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A
Mini Project Report
On
“ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER”
Submitted to
Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur
In P...
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
St. Vincent Pallotti College of Engineering & Technology,
Wardha Road, Nagpur
CERTIF...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am grateful to my respec...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 ii
INDEX
CHAPTER
NO.
PARTICULARS PAGE NO.
Ac...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 iii
LIST OF FIGURES
SR. NO. NAME OF FIGURE P...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
- Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 iv
LIST OF TABLE
SR. NO. NAME OF TABLE PAG...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 v
SYMBOLS USED
W = weight attached
S = Sprin...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 vi
ABSTRACT
An absorption dynamometer consis...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 1
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 2
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Definition of D...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 3
1.4 Transmission Dynamometer:
In this type...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 4
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 5
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
1. Guan and Hu...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 6
CHAPTER 3
WORKING PRINCIPLE
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 7
CHAPTER 3
WORKING PRINCIPLE
3.1Parts of a ...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 8
2. Pulley: A pulley is a wheel on an axle ...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 9
A rope brake dynamometer is frequently use...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 10
FIG. : 3.5 ACTUAL VIEW OF ROPE BRAKE DYNA...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 11
CHAPTER 4
SURVEY OR COMPARISION
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 12
CHAPTER 4
SURVEY OR COMPARISION
4.1 Diffe...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 13
CHAPTER 5
APPLICATION
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 14
CHAPTER 5
APPLICATION
5.1Applications of ...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 15
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 16
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION
A brake is an applia...
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 17
CHAPTER 7
REFERENCES
ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 18
CHAPTER 7
REFERENCES
1. Prabhu, T.J., Fun...
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Rope brake dynamometer

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MINI PROJECT REPORT ON ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER

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Rope brake dynamometer

  1. 1. A Mini Project Report On “ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER” Submitted to Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur In Partial Fulfillment of Bachelor of Engineering Submitted By Purvansh B. Vaikunthe (48/B) Saket P. Kolhe (50/B) Pranav R. Padole (47/B) Neeraj K. Chaudhary (42/B) Piyush C. Piprikar (46/B) Shaunak S. Kulkarni Under the Guidance of Prof. Milind P. Kshirsagar Department of Mechanical Engineering St. Vincent Pallotti College of Engineering & Technology, Wardha Road, Nagpur (2013-14) A-PDF Merger DEMO : Purchase from www.A-PDF.com to remove the watermark
  2. 2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Vincent Pallotti College of Engineering & Technology, Wardha Road, Nagpur CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Mini Project entitled “ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER” has been successfully completed by Purvansh Vaikunthe, Saket Kolhe, Pranav Padole, NeerajKumar Chaudhary, Piyush Piprikar, Shaunak Kulkarni students of 4th semester B.E. for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Bachelors degree in Mechanical Engineering of the St. Vincent Pallotti College of Engineering & Technology during the academic year 2013-14 Guide : Prof. Milind P Kshirsagar Prof. A. D. Pachchhao Designation: Asst. Professor. Head of the Department Mechanical Engineering. Dept of Mechanical Engineering SVPCET, Nagpur SVPCET, Nagpur
  3. 3. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am grateful to my respected guide Prof. Milind P Kshirsagar for his kind, disciplined and invaluable guidance which inspired me to solve all the difficulties that came across during completion of the project. I express my special thanks to Prof. A.D. Pachchhao, Head of the Department, for his kind support, valuable suggestions and allowing me to use all facilities that are available in the Department during this project. My sincere thanks are due to Pachchhao Sir, H.O.D., for extending the all possible help and allowing me to use all resources that are available in the Institute. I would like to thanks all the faculty members of Mechanical Engineering Department for their support, for the successful completion of this project work. The acknowledgement shall remain incomplete without expressing my warm gratitude to the almighty God. I would also like to thanks all my Family members and Friends for their continues support and standing with me in all difficult condition during this work. Purvansh B. Vaikunthe (48/B) Saket P. Kolhe (50/B) Pranav R. Padole (47/B) Neeraj K. Chaudhary (42/B) Piyush C. Piprikar (46/B) Shaunak S. Kulkarni
  4. 4. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 ii INDEX CHAPTER NO. PARTICULARS PAGE NO. Acknowledgement List of figures List of tables Symbol used ABSTRACT i iii iv v vi I 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Definition of Dynamometer 1.2 Types of Dynamometer 1.3 Absorption Dynamometer 1.4 Transmission Dynamometer 1.5 Theory of Dynamometer 1 2 2 2 3 3 II 2. LITERATURE SURVEY 5 III 3. WORKING PRINCIPLE 3.1 Parts of a Rope Brake Dynamometer 3.2 Construction of Rope Brake Dynamometer 3.3 Working of Rope Brake Dynamometer 6 7 7 8 IV 4. SURVEY OR COMPARISION 4.1 Difference between Brake and Dynamometer 4.2 Difference Between Rope Brake Dynamometer And Prony Brake Dynamometer 11 12 12 V 5. APPLICATION 5.1 Applications of Rope Brake Dynamometer 13 14 VI 6. CONCLUSION 16 VII 8. REFERENCE 18
  5. 5. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 iii LIST OF FIGURES SR. NO. NAME OF FIGURE PAGE NO. 01 FIG. 1.1 Types of Dynamometer 02 02 Fig. 3.1 Rope 07 03 Fig. 3.2 Pulley 08 04 Fig. 3.3 Spring Balance 08 05 FIG. : 3.4 Rope Brake Dynamometer 09 06 FIG. : 3.5 ACTUAL VIEW OF ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER 10
  6. 6. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER - Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 iv LIST OF TABLE SR. NO. NAME OF TABLE PAGE NO. 01 TABLE 3.1 Parts of Rope Brake Dynamometer 07 02 TABLE 4.1 Difference Between Brakes And Dynamometer 12 03 TABLE 4.2 Difference Between Rope Brake And Prony Brake Dynamometer 12
  7. 7. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 v SYMBOLS USED W = weight attached S = Spring Balance r = Effective radius = rd + r1 rd = Radius of Brake drum r1 = Radius of rope n = r.p.m. of the engine
  8. 8. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 vi ABSTRACT An absorption dynamometer consisting of a rope encircling a brake drum or flywheel, one end of the rope being loaded by weights and the other supported by a spring balance. The effective torque absorbed is obtained by multiplying the drum radius by the difference of the tensions. A dynamometer or "dyno" for short, is a device for measuring force, moment of force (torque), or power. For example, the power produced by an engine, motor or other rotating prime mover can be calculated by simultaneously measuring torque and rotational speed (RPM). A dynamometer can also be used to determine the torque and power required to operate a driven machine such as a pump. In that case, a motoring or driving dynamometer is used. A dynamometer that is designed to be driven is called an absorption or passive dynamometer. A dynamometer that can either drive or absorb is called a universal or active dynamometer. In addition to being used to determine the torque or power characteristics of a machine under test (MUT), dynamometers are employed in a number of other roles. In standard emissions testing cycles such as those defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), dynamometers are used to provide simulated road loading of either the engine (using an engine dynamometer) or full powertrain (using a chassis dynamometer). In fact, beyond simple power and torque measurements, dynamometers can be used as part of a testbed for a variety of engine development activities, such as the calibration of engine management controllers, detailed investigations into combustion behavior, and tribology. In the medical terminology, hand-held dynamometers are used for routine screening of grip and hand strength, and the initial and ongoing evaluation of patients with hand trauma or dysfunction. They are also used to measure grip strength in patients where compromise of the cervical nerve roots or peripheral nerves is suspected.
  9. 9. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
  10. 10. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 2 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Definition of Dynamometer: Dynamometer a device with a rotating shaft that is coupled to the shaft of a machine under test to measure the output torque or the required driving torque of the machine. The torque measured by the dynamometer is multiplied by the shaft angular velocity, measured by a tachometer, to compute the horsepower of the machine under test. Dynamometers are used to determine the torque and horsepower characteristics of electric motors, generators, internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and pumps. 1.2 Types of Dynamometer 1.3 Absorption Dynamometer: In this type, the work done is converted into heat by friction while being measured. They can be used for measurement of moderate powers only. Example: Prony Brake dynamometer and rope brake dynamometer. FIG. 1.1 Types of Dynamometer
  11. 11. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 3 1.4 Transmission Dynamometer: In this type, the work is not absorbed in the process, but is utilized after the measurement. Example: Belt transmission dynamometer and Torsion dynamometer. 1.5 Theory of Dynamometer: Dynamometers are used for measurement of brake power. To measure brake power, the engine torque and angular speed have to measured. A typical dynamometer is shown.The rotor is driven by the engine under test by mechanical, hydraulic or electromagnetic means. The rotor is coupled to the stator. For each revolution of the shaft, Work done = 2××R×F Now, external torque = S×L, where S is the scale reading and L is the length of dynamometer arm. Therefore, S×L = R×F for balance of dynamometer. The power is given by, Brake Power = 2×N×T / 60 In the absorption dynamometers, the entire energy or power produced by the engine is absorbed by the friction resistances of the brake and is transformed into heat, during the process of measurement. But in the transmission dynamometer energy is not wasted in friction but is utilized in doing work. The energy or power produced by engine is transmitted through the dynamometers in some other machines where the power developed is suitably measured.
  12. 12. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 4 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
  13. 13. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Guan and Huang (2003) proposed a method to measure disc brake squeal propensity. In the past via the complex eigen value analysis, positive real parts always indicate the level of instability. Instead of using this generic parameter to show degrees of instability, they attempted to analyze the squeal problem from the viewpoint of energy. The total feed-in energy was used to indicate the squeal tendency of the brake system, which was derived using the magnitude and phase of the modal shape coefficient vector. They concluded the proposed method would be able to predict disc brake tendency as similar as the positive real parts of t he complex eigen value analysis. Furthermore, the method allows disclosing the influence of structure design parameter on the squeal propensity and also helps analyzing the effectiveness of various modifications to reduce/eliminate squeal. 2. Moirot et al (2000) proposed an analysis to deal with the squeal problems. The analysis had three major aspects that differ from typical complex eigen value analysis. The proposed analysis, first performed non-linear static calculation to determine the contact surface between the disc and the pads. The second aspect was they considered the damping that due to friction and the final aspect was the projection of the whole structure on a real modal basis. 3. Chung et al (2001) presented an analysis approach by transferring the equations of motion from transient domain to modal domain that the transformation could significantly reduce the complexity of the complex eigenvalue analysis. The modal domain analysis could provide mechanism underlying the mode-coupling phenomenon. The instability was investigated based on the propensity of modes to couple and cause squeal. From the analysis, even if modes were separated enough in frequency that there was no instability, it was still possible to predict which mode might couple and create instability if the modes were slightly shifted. Thus, it could provide the guidance needed to design squeal-free system. The proposed analysis proved to be successful as good correlations were achieved against experimental results.
  14. 14. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 6 CHAPTER 3 WORKING PRINCIPLE
  15. 15. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 7 CHAPTER 3 WORKING PRINCIPLE 3.1Parts of a Rope Brake Dynamometer: The basic parts of a rope brake dynamometer are as follows: 1. Ropes 2. Pulley 3. Dead Weight 4. Spring Balance 5. Plywood frame SR. NO. DESCRIPTION MATERIAL QUANTITY 01 Rope Synthetic Fibers 01 02 Pulley Wood 01 03 Dead Weight Cast Iron 01 04 Spring Balance Mild Steel 01 05 Plywood Frame Plywood 01 3.2Construction of Rope Brake Dynamometer: 1. Rope: A rope is a linear collection of natural or artificial plies, yarns or strands which are twisted or braided together in order to combine them into a larger and stronger form, but is not a cable or wire. Ropes have tensile strength and so can be used for dragging and lifting, but are far too flexible to provide compressive strength. As a result, they cannot be used for pushing or similar compressive applications. Rope is thicker and stronger than similarly constructed cord, line, string, and twine. We have selected rope of 10mm Diameter. TABLE 3.1 Parts of Rope Brake Dynamometer Fig. 3.1 Rope
  16. 16. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 8 2. Pulley: A pulley is a wheel on an axle that is designed to support movement and change of direction of a cable or belt along its circumference. Pulleys are used in a variety of ways to lift loads, apply forces, and to transmit power. In nautical contexts, the assembly of wheel, axle, and supporting shell is referred to as a "block." Pulley that we have chosen is 90mm in diameter. 3. Dead Weight: Its a heavy weight or load. Dead weight we have selected is of 457gm. 4. Spring Balance: A spring balance apparatus is simply a spring fixed at one end with a hook to attach an object at the other. It works by Hooke's Law, which states that the force needed to extend a spring is proportional to the distance that spring is extended from its rest position. Therefore the scale markings on the spring balance are equally spaced. 3.3 Working of Rope Brake Dynamometer: In a rope brake dynamometer a rope is wrapped over the rime of a pulley keyed to the shaft of the engine. The diameter of the rope depends upon the power of the machine. The spacing of the rope on the pulley is done by 3 to 4 U-shaped wooden blocks which also prevent rope from slipping of the pulley. The upper end of a rope is attached to the spring balance whereas the lower end supports the weight of suspended mass. If the power is high, so will be the heat produced due to friction between the rope and the wheel, and a cooling arrangement is necessary. For this, the channel of the flywheel usually has flange turned inside in which water from a ripe is supplied. An outlet pipe with a flattened end takes the water out. Fig. 3.2 Pulley Fig. 3.3 Spring Balance
  17. 17. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 9 A rope brake dynamometer is frequently used to test the power of the engines. It is easy to manufacture, inexpensive, and requires no lubrication. If the rope is wrapped several times over the wheel, the tension of the slack side of the rope, i.e., the spring balance reading can be reduced to a negligible value as compared to the tension of the tight side (as T1/T2 = is increased). Thus one can even do away with the spring balance. Let, W = weight attached S = Spring Balance r = Effective radius = rd + r1 Where, rd = Radius of Brake drum r1 = Radius of rope n = r.p.m. of the engine Therefore, Braking Torque, Tb = (W-s) * r The power absorbed by the engine = ( ) ∗ (KW) ENGINE SHAFT SPRING BALNCE WOODEN BLOCKS FIG. : 3.4 ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
  18. 18. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 10 FIG. : 3.5 ACTUAL VIEW OF ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
  19. 19. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 11 CHAPTER 4 SURVEY OR COMPARISION
  20. 20. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 12 CHAPTER 4 SURVEY OR COMPARISION 4.1 Difference between Brake and Dynamometer Sr. No. Brakes Dynamometer 1 Principle object is to absorb energy. Works on principle of absorption. 2 It is used to retard or stop. It is able to measure absorb K.E. transmitted to prime mover. 3 No torque or power is measured It measures, torque and hence power. 4.2 Difference Between Rope Brake Dynamometer And Prony Brake Dynamometer: Sr. No. Rope Brake Dynamometer Prony Brake Dynamometer 01 Cooling arrangement is required, since friction is developed No cooling arrangement is required. 02 Its accuracy is comparatively more. Its accuracy is comparatively less. 03 Its Construction is Simple. Its construction is complex. 04 It is comparatively cheaper. It is comparatively expensive. 05 It consists of less no. of parts. It consists of more no. of parts. 06 = ( )∗ /60 = ∗ ∗ ∗ /60 TABLE 4.1 DIFFERNCE BETWEEN BRAKES AND DYNAMOMETER TABLE 4.2 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ROPE BRAKE AND PRONY BRAKE DYNAMOMETER
  21. 21. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 13 CHAPTER 5 APPLICATION
  22. 22. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 14 CHAPTER 5 APPLICATION 5.1Applications of Rope Brake Dynamometer: 1. The main application of a rope brake dynamometer is to test IC Engine. Dynamometers are useful in the development and refinement of modern engine technology. The concept is to use a dyno to measure and compare power transfer at different points on a vehicle, thus allowing the engine or drivetrain to be modified to get more efficient power transfer. For example, if an engine dyno shows that a particular engine achieves 400 N·m (295 lbf·ft) of torque, and a chassis dynamo shows only 350 N·m (258 lbf·ft), one would know to look to the drive train for the major improvements. Dynamometers are typically very expensive pieces of equipment, and so are normally only used in certain fields that rely on them for a particular purpose. 2. It is also used in Pelton Wheel Turbine to measure the torque, then power. The turbine whose torque is to be measured, its shaft is connected to the shaft of rape brake dynamometer on which drum or pulley is mounted. Rope is wrapped on the periphery of drum. Tension is provided from the both ends by attaching one end of rope with spring balance and other with dead weight. This restricts the motion pulley which gives reading in spring balance. Ultimately torque can be calculated. 3. It is used for measuring the torque in Francis Turbine. 4. It can be used for measuring torque of any rotary member, simply by coupling it with shaft of dynamometer.
  23. 23. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 15 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION
  24. 24. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 16 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION A brake is an appliance used to apply frictional resistance to a moving body to stop or retard it by absorbing its kinetic energy. In general, in all types of motion, there is always some amount of resistance which retards the motion and is sufficient to bring the body to rest. However, the time taken and the distance covered in this process is usually too large. By providing brakes, the external resistance is considerably increased and the period retardation shortened. A dynamometer is a brake incorporating a device to measure the frictional resistance applied. This is used to determine the power developed by the machine, while maintaining its speed at the rated value. The functional difference between a clutch and a brake is that a clutch connects two moving members of a machine whereas a brake connects a moving member to a stationary member. The determination of power delivered to rotating machinery simultaneous measurement of torque and shaft speed. Machines used for torque measurement under test – bed condition are called dynamometer. The type of dynamometer to be used depends on the nature of machine to be tested. Absorption dynamometers working principle is that the power measured is converted into heat by friction or by other means. The power absorbed is lost as heat and is dissipated to the surrounding where it have no use. These are used for measurement of power of generator, electric motor, turbines and engines. Dynamometers are capable only of power absorption include various forms of mechanical brakes working on dry friction, fluid friction and eddy current brake.
  25. 25. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 17 CHAPTER 7 REFERENCES
  26. 26. ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVPCET 2013-2014 18 CHAPTER 7 REFERENCES 1. Prabhu, T.J., Fundamentals of Machine Design. 2. Khurmi, R.S. and J.K. Gupta, Theory of Machines. 3. Sundararajamoorthy, T.V. and N. Shanmugam, Machine Design. 4. Thipse, S.S., Internal Combustion Engines. 5. Mathur, M.L. and R.P. Sharma, Internal Combustion 6. SS Rattan, Theory of machines (TATA McGraw Hill Publication). 7. V. Ganeshan, Internal Combustion Engine (TATA McGraw Hill Publication). 8. Winther, J. B. (1975). Dynamometer Handbook of Basic Theory and Applications. Cleveland, Ohio: Eaton Corporation. 9. Martyr, A.; Plint, M. (2007). Engine Testing - Theory and Practice (Fourth ed.). Oxford. 10. www.rugusavay.com 11. www.dynamometers.org 12. www.dyno-dynamometer.com 13. www.idosi.org

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