Prof. Dr. Hanaa
Dr. Lobna Taher
Abd El- Azeem
The basal ganglia or basal nuclei
are large masses of grey matter
located within the central core
of white matter of the cerebral
It is composed of:
-Amygdaloid nuclear complex (or
-Substantia nigra (within the
Basal ganglia is important in coordination of movement
• It was described by the physician
Galen as ''shaking palsy" in 175 AD.
• In 1817 a detailed medical essay
was published on the subject by
London doctor James Parkinson.
• Jean-Martin Charcot was the first
to truly recognise the importance
of Dr.Parkinson's work and
renamed the disease which was
formerly named paralysis agitans
(shaking palsy) after him.
Mohamed Ali; the legend of
• It is a chronic degenerative
disorder that primarily affects
the neurons of the basal
• It is a syndrome that consists
of slowing down in the
initiation and execution of
movement (brady kinesia),
increased muscle tone
(rigidity), tremor and impaired
Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease
• The disease is found in all ethnic groups, but with geographical
differences in prevalence.
• It is more common in developed countries were people live longer.
The basal ganglia is the most affected
structure in parkinsonism.
The main pathological characteristics of
parkinsonism disease is cell death in substania
nigra and specially the ventral part of pars
compacta affecting up to 20% of the cells by
the time death occurs .
• substania nigra shows;
neuronal loss accompanied by death
of astrocytes (star-shaped glial cells)
and activation of microglia ( another
type of glial cells)
lewy bodies are key of pathological
feature of PD .
Antipsychotic drugs ,
Reduces the amount
of available striatal
There’s increase in
Excitatory activity of
Ach is inadequately
with arms flexed
Loss of postural
change in speech
• Facial appearance
• Speech problems
• Visual problems
• Fine motor function
• Autonomic disturbance