has values 0/1, 0 if xn is properly classified 1 if not so. AdaBoost Algotithm
- 14. And use these to evaluate c. Update the data weighting coefficients 3. Make predictions using the final model, which is given by Contd….
- 15. Let us take following points training set having 10 points represented by plus or minus. Assumption is the original status is assign equal weight to all points. Let us take following points training set having 10 points represented by plus or minus. Assumption is the original status is assign equal weight to all points. i.e. W1 (1) =W1 (2 ) =…………….=W1 (10)=1/10. Figure1. Training set consisting 10 samples Example AdaBoost
- 16. Round 1: Three “plus” points are not correctly classified. They are given higher weights. Figure 2. First hypothesis h1 misclassified 3 plus. Contd…..
- 17. And error term and learning rate for first hypothesis as: 𝜖1 = 0.1+0.1+0.1 1 = 0.30 𝛼1 = 1 2 ln 1 − 0.30 0.30 = 0.42 Now we calculate the weights of each data points for second hypothesis as: Wn (m+1)=? 1st, 2nd, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th data points are classified properly so their weight remains same. i.e. W1 (2)=W2 (2)=W6 (2)=W7 (2)=W8==W9 (2)=W10 (2)= 0.1 but 3rd,4th and 5th data points are misclassified so higher weights are provided to them as W3 (2)=W4 (2)=W5 (2)=0.1*e0.42=0.15 Contd..
- 18. Round 2: Three “minuse” points are not correctly classified. They are given higher weights. Figure5. Second Hypothesis h2 misclassified 3 minus. Contd……
- 19. 𝜀2 = 𝑜. 1 + 0.1 + 0.1 1.15 = 0.26 𝛼2 = 1 2 ln 1 − 0.26 0.26 = 0.52 Now calculating values Wn (3) as Here second hypothesis has misclassified 6th, 7th and 8th so they are provided with higher weights as : W6 (3)=W7 (3)= W8 (3)=0.1*e(0.52)=0.16 Whereas the data points 1,2,3,4,5,9,10 are properly classified so their weights remains same as: W1 (3)=W2 (3)=W9 (3)=W10 (3)= 0.1 W3 (3)=W4 (3)=W5 (3)=0.15 Cont….
- 20. Round 3: Figure 5. Third hypothesis h3 misclassified 2 plus and 1 minus. Contd…
- 21. Calculating error and learning terms for third hypothesis: 𝜀3 = 0.1 + 0.1 + 0.1 1.33 = 0.21 𝛼3 = 1 2 ln 1 − 0.21 0.21 = 0.66 Contd…
- 22. Contd….. Figure 6. Final hypothesis
- 23. Adaboost algorithm provides a strong classification mechanism combining various weak classifiers resulting into strong classifier which then is able to increase accuracy and efficiency. Final learner will have minimum error and maximum learning rate resulting to the high degree of accuracy. Hence, Adaboost algorithm can be used in such where misclassification leads to dire consequences very successfully at some extent. Conclusions
- 24. [1]. Eric Bauer“An Empirical Comparison of Voting Classification Algorithms: Bagging, Boosting, and Variants “, Computer Science Department, Stanford University Stanford CA, 94305, 1998. [2]. K. Tumer and J. Ghosh, “Classifier Combining: Analytical Results and Implications,” Proc Nat’l Conf. Artificial Intelligence , Portland,Ore.,1996. [3]. Paul Viola and Michael Jones,” Fast and Robust Classification using Asymmetric AdaBoost and a Detector Cascade”, Mistubishi Electric Research Lab Cambridge, MA. [4]. P´adraig Cunningham, Matthieu Cord, and Sarah Jane Delany,” Machine learning techniques for multiledia case studies on organization and retrival” Cord,M, Cunningham,2008. [5]. Trevor Hastie,” Multi-class AdaBoost” Department of Statistics Stanford University , CA 94305”,January 12, 2006. [6]. Yanmin Sun, Mohamed S. Kamel and Yang Wang, “Boosting for Learning Multiple Classes with Imbalanced Class Distribution”, The Sixth International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM’06). Refrences
- 25. Any queries..?
- 26. Any Questions?

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