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Paving the path to Narrowband 5G with LTE IoT

The Internet of Things is bringing a massive surge of smart, connected devices that will enable new services and efficiencies across industries. This requires wireless technologies to scale up or down depending on the application performance needs—to connect virtually anything. And now, LTE is evolving for low-throughput, delay-tolerant IoT use cases. The new narrowband LTE technologies (eMTC & NB-IoT) will deliver lower complexity, longer battery life, and deeper coverage for wide-area IoT applications.

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Paving the path to Narrowband 5G with LTE IoT

  1. 1. Paving the path to Narrowband 5G with LTE Internet of Things (IoT) Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. June, 2016
  2. 2. 2 IoT — a massive surge of smart, interconnected “things” Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. is a proven, trusted solution provider for IoT Decades of industry experience Broad portfolio of technologies 1B+ IoT devices shipped globally1 1 Cumulative shipment using Qualcomm technologies; includes SoC, Cellular, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi , GNSS and PLC, stats as of April 2016
  3. 3. 3 Connecting the IoT requires heterogeneous connectivity Powered by global standards with seamless interoperability across multiple vendors PowerlineNFCBluetooth GNSS/LocationWi-FiCellular Creating a connectivity fabric for everything To support the wide range of IoT use cases with varying requirements Cost Battery life Coverage Security Latency Mobility Throughput Node densityReliability
  4. 4. 4 Cellular technologies enable a wide range of IoT services >5B IoT connections by 20251 Smart cities Lighting, traffic sensors, smart parking,… Mobile health Wearables, gateways, remote patient,… Environmental monitoring Agriculture, forecast fire/ air pollution sensors,… Smart utilities Smart grid, gas/water/ electric meters Ubiquitous coverage Reliable and secure Global ecosystem Always-on connectivity Connected building Security, video surveillance, smoke detectors,… Connected industrial Process/equipment monitoring, HVAC, … Asset tracking Fleet management, pet/kid trackers, shipping,… Connected retail Vending machines, ATM, digital ads,… 1 Including Cellular & LPWA M2M connections, Machina Research, June, 2016
  5. 5. 5 We are evolving LTE for the Internet of Things New narrowband technologies to more efficiently support IoT use cases Mobile Video security Wearables Object tracking Energy managementConnected car Connected healthcare City infrastructure Smart buildings Environment monitoringUtility metering Today New narrowband IoT technologies (3GPP Release 13+) LTE Cat-4 and above >10 Mbps n x 20 MHz LTE Cat-1 Up to 10 Mbps 20 MHz LTE Cat-M1 (eMTC) Variable rate up to 1 Mbps 1.4 MHz narrowband Cat-NB1 (NB-IoT) 10s of kbps 200 kHz narrowband Scaling up in performance and mobility Scaling down in complexity and power
  6. 6. 6 LTE IoT delivers significant value for LPWA1 applications Over non-3GPP solutions 1 Low-power, wide-area Ubiquitous coverage Established networks serving billions of connections worldwide Coexistence Leverages existing and planned LTE infrastructure and spectrum Scalability To address the wide range of IoT use cases Mature ecosystem Backed by global standards with a rich roadmap to 5G End-to-end security Established/trusted security and authentication features built in Managed QoS Based on licensed spectrum with a redundant network design
  7. 7. 7 Paving the path to 5G NB-IoT is the foundation for Narrowband 5G; continuing to evolve in Release 14+ Scales down LTE to address the broadest range of IoT use cases Optimizes to lowest cost/power for delay- tolerant, low-throughput IoT use cases 3GPP 5G NR further enhances massive IoT with new capabilities such as RSMA1 & multi-hop mesh 1 Resource Spread Multiple Access
  8. 8. Delivering new narrowband LTE IoT technologies As part of 3GPP Release 13
  9. 9. 9 LTE Cat-M1 1.4 MHz Up to 1 Mbps Faster data rates Full-to-limited mobility Voice/VoLTE support Two new LTE IoT technologies, one unified LTE platform Coverage Performance +5 dB +15 dB LTE Cat-NB1 200 kHz 10s of kbps LTE Cat-1 and above n x 20 MHz > 1 Mbps Short-range wireless1 LTE Cat-M1 (eMTC) Broadest range of IoT capabilities with support for advanced features, e.g. voice support LTE Cat-NB1 (NB-IoT) Scalable to lowest cost/power for delay-tolerant, low-throughput IoT use cases, e.g. remote sensors Many IoT devices can benefit from multi-mode operations to optimize for different traffic profiles and RF conditions 1 Examples include Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, NFC, and others Ultra low-cost Ultra low-power Delay-tolerant
  10. 10. 10 LTE IoT reduces complexity, extends battery life & coverage Through optimizations to both the air interface and core network Multi-year battery life Enhanced power save modes and more efficient signaling, e.g. extended DRX sleep cycles Deeper coverage Achieve up to 20 dB increase in link budget for hard-to-reach locations via redundant transmissions Higher node density Signaling and other network optimizations, e.g. overload control, to support a large number of devices per cell Reduced complexity Narrowband operation (1.4 MHz or 200 kHz) plus further device and core network complexity reductions Coexistence with today’s mobile broadband services Leveraging existing infrastructure and spectrum
  11. 11. 11 New LTE IoT device categories reduce LTE complexity To enable low-cost modules optimized for small, infrequent data transmissions 1 Integrated PA possible LTE Cat-1 (Today) LTE Cat-M1 (Rel-13) LTE Cat-NB1 (Rel-13) Peak data rate DL: 10 Mbps UL: 5 Mbps DL: 1 Mbps UL: 1 Mbps DL: ~20 kbps UL: ~60 kbps Bandwidth 20 MHz 1.4 MHz 200 kHz Rx antenna MIMO Single Rx Single Rx Duplex mode Full duplex FDD/TDD Supports half duplex FDD/TDD Half duplex FDD only Transmit power 23 dBm 20 dBm1 20 dBm1 Simplified RF hardware Reduces baseband complexity and decreases memory Higher throughput, lower latency, full mobility
  12. 12. 12 Delivering multi-year battery life Devices wake up on a per-need basis; stay asleep for minutes, hours, even days Note: PSM and eDRx applicable to both Cat-M1 and Cat-NB1; may also be applied to LTE Cat-1 and above Power save mode (PSM) Eliminates page monitoring between data transmissions For device-originated or scheduled applications, e.g., smart metering, environmental monitoring Powerconsumption Time PSM Datatransfer Datatransfer Page monitoring Device not reachable Extended discontinuous receive (eDRx) Extends time between monitoring for network messages For device-terminated applications, e.g., object tracking, smart grid Powerconsumption Time Datatransfer Sleep Sleep Extended DRx Up to 40+ minutes vs. today’s upper limit of 2.56 seconds Also features such as reduced complexity and less channel measurements extend battery life
  13. 13. 13 Numerous technology enablers for deeper coverage To reach challenging locations, e.g. penetrating more walls & floors 1 Link budget; 2 At least for standalone operation mode LTE Cat-M1 >155.7 dB LTE Cat-1 Baseline 140.7 dB LTE Cat-NB1 Up to 164 dB1,2 Tradingoffspectralefficiencyandlatency • Further relaxed requirements, e.g. timing • Low-order modulation, e.g. QPSK • Option for single-tone uplink transmissions Cat-NB1 only • Repetitive transmissions & TTI bundling for redundancy • Narrowband uplink transmissions Cat-M1 and Cat-NB1
  14. 14. 14 Coexisting with today’s LTE services Cat-M1 and Cat-NB1 can leverage existing LTE infrastructure and spectrum 1 Assumptions: ISD Urban – 500m, 3 cells per site, Channel b/w 10MHz, Cell capacity: DL 14Mbps, UL 9.6Mbps; Traffic types include data and commands for Electric Meter, Water Meter, Security Panel, HVAC - Residential, Outdoor Street Light, Off Street Parking Meter, Parking Space Sensor, Water Assets; 100% of traffic assumed in 6hr. busy period; 2 Physical Resource Block; 3 Including re-farming of GSM spectrum <0.1% Data capacity for IoT traffic based on sample scenario1 Reuse center 6 PRB2 for synchronization; data channel can operate across entire LTE band for most efficient coexistence with today’s traffic New synchronization anchor channels are in restricted narrowband locations; may also be deployed standalone3 or in LTE guard band Multimode Cat-M1/NB1 devices Cat-M1 devices Cat-NB1 devices Mobile devices Cat-NB1 channel Regular LTE Cat-M1 channel WidebandControl
  15. 15. 15 Regular data Cat-M1 SIB3 Cat-M1 (eMTC) efficient coexistence with today’s services Narrowband operation of 1.4 MHz1 across entire LTE band 1 1.08 MHz used by the network to transmit 6 RBs in-band; 2 PSS/SSS/PBCH; 3 SIB (System Information Block); 4 Also supports frequency hopping within LTE band for diversity Regular data WidebandControl Legacy Synch2 Time and Frequency-Division Multiplexing between LTE IoT and today’s existing services, e.g. mobile broadband Multiple narrowband regions with frequency retuning to support scalable resource allocation between LTE IoT and non-IoT traffic4 Co-existence Flexible capacity Supports FDD or TDD spectrum Regular data Cat-M1 Data (User 1) Cat-M1 Data (User 2) Data transmissionScheduling Initial cell search and acquisition
  16. 16. 16 Cat-NB1 (NB-IoT) flexible deployment options Dedicated NB carrier — supports FDD spectrum only in Rel-13 In-band Utilizing single Resource Block (180 kHz) within a normal LTE carrier Utilizing unused resource blocks within a LTE carrier’s guard-band Guard-band Utilizing stand-alone 200 kHz carrier, e.g. re-farming spectrum currently used by GERAN systems Standalone New optimized NB-IoT synchronization, control, and data channels NB-IoT Regular LTE Data Regular LTE Data NB-IoTNB-IoT Guard-band Guard-band NB-IoT
  17. 17. 17 Delivering IoT optimizations to the network architecture Also part of 3GPP Release 13 Optional optimizations so that mobile operators can effectively balance CAPEX vs. OPEX decisions Simplified Core Network (EPC-lite) Reduced functionality, e.g. limited mobility and no voice, makes possible for integrating network functions into a single entity More efficient signaling To support a larger number of devices per cell with new features such as group-based paging and messaging Enhanced resource management Such as optimizations to allow a large set of devices to share the same subscription, e.g. all the water meters in a city P-GW MME S-GW
  18. 18. 18 Small cells add value to LTE IoT deployments More deployment options Leveraging neutral hosts to provide IoT connectivity in shared/unlicensed spectrum (e.g. MulteFire) Longer battery life Allowing devices to reduce uplink transmit power, minimizing overall power consumption Improved coverage Bringing the network closer for deeper reach indoors and more reliable connectivity Venues Industrial Residential Enterprise/Buildings Cities
  19. 19. 19 Providing an end-to-end LTE IoT platform To simplify the deployment and management of IoT services Simplified service management Billing/cost mgmt. Remote provisioning Embedded SIM (eUICC) Real-time diagnostics Optimized LTE connectivity Reduced complexity Lower power Deeper coverage Simplified device development Development platforms Certified modules Certified devices Simplified application development Standardized protocols Interoperability End-to-end security e.g. oneM2M Simplified network architecture Reduced functionality Optimized signaling Virtualization
  20. 20. Roadmap to 5G will bring even more opportunities for the Internet of Things
  21. 21. 21 We are continuing to evolve NB-IoT beyond Release 13 The foundation to Narrowband 5G Broadcast Allowing more efficient OTA firmware update for large number of devices, e.g. sensors, meters Positioning Providing location services for use cases such as mobile asset tracking and emergency call Mobility Enabling devices to monitor and report channel conditions for inter-cell handovers VoLTE Adding voice and options to support lower latency services
  22. 22. 22Based on target requirements for the envisioned 5G use cases Massive Internet of Things Mission-critical control Enhanced mobile broadband Deep coverage To reach challenging locations Ultra-low energy 10+ years of battery life Ultra-low complexity 10s of bits per second Ultra-high density 1 million nodes per Km2 Extreme capacity 10 Tbps per Km2 Extreme data rates Multi-Gigabits per second Deep awareness Discovery and optimization Extreme user mobility Or no mobility at all Ultra-low latency As low as 1 millisecond Ultra-high reliability <1 out of 100 million packets lost Strong security e.g. Health / government/ financial trusted We are also designing a new 5G NR air interface 5G NR will be scalable to an extreme variation of IoT requirements
  23. 23. 23 Bringing new capabilities for the massive IoT Time Frequency 1 Greater range and efficiency when using licensed spectrum, e.g. protected reference signals . Network time synchronization improves peer-to-peer efficiency Grant-free uplink Resource Spread Multiple Access (RSMA) Enables asynchronous, non-orthogonal, contention-based access that is well suited for sporadic uplink transmissions of small data bursts common in IoT use cases Coverage extension Multi-hop mesh with WAN management Overcomes uplink coverage issues due to low-power devices and challenging placements by enabling uplink data relayed via nearby devices; opportunity to reduce power/cost even further Mesh on unlicensed or partitioned with uplink licensed spectrum1 Direct access on licensed spectrum
  24. 24. 24 Also enabling new mission-critical control IoT services Industrial automation Robotics Aviation Autonomous vehicles Energy/ Smart grid Medical Strong e2e security Security enhancements to air interface, core network, & service layer across verticals1 1ms e2e latency Faster, more flexible frame structure; also new non-orthogonal uplink access Ultra-high availability Simultaneous links to both 5G and LTE for failure tolerance and extreme mobility Ultra-high reliability Ultra-reliable transmissions that can be time multiplexed with nominal traffic through puncturing 1 Also exploring alternative roots of trust beyond the SIM card
  25. 25. 25 Flexible 5G network architecture brings additional benefits Leveraging virtualized network functions to create optimized network slices • Configurable end-to-end connectivity per vertical • Modular, specialized network functions per services • Flexible subscription models • Dynamic control and user planes with more functionality at the edge • Multi-access core network will provide connectivity to LTE, NB-IOT, and 5G IoT Better cost/ Energy efficiency Optimized performance Flexible business models Dynamic creation of services Mobile broadband Massive IoT Mission-critical control
  26. 26. 26 5G standardization progressing for 2020 launch Note: Estimated commercial dates; 1 Forward compatibility with R16 and beyond 2016 20212017 2019 2020 20222015 2018 5G study items Continued LTE evolution in parallel with 5G 5G phase 2 5G-NR launch1 3GPP RAN workshop R17+ 5G evolution R16 5G WI’s R15 5G WI’s Learn more at: NB-IoT = foundation for NB-5G, 1st commercial deployments in 2017
  27. 27. Qualcomm is uniquely positioned to connect the Internet of Things An established leader today – pioneering tomorrow’s technologies
  28. 28. 28 Delivering a broad portfolio of technologies for the IoT To meet diverse connectivity and computing requirements Sensor core Display processing Media processing CPU Augmented reality GPU Camera processing DSP Security Power management Cognitive computing Audio processing 802.11ad Bluetooth Smart 802.11ac 3G 4G LTE 802.11n Powerline DSRC NFC GNSS/Location Bluetooth Mesh 5G Connectivity Computing
  29. 29. 29 Qualcomm Technologies’ LTE platform leadership A history of industry firsts 2010 2016Gen 1 Gen 2 Gen 3 Gen 4 Gen 5 Gen 6 LTE Multimode LTE voice (CSFB) LTE SoC 28nm LTE LTE CA 7-mode LTE LTE Broadcast LTE Dual SIM VoLTE Multimode 20nm LTE Cat10 modem LTE across all tiers Gigabit Class LTE LTE-U, LWA, 4x4 MIMO LTE Cat 12/13 FinFet LTE LAA, 4x CA 600Mbps LTE hotspot Cat 6 in smartphone Cat 9 SoC Qualcomm Technologies modem generation and feature
  30. 30. 30 Delivering 3G and 4G LTE solutions for the IoT today Established ecosystem partners with proven global solutions More than 100 design wins from over 60 manufacturers 1 Qualcomm MDM9x07-1: LTE Cat-1 modem for the Internet of Things • 4G/3G global band support (multimode/multiband) • Highly integrated to reduce cost / complexity • PSM enabling up to 10+ years battery life • Scalable to add voice, Wi-Fi, BT capabilities • Hardware-based security 1 Includes Qualcomm Snapdragon X5 LTE (9x07) and MDM9x07-1 modem, as of June 2016 Qualcomm Snapdragon, MDM9x07 and MDM9x07-1 are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
  31. 31. 31 Driving new LTE IoT technologies towards commercialization Rel-13 specification now complete for LTE Cat-M1 (eMTC) and Cat-NB1 (NB-IoT) Standards leadership Main contributor to eMTC and NB-IoT features Harmonized Industry on narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) specification Pioneering work on future IoT technologies, e.g. multi-hop to extend uplink coverage Prototyping new technologies PSM & eDRx simulations and system tests, as demonstrated at MWC 2016 Qualcomm MDM9206 Flexible chipset platform Common hardware solution to enable Cat-M1 and/or Cat-NB1 MDM9206 is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
  32. 32. 32 Delivering a scalable roadmap across all tiers & segments LTE from gigabit to micro-amp Cat-16 Fiber-like experience Cat-12 Redefining mainstream Cat-6 Entry-level MBB Cat-4 High-end IoT Core IoT-optimized modems Scaling up in performance and mobility Scaling down in complexity and power Cat-1 Cost-efficient, low power, scalable for IoT Cat-M1/NB1 Ultra-low power, long battery life, extended coverage X16 LTE X12 LTE X7 LTE X5 LTE 9x07-1 9206 Note: Showing DL UE categories. Snapdragon is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
  33. 33. 33 Wireless/OFDM technology and chipset leadership Pioneering new 5G technologies to meet extreme requirements End-to-end system approach with advanced prototypes Driving 5G from standardization to commercialization Leading global network experience and scale Providing the experience and scale that 5G demands Leading the world to 5G Investing in 5G for many years—building upon our leadership foundation
  34. 34. 34 Roadmap to 5G will bring even more opportunities for the Internet of Things including new mission-critical services Qualcomm is uniquely positioned to connect the Internet of Things and is leading the world to 5G In summary LTE is evolving to deliver a unified, scalable IoT platform that brings significant benefits over non-3GPP LPWA solutions Delivering new narrowband IoT technologies (Cat-M1/NB1) to lower complexity, increase battery life, and deepen coverage – establishes the foundation for Narrowband 5G Learn more at:
  35. 35. Questions? - Connect with Us @Qualcomm_tech BLOG
  36. 36. Follow us on: For more information, visit us at: & Nothing in these materials is an offer to sell any of the components or devices referenced herein. ©2016 Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its affiliated companies. All Rights Reserved. Qualcomm and Snapdragon are trademarks of Qualcomm Incorporated, registered in the United States and other countries. Other products and brand names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. References in this presentation to “Qualcomm” may mean Qualcomm Incorporated, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and/or other subsidiaries or business units within the Qualcomm corporate structure, as applicable. Qualcomm Incorporated includes Qualcomm’s licensing business, QTL, and the vast majority of its patent portfolio. Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Qualcomm Incorporated, operates, along with its subsidiaries, substantially all of Qualcomm’s engineering, research and development functions, and substantially all of its product and services businesses, including its semiconductor business, QCT. Thank you