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Dangerous Goods Emergency Action Codes

Its All about the Hazardous goods and it Emergency action when in Hazardous situation. Its introduction only. Want more info please refer the 'Dangerous-Goods-2015' and Wikipedia please.

Dangerous Goods Emergency Action Codes

  1. 1. DANGEROUS GOODS EMERGENCY ACTION CODES RAGAVENDAR ANANDAJOTHI
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Emergency Action codes (EACs), also known as Hazchem codes, are for the use of the emergency services in conjunction with Emergency Action Code Cards. EACs indicate to the emergency services actions that may be necessary, during the first few minutes of an incident involving dangerous goods, should the officer in charge of the incident deem it necessary to take immediate actions.
  3. 3. SCOPE OF THIS SESSION  Hazmat & Classification  EAC & Application
  4. 4. HAZMAT & CLASSIFICATIONS 1. Danger Labels- Overview 2. Hazardous Goods- Overviews 3. Classes Of Haz Goods- In detail
  5. 5. DANGER LABELS The above labels will be shown during the transport of dangerous goods.
  6. 6. HAZARDOUS GOODS Dangerous goods or hazardous goods are solids, liquids, or gases that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment.,
  7. 7. CLASSES OF HAZARDAS GOODS 1. Explosives 2. Gases 3. Flammable Liquids 4. Flammable Solids 5. Oxidizing Substances 6. Toxic & Infectious Substances 7. Radioactive Material 8. Corrosives 9. Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods
  8. 8. CLASS 1. EXPLOSIVE SUBSTANCES OR ARTICLES Explosives are materials or items which have the ability to rapidly conflagrate or detonate as a consequence of chemical reaction.
  9. 9. 1.1 Mass explosion Possible Ex; Mercury(II) fulminate 1.2 Projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard Ex:Detonators for ammunition 1.3 minor Ex; Nitrocellulose, Distress flash
  10. 10. Blasting Agent, very insensitive. Ex:Explosive, blasting, type B or Agent blasting, Type B Minor explosion hazard Ex; 5- Mercaptotetraz ol-1-acetic acid Explosives, extremely insensitive, no mass explosions Ex: Articles, explosive, extremely insensitive or Articles, EEI
  11. 11. GLASS 2 – GASES Gases are defined by dangerous goods regulations as substances which have a vapour pressure of 300 kPa or greater at 50°c or which are completely gaseous at 20°c at standard atmospheric pressure, and items containing these substances. Ex:Compressed gas.
  12. 12. 2.1 Flammable gases 2.2 Non-flammable, non-toxic gases (METHANE) (Corbon Dioxide) 2.3 Toxic gases (NO2, CO)
  13. 13. CLASS 3 – FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS Flammable liquids are defined by dangerous goods regulations as liquids, mixtures of liquids or liquids containing solids in solution or suspension which give off a flammable vapour (have a flash point) at temperatures of not more than 60-65°C, liquids offered for transport at temperatures at or above their flash point or substances transported at elevated temperatures in a liquid state and which give off a flammable vapour at a temperature at or below the maximum transport temperature.
  14. 14. Ex: Ethanol, Diesel
  15. 15. CLASS 4 – FLAMMABLE SOLIDS Flammable solids; substances liable to spontaneous combustion; substances which emit flammable gases when in contact with water. Ex: Paraformaldehyde.
  16. 16. CLASS 4.1 – FLAMMABLE SOLIDS, SELF- REACTIVE SUBSTANCES AND DESENSITIZED EXPLOSIVES Solids which, under conditions encountered in transport, are readily combustible or may cause or contribute to fire through friction; self-reactive substances (solids and liquids) which are liable to undergo a strongly exothermic reaction; solid desensitized explosives which may explode if not diluted sufficiently
  17. 17. CLASS 4.2 – SUBSTANCES LIABLE TO SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION Substances (solids and liquids) which are liable to spontaneous heating under normal conditions encountered in transport, or to heating up in contact with air, and being then liable to catch fire; Ex: White phosphorus
  18. 18. CLASS 4.3 – SUBSTANCES WHICH, IN CONTACT WITH WATER, EMIT FLAMMABLE GASES Substances (solids and liquids) which, by interaction with water, are liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable gases in dangerous quantities. Ex: Sodium
  19. 19. CLASS 5 OXIDIZER  Oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize ... The international pictogram for oxidising chemicals.Common oxidizing agents are oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and halogens.  The usual source of oxygen for burning is air. However, oxidizing materials can supply combustible substances with oxygen and support a fire even when air is not present.
  20. 20. CLASS 5.1 OXIDIZING SUBSTANCES Material that may, generally by yielding oxygen, cause or enhance the combustion of other materials. Ex. Calcium chlorate
  21. 21. CLASS 5.2 – ORGANIC PEROXIDES An organic peroxide is any organic (carbon- containing) compound having two oxygen atoms joined together (-O-O-). This chemical group is called a "peroxy" group. Organic peroxides can be severe fire and explosion hazards. Ex. Benzoyl peroxide
  22. 22. CLASS 6.1 – TOXIC SUBSTANCES  Poisonous material is a material, other than a gas, which is known to be so toxic to humans as to afford a hazard to health during transportation, or which, in the absence of adequate data on human toxicity. Ex: Chloroform
  23. 23. EX. TEAR GAS (CHLOROBENZALMALONONITRILE /CS GAS)
  24. 24. CLASS 6.2 – INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES Biological hazards, also known as biohazards, refer to biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, primarily that of humans. This can include medical waste or samples of a microorganism, virus or toxin (from a biological source) that can affect human health. It can also include substances harmful to other animals.
  25. 25. EX. NEEDLES, BIOWASTE
  26. 26. CLASS 7 – RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL  Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) consist of materials, usually industrial wastes or by- products enriched with radioactive elements found in the environment, such as uranium, thorium and potassium and any of their decay products, such as radium and radon.[1]
  27. 27. EX. RADIUM 226, 228 AND RADON 222
  28. 28. CLASS 8 – CORROSIVE SUBSTANCE  A corrosive material is a liquid or solid that causes full thickness destruction of human skin at the site of contact within a specified period of time. Corrosives are materials that can attack and chemically destroy exposed body tissues. Corrosives can also damage or even destroy metal. They begin to cause damage as soon as they touch the skin, eyes, respiratory tract, digestive tract, or the metal. They might be hazardous in other ways too, depending on the particular corrosive material.  Most corrosives are either acids or bases. Common acids include hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, chromic acid, acetic acid and hydrofluoric acid. Common bases are ammonium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide (caustic potash) and sodium hydroxide (caustic soda).
  29. 29. EX. HYDROCHLORIC ACID, SULFURIC ACID, NITRIC ACID, CHROMIC ACID
  30. 30. CLASS 9 – MISCELLANEOUS DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES AND ARTICLES  Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods are substances and articles which during transport present a danger or hazard not covered by other 8 classes. This class encompasses, but is not limited to, environmentally hazardous substances, substances that are transported at elevated temperatures, miscellaneous articles and substances, genetically modified organisms and micro-organisms and (depending on the method of transport) magnetized materials and aviation regulated substances. Ex: Dry ice, Lithium Batteries
  31. 31. COMMONLY TRANSPORTED CLASS 9 DANGEROUS GOODS INCLUDE MARINE POLLUTANTS SUCH AS ZINC OXIDE, LITHIUM ION BATTERIES, GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS, AIR BAG MODULES AND MOTOR ENGINES.
  32. 32. OTHER LABLES Environmentally hazardous substance mark. Ex; Pesticides, lead, contaminated water, mercury, carbon monoxide, tobacco smoke and asbestos
  33. 33. Temperatures equal to or exceeding 100°C in a liquid state / at temperatures equal or exceeding 240°C in a solid state. Elevated temperature substances
  34. 34. DANGER THIS UNIT IS UNDER FUMIGATION WITH ( fumigant name* ) APPLIED ON ( date* ) ( time* ) VENTILATED ON ( date* ) DO NOT ENTER Fumigation warning sign Fumigation is a method of using a lethal gas to exterminate pests within an enclosed space. Ex: Methyl isocyanate, PH3
  35. 35. Risk of Asphyxiation warning sign Hazards with inert gases and the risks of asphyxiation are well established. An occasional cause of accidental death in humans, inert gas asphyxia with gases including helium, nitrogen, methane, and argon, has been used as a suicide method. Ex: Oil tankers (Inerting system)
  36. 36. EMERGENCY ACTION CODES & APPLICATION
  37. 37. EMERGENCY ACTION CODES & APPLICATION  Overview  Structure of EAC  Assigning Of EAC  Application of EAC in emergency service
  38. 38. EXPLANATIONS Column 1: United Nations (UN) Number The identification number shown in the first column of the list is that allocated by the United Nations. Column 2: Substance The names of substances in the second column of the list are by‘Proper Shipping Names’. Column 3: Emergency Action Code (EAC)Emergency Action Codes (commonly known as Hazchem codes) are designed to be used by the emergency services in conjunction with Emergency Action Code Cards, which are intended to be carried by emergency service personnel. The cards indicate the action that may be necessary (except additional personal protection (APP) and the use of alcohol resistant foam) during the first few minutes of an incident.
  39. 39. Column 4: Advice on Additional Personal Protection (APP) Column 5: Hazards This is sub-divided to show the primary hazard of the substance, which determines the Class into which the substance is assigned. Column 6: Hazard Identification Number (HIN) Consists of two or three figures. in general, the figures indicate the following hazards.
  40. 40. Column 6: Hazard Identification Number (HIN) • 2 Emissions of gas. • 3 Flammability of liquids (vapours) and gases or self-heating liquids. • 4 Flammability of solids or self-heating solids. • 5 Oxidizing (fire-intensifying) effect • 6 Toxicity (or risk of infection) • 7 Radioactivity • 8 Corrosivity • 9 Risk of spontaneous, violent reaction.  Doubling of a figure indicates an intensification of that particular hazard.  If the letter ‘X’ prefixes a hazard identification number, this indicates that the substance will react dangerously with water. For these substances, water may only be used with the approval of experts. Ex: X432(Ex: PYROPHORIC) , X88(Ex:SULPHUR CHLORIDES)
  41. 41. STRUCTURE OF EAC  The following procedure shall be used to assign EACs when each of the dangerous goods comprising the multi-load is listed for carriage in a tank under RID or ADR. 1st character of the code: The number forming the first character of the code for a multi- load is the highest of the numbers occurring in the EACs for the individual dangerous goods.
  42. 42. 2nd Character of the code: The letter forming the second character of the code shall be determined from the first letter of the EAC for each of the dangerous goods from the chart below. Letter ‘E’  The letter ‘E’ shall be included as the third character in the multi- load.  EAC shall be just a two character code determined from paragraphs.
  43. 43. P R S T W X Y Z P P P P P W W W W R P R P R W X W X S P P S S W W Y Y T P R S T W X Y Z W W W W W W W W W X W X W X W X W X Y W W Y Y W W Y Y Z W X Y Z W X Y Z Code chart for the determination of emergency action codes for multi-loads
  44. 44. ASSIGNING EAC  The codes allocated and shown in the list apply to tank transport and carriage in bulk of the single substance by road or rail except.. These codes will not necessarily apply for non-transport incidents although they may be used to provide some indication of the action that may be necessary. 2) Radioactive materials have not been allocated emergency action codes.
  45. 45.  Radioactive materials have not been allocated emergency action codes.. stipulate that transport units, containers or wagons carrying packaged radioactive material with a single UN number, required to be carried under exclusive use and with no other dangerous goods, display orange-coloured plates bearing the appropriate hazard identification number (HIN) and UN number.  The prefix ‘∙’ will sometimes appear before the EAC in the third column, e.g. UN 1193 Ethyl Methyl Ketone appears as ∙2YE. The ‘∙’ here indicates to the emergency services that alcohol resistant foam is the preferred firefighting medium.
  46. 46.  But this prefix shall not be displayed on plates, i.e. EACs displayed on road or rail vehicles will either be two characters without an ‘E’ or three characters including an ‘E’. In a similar way an APP code will sometimes appear in the 4th column of the List at Section 4 indicating additional information for the emergency services but again this shall not be displayed on plates.  In some cases, where there is more than one EAC for a single UN number, it will be necessary to determine the EAC by reference to the packing group, e.g. for UN 1224 – the EAC will be 3YE for ketones of packing group II whereas the EAC will be  3Y for ketones of packing group III. In these cases the relevant packing groups will be identified in the ‘Substance’ column.
  47. 47. EXAMPLE- MULTI LOAD PRODUCT Three substances to be carried as a multi-load, having emergency action codes of 3Y, 2S and 4WE 1st Character (number)  The first character of the EAC for each of the three substances is 3, 2 and 4. The highest number must be taken as the first character of the code for the multi-load and therefore the first character shall be 4
  48. 48. 2nd Character (letter) The second character of the code for the three substances shall therefore be W. P R S T W X Y Z P P P P P W W W W R P R P R W X W X S P P S S W W Y Y T P R S T W X Y Z W W W W W W W W W X W X W X W X W X Y W W Y Y W W Y Y Z W X Y Z W X Y Z Y S Y Y W W 1st 2nd
  49. 49. Letter ‘E’  The third substance has an ‘E’ as a third character and therefore the multi-load shall also have an ‘E’. 4 W E  The resultant emergency action code for the three substances carried as a multi-load shall therefore be 4WE.
  50. 50. APPLICATION OF EMERGENCY ACTION CODES FOR THE EMERGENCY SERVICES 1.Extinguishing Media The firefighting extinguishing medium is determined by reference to the first character of the EAC as follows:  1 denotes coarse water spray  2 denotes fine water spray  3 denotes normal foam i.e. protein based foam that is not alcohol resistant  4 denotes dry agent – water MUST NOT be allowed to come into contact with substance
  51. 51. 2. Personal Protection S, T, Y or Z normal firefighting clothing is appropriate. P, R, W or X chemical protective clothing with liquid tight connections for whole body. Violent Reaction- Where the second character of the EAC is a P, S, W or Y there is a danger that the substance can be violently or explosively reactive. This danger may be present due to one of the following.
  52. 52. VIOLENT:-  Violent or explosive decomposition of the material.  Gases and flammable liquids with a flash point below 60°C.  The rapid acceleration of combustion due to the involvement of an oxidizer.  A reaction with water which is itself violent, and may also evolve flammable gases.
  53. 53. CONTAIN & DILUTE W, X, Y or Z:- spillages, contaminated fire and decontamination run-off should be prevented from entering drains and surface and groundwater's. P, R, S or T:- Immediate threat to people, spillages and decontamination run-off may be washed to drains with large quantities of water. Ref ‘’Dangerous-Goods-2015’’ for more details
  54. 54. E “PUBLIC SAFETY HAZARD” An ‘E’ following the first two characters of an EAC indicates that there may be a public safety hazard outside the immediate area of the incident, and that the following actions should be considered.  People should be warned to stay indoors with all doors and windows closed, preferably in rooms upstairs and facing away from the incident. Ignition sources should be eliminated and any ventilation stopped.  All non-essential personnel should be instructed to move at least 250 metres away from the incident.  Police and Fire and Rescue Service incident commanders should consult each other and with a product expert, or with a source of product expertise.
  55. 55. EVACUATION  The possible need for subsequent evacuation should be considered, but it should be remembered that in most cases it will be safer to remain in a building than to evacuate. ------------------------------------------xxxxx--------------------------------------------
  56. 56. EXAMPLE:- ‘AVIATION TURBINE FUEL’ 3- Foam Y- Violent, BA & Fire Kit required, Contain. 1863-FUEL, AVIATION, TURBINE ENGINE, packing group III. 30- Flammability of liquids (vapours) and gases or self-heating liquids. 3Y 1863 USE ONLY DCP Chem. Co xx-xxxxx-xx
  57. 57. IMPORTANT CONTACT NUMBERS Local Fire Stations:- (Here add your local numbers for EMG contacts) Pollution Control Board:-

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