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THEIR THEORY Bordwell and Thompson noticed how the shots within filmscould link in different way. They identified four differentrelations between shots in the editing, they are: Graphic Spatial Temporal Rhythmic
GRAPHICThis is how the shots link through a common colour, shape,movement or object. Here are some graphic editing that is used : Graphic discontinuity: Contrasts in colour and footage type, movement and stillness, placement/shapes of focus figures. Graphic continuity: Centre of interest is constant through the cuts, maintaining the lighting level and avoiding strong colour contrast. Graphic match: Link between the shots due to graphic matches such as, shapes, objects and movement.
EXAMPLES OF GRAPHIC EDITING IN MUSIC VIDEOSIn this example from ‘Kill lies’ by reform the resistance, we are shown agraphic match. The same positions, lighting and facial features are the samein both shot but the person in the shot has changed.
TEMPORAL Temporal editing concerns the time of the action and contributes to the plots manipulation of storytime’ order, duration and frequency. The order of presentation of events can be manipulated, this changes the story plot relations whichinterrupt ‘temporal order’. Examples of this are flashbacks- this increases story knowledge and flash-forwards create an enigma. There are techniques used within temporal editing such as: An ellipsis (taking out certain partswhich are of no interest to the audience), effects (dissolves, wipes and fade signals)theses can show timechanging, ‘Empty frames’ (when a character walks into a frame from another) and lastly a cutaway(shot of another event elsewhere that does not last as long as the omitted action). The frequency of events in continuity editing tend to be shown only once. Repetition can provide a powerful ‘tool’ for building tension and expectation often to show‘explosive’ action.
EXAMPLES OF TEMPORAL EDITING IN MUSIC VIDEOSTemporal editing isn’t commonly found in music videos, apart from videosthat have a narrative and story plot. An example I found from ‘payphone’form Maroon 5 shows the use of temporal editing through a cutaway. Thisbrief cutaway(the character at the payphone) allows the story plot tocontinue in the previous scene (car chase) creating an ellipsis of the un-needed long car chase scene.
SPATIAL It concerns the space (setting/location) and relation between. Also themanipulation of different points through similarity, difference anddevelopment. (How to relate to create space)Relative sense of spacethrough editing. Continuity editing produces analytical’ space via an establishing shot(extreme long shot followed by smaller range (mid) shots.) Crosscutting (parallel editing) can emphasis action taking pace inseparate places. Showing the distance between characters.
EXAMPLE OF SPATIAL EDITING IN MUSIC VIDEOSThis example shows the space between the characters within thescene in the music video. Using long shots and mid shots, theaudience are able to establish the position and space between thecharacters, and recognise the things the characters are looking andlaughing at; the dancers.
RHYTHMIC This involves the editing being in time with the music cutting to the beat. The rhythm of the scene has a direct impact on the rhythm of the pace ofediting, such as in a trailer the beginning in slow in rhythm but steadily speeds upuntil its fast at the end, the editing is in time with this rhythm. A steady rhythm, will have all the shots with the same approx. same length. Longer shots give the audience a greater for reflection. Whereas, shorter shotsgive the audience no time to think.
EXAMPLES OF RHYTHMIC EDITING IN MUSIC VIDEOSlow motion is used in these shots, this elongates theshots making the shots more dramatic and allowing theaudience to reflect on what is happening.The long shots also sync with the slow beat of the song,which helps cut of the shots with the rhythm of themusic.