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The Making Of National Culture In Singapore

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The Making Of National Culture In Singapore

  1. 1. The Making of National Culture in Singapore
  2. 2. <ul><ul><li>1.Multiracialism and Multilingualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.Multiracilaism and New National Identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.Meritocracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.Internal Security and External Threats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.Economic Progress and Development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>History of Singapore in terms of racial issues </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into various aspects </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>ASSIMILATION </li></ul>Ethnic sentiments and national identity 2.INTEGRATION
  4. 4. <ul><li>Foreign affairs and Defence were crucial </li></ul><ul><li>Careful management to prevent communal friction and conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Religious beliefs are closely tied to people’s ethnic origins </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1946-1956, there were serious ethnic and religious conflicts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1950: School Registration Ordinance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1954: National Service Ordinance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1956: Barred Singapore Chinese Middle School Students’ Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist Party of Malaya exploit racial sentiments of Chinese populace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1960: Internal self government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1964: Chinese-Malay Riot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1970: Various ethnic groups co-exist peacefully </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Assurance- </li></ul><ul><li>1.language equality, </li></ul><ul><li>2.education, </li></ul><ul><li>3.access to religion </li></ul><ul><li>Policy of Multilingualism to prevent any uproars. </li></ul><ul><li>It diffused 2 potential threats : </li></ul><ul><li>1.Minorities were not dominated. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Chinese were not neglected. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Multilingualism was operationalised in educational system: </li></ul><ul><li>Policy of Bilingualism . </li></ul><ul><li>English being the main medium of education : </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore had the infrastructure to introduce English as it was a British colony. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a language identified with any main indigenous groups </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>No state religion </li></ul><ul><li>citizens were free to practice their choice of religious worship. </li></ul><ul><li>Major religious observances declared as holidays. </li></ul><ul><li>Political leaders make appearances with wide media coverage. </li></ul><ul><li>Very sensitive issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be dealt with much caution. </li></ul><ul><li>In Singapore, religious affiliations were closely tied to ethnic identities->Government’s actions must be very careful. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Multiracialism in Singapore: </li></ul><ul><li>Regressive identity </li></ul><ul><li>preservation of the cultural elements of each ethnic group </li></ul><ul><li>“ put Chinese under pressure more Chinese, Indian more Indian, Malay more Malay in their behaviour.” </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive identity </li></ul><ul><li>at the same time, the introduction of a new national identity </li></ul><ul><li>“ ideology of pragmatism” </li></ul>Immigrants How many rounds already? Third round, sir.
  9. 9. <ul><li>Ensures that minorities are not discriminated against </li></ul><ul><li>Merit and Performance rather than ethnic identification or religious affiliation have become the criteria for social mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses on individual’s talent and desire to work </li></ul><ul><li>Equal rights and opportunities = depoliticising ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>**BUT may end up having a disorientated and rootless population** </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Vulnerable: move towards economic growth and political stability </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore Armed Forces became a symbol for national defence </li></ul><ul><li>Soft shellness: easy permeability and penetration of foreign values is a constant danger </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Values deemed critical to Singapore’s development were vigorously promoted: </li></ul><ul><li>hard work, self discipline, efficiency, productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Survival has meant following the path of investing in each individual, educating each to the highest possible level, and making each individual Singaporean relevant to the economics of the New World Order </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Nationhood was not a struggle like other countries, it was thrust upon </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of national symbols becomes an ever-evolving process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Flag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional Head of State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flag raising and Flag lowering ceremonies in schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recitation of the National Pledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National flower and National Dress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Singaporeans - national integration </li></ul>
  13. 13. Shared Values to mould future destiny Knowing where you are going is more important than knowing where you came from

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