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Leopard (An animal in danger)

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Nowadays the number of animals in danger is increasing a lot.One of these animals is the leopard.People should be more responsile about the damages they cause to the world of the animals.

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Leopard (An animal in danger)

  1. 1. ProjectProject Animals inAnimals in extinctionextinction (Leopard)(Leopard)
  2. 2. Basic leopard facts:Basic leopard facts:  Leopards are the smallest of the big cats — averaging 28Leopards are the smallest of the big cats — averaging 28 inches (71 centimeters) at shoulder height — but they're alsoinches (71 centimeters) at shoulder height — but they're also the most successful. They're stealthy hunters and resourcefulthe most successful. They're stealthy hunters and resourceful scavengers, and they can adapt to almost any environment.scavengers, and they can adapt to almost any environment.  The color and length of a leopard's fur can vary dependingThe color and length of a leopard's fur can vary depending on where it lives. Leopards in the savanna, for example, willon where it lives. Leopards in the savanna, for example, will have yellow or orange fur, while the fur of desert leopards ishave yellow or orange fur, while the fur of desert leopards is lighter. Leopards from cold climates have longer, grayer fur,lighter. Leopards from cold climates have longer, grayer fur, and rainforest leopards have golden coats.Leopards' spots,and rainforest leopards have golden coats.Leopards' spots, called rosettes, can be either round or square to help themcalled rosettes, can be either round or square to help them blend in even better with their surroundings.Leopards eatblend in even better with their surroundings.Leopards eat anything from carcasses, fish and reptiles to mammals suchanything from carcasses, fish and reptiles to mammals such as baboons, antelopes, hares and rodents. Of all the big catas baboons, antelopes, hares and rodents. Of all the big cat species, leopards are the best climbers.They're also strongspecies, leopards are the best climbers.They're also strong swimmers, and they'll sometimes catch fish andswimmers, and they'll sometimes catch fish and crabs.Leopards are solitary, elusive and skillful predators.crabs.Leopards are solitary, elusive and skillful predators.
  3. 3. Where leopards live:Where leopards live:  Most leopards are found in the grasslands ofMost leopards are found in the grasslands of sub-Saharan Africa, but they also cover othersub-Saharan Africa, but they also cover other areas of Africa, the Middle East and Asia.areas of Africa, the Middle East and Asia.  Dense brush in rocky areas and forests areDense brush in rocky areas and forests are their favorite hangouts, but they can adapt totheir favorite hangouts, but they can adapt to almost any environment, from tropicalalmost any environment, from tropical rainforests to deserts, mountains and therainforests to deserts, mountains and the outskirts of cities. Leopards are the only bigoutskirts of cities. Leopards are the only big cats that can live in both deserts andcats that can live in both deserts and rainforests.rainforests.
  4. 4. Conservation status:Conservation status: Near Threatened Near Threatened  As a species, leopards aren't endangered, but someAs a species, leopards aren't endangered, but some subspecies are in trouble, especially those that livesubspecies are in trouble, especially those that live outside of Africa. For example, only about 30 Amuroutside of Africa. For example, only about 30 Amur leopards, which are native to southwestern Russia,leopards, which are native to southwestern Russia, remain in the wild.remain in the wild.  The more threatened subspecies of leopard include:The more threatened subspecies of leopard include:  P. pardus kotiyaP. pardus kotiya (Sri Lanka leopard) – Endangered(Sri Lanka leopard) – Endangered  P. pardus melasP. pardus melas (Javan leopard) – Critically(Javan leopard) – Critically EndangeredEndangered  P. pardus nimrP. pardus nimr (Arabian leopard) – Critically(Arabian leopard) – Critically EndangeredEndangered  P. pardus orientalisP. pardus orientalis (Amur leopard) – Critically(Amur leopard) – Critically EndangeredEndangered  P. pardussaxicolorP. pardussaxicolor(Persian leopard) – Endangered(Persian leopard) – Endangered
  5. 5. …………………………………………………………………………..  Experts think there are about half aExperts think there are about half a million leopards living around themillion leopards living around the globe — 10 times more than lions,globe — 10 times more than lions, tigers and cheetahs combined.tigers and cheetahs combined. They're declining in large parts ofThey're declining in large parts of their range, though, due to habitattheir range, though, due to habitat loss and poaching for their coats andloss and poaching for their coats and whiskers.whiskers.
  6. 6. Threats Threats  Throughout Africa, the major threats to Leopard areThroughout Africa, the major threats to Leopard are habitat conversion and intense persecution, especiallyhabitat conversion and intense persecution, especially in retribution for real and perceived livestock loss. Inin retribution for real and perceived livestock loss. In intact rainforest, the chief threat to Leopards isintact rainforest, the chief threat to Leopards is probably competition with human hunters for prey;probably competition with human hunters for prey; the tremendous volume of wild meat harveststhe tremendous volume of wild meat harvests denudes forests of prey and may drive localizeddenudes forests of prey and may drive localized extinctions. Nonetheless, Leopard are somewhatextinctions. Nonetheless, Leopard are somewhat tolerant of habitat conversion, and may persist closetolerant of habitat conversion, and may persist close to large human populations provided they haveto large human populations provided they have suitable cover and prey.The impact of trophy huntingsuitable cover and prey.The impact of trophy hunting on populations is unclear, but may have impacts aton populations is unclear, but may have impacts at the demographic and population level, especiallythe demographic and population level, especially when females are shot.when females are shot.
  7. 7. ……………………………………………………………………....  In Tanzania, which allows only males to be hunted,In Tanzania, which allows only males to be hunted, females comprised 28.6% of 77 trophies shot betweenfemales comprised 28.6% of 77 trophies shot between 1995 and 1998.Skins and canines are still widely1995 and 1998.Skins and canines are still widely traded domestically in some central and West Africantraded domestically in some central and West African countries where parts are used in traditional ritualscountries where parts are used in traditional rituals and sold openly in villages and cities. Djibouti is anand sold openly in villages and cities. Djibouti is an important conduit for Leopard skins from East Africaimportant conduit for Leopard skins from East Africa that are bought mainly by French military personnelthat are bought mainly by French military personnel and carried illegally to Europe. In West Asia, smalland carried illegally to Europe. In West Asia, small leopard subpopulations are threatened primarily byleopard subpopulations are threatened primarily by habitat fragmentation, killing in defence of livestock,habitat fragmentation, killing in defence of livestock, and poaching for trade.In Indo-Malaya, leopards areand poaching for trade.In Indo-Malaya, leopards are threatened primarily by habitat loss (deforestation) asthreatened primarily by habitat loss (deforestation) as well as poaching for illegal trade. In India, leopardswell as poaching for illegal trade. In India, leopards are feared for their attacks on people.are feared for their attacks on people.
  8. 8. Conservation Actions Conservation Actions   Included on CITES Appendix I. Legal international traffic isIncluded on CITES Appendix I. Legal international traffic is limited largely to exports of skins and hunting trophies under alimited largely to exports of skins and hunting trophies under a CITES Appendix I quota system by 13 African countriesCITES Appendix I quota system by 13 African countries (2005 CITES quota is 2,590). Leopards are protected under(2005 CITES quota is 2,590). Leopards are protected under national legislation throughout most of their range (Nowellnational legislation throughout most of their range (Nowell and Jackson 1996). In Africa, although Leopards occur inand Jackson 1996). In Africa, although Leopards occur in numerous protected areas across their range, the majority ofnumerous protected areas across their range, the majority of the population occurs outside of protected areas, necessitatingthe population occurs outside of protected areas, necessitating a need for improved conflict mitigation measures. In Westa need for improved conflict mitigation measures. In West Asia, leopards are essentially restricted to protected areas,Asia, leopards are essentially restricted to protected areas, many of which are too small to support viable populations, andmany of which are too small to support viable populations, and need expansion through buffer zones and connectivity throughneed expansion through buffer zones and connectivity through corridors (Breitenmosercorridors (Breitenmoser et al.et al. 2006, 2007). In Indo-Malaya2006, 2007). In Indo-Malaya and China, leopards need better protection from illegal trade inand China, leopards need better protection from illegal trade in skins and bones (Nowell 2007). Leopards are protected inskins and bones (Nowell 2007). Leopards are protected in Afghanistan having recently been placed on the countrysAfghanistan having recently been placed on the countrys Protected Species List (2009), prohibiting all hunting andProtected Species List (2009), prohibiting all hunting and trading of the species within Afghanistan.trading of the species within Afghanistan.

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