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Techniques to teach drama in a language classroom


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Teaching Drama:
Techniques to Teach Drama in a Language Classroom
Drama is specific mode of fiction represented in performance. It is an important genre. It consists of various emotions. Drama is a potential resource to create wonderful activities to maximize language learning in the classroom with full of fun. Language learning should be a matter of fun. It is totally non-serious thing. Pupil should enjoy a drama class.

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Techniques to teach drama in a language classroom

  1. 1. Teaching Drama Techniques to Teach Drama in a Language Classroom “ Language through Literature ” Rajeev Ranjan English Language Teacher B.ED(ENG)& PGDTE English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad Email. Id:- 01/20/11
  2. 2. Dramatists <ul><li>William Shakespeare </li></ul><ul><li>Anton Chekhov </li></ul>01/20/11
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Using drama to teach English results in real communication involving ideas, emotions, feelings appropriateness and adaptability; in short an opportunity to use language in operation which is absent in a conventional language class. Such activities add to the teachers' repertoire of pedagogic strategies giving them a wider option of learner-centered activities to chose from for classroom teaching, thereby augmenting their efficiency in teaching English. </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. X, No. 10, October 2004 </li></ul>01/20/11
  4. 4. Benefits of Using Drama in the Language Classroom <ul><li>Provides a context for listening and meaningful language production </li></ul><ul><li>Leads the learners to use their language resource </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance learners linguistics ability </li></ul><ul><li>Provides situations for reading and writing </li></ul><ul><li>Useful to teach literary texts through analysis of plot , characters and styles </li></ul><ul><li>Involves learners more positively and actively </li></ul>01/20/11
  5. 5. IVANOV A monologue from the play by Anton Chekhov <ul><li>This translation by Marian Fell was first published in 1912 by Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. It is now a public domain work and may be performed without royalties. </li></ul>01/20/11
  6. 6. IVANOV: I used to have a workman called Simon, you remember him. Once, at threshing time, to show the girls how strong he was, he loaded himself with two sacks of rye, and broke his back. He died soon after. I think I have broken my back also. First I went to school, then to the university, then came the cares of this estate, all my plans-- I did not believe what others did ; did not marry as others did; I worked passionately, risked everything ; no one else, as you know, threw their money away to right and left as I did. So I heaped the burdens on my back, and it broke. We are all heroes at twenty, ready to attack anything, to do everything, and at thirty are worn-out, useless men. Only a man equally miserable and suffering, as Paul is, could love or esteem me now. Good God! How I loathe myself! How bitterly I hate my voice, my hands, my thoughts, these clothes, each step I take! How ridiculous it is, how disgusting! Less than a year ago I was healthy and strong, full of pride and energy and enthusiasm. I worked with these hands here, and my words could move the dullest man to tears . -------------------------------------Next 01/20/11
  7. 7. I could weep with sorrow, and grow indignant at the sight of wrong. I could feel the glow of inspiration, and understand the beauty and romance of the silent nights which I used to watch through from evening until dawn, sitting at my work-table, and giving my soul up to dreams. I believed in a bright future then, and looked into it as trustfully as a child looks into its mothers eyes. And now ... oh, I am tired and without hope; I spend my days and nights in idleness; I have no control over my feet and brain. My estate is ruined; my woods are falling under the blows of the axe. And what can I think of my treatment of Sarah? I promised her love and happiness forever; I opened her eyes to the promise of a future such as she had never dreamed of. She believed me, and though for five years I have seen her sinking under the weight of her sacrifices to me, and losing her strength in her struggles with her conscience, God knows she has never given me one angry look, or uttered one word of reproach. What is the result? That I don't love her! She is suffering; her days are numbered; yet I fly like a contemptible coward from her white face, her sunken chest, and her pleading eyes. What is the matter with me? I can't understand it. The easiest way out would be a bullet through the head ! 01/20/11
  8. 8. Activity for Teaching Language through Drama <ul><li>A teacher can use different strategies for teaching English through Drama in a language classroom. It depends on teachers’ creativity, his/her innovative mind. These activities will suit for Intermediate level students in Indian context . To quote Gavin Bolton (in Dougill J. 1987), &quot;drama is a unique tool, vital for language development&quot; as it simulates reality and develops self expression”. </li></ul>01/20/11
  9. 9. A Warm-up Game <ul><li>Task One </li></ul><ul><li>Objective: T o provoke interest in the learners about a play. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher will divide the class into groups .S/he asks learners to come up on the stage .One learner will act like a hero of a famous movie and s/he enacts mime of a particular scene and rest of the learners will guess the scene. If a group guesses the right answers within a stipulated time, let us say, 2 minutes, they will be given one point. </li></ul>01/20/11
  10. 10. Pictures <ul><li>A Young Man Talking on mobile phone </li></ul><ul><li>A Man is talking and working on laptop </li></ul>01/20/11
  11. 11. Task Two Objective: To develop Listening and Speaking skills . <ul><li>Teacher divides learners in pairs and asks learners to talk on mobile phone on any topic. Teacher will instruct about time slot for this activity. In this activity, learners are free to say whatever they like, but the others will have to retain what is said by the speaker and continue the conversation accordingly. </li></ul>01/20/11
  12. 12. Task Three: Part one Speaking Tasks <ul><li>Objective: To develop Speaking Skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher will write this sentence “ I did not believe what others did ” on the black board. Now teacher asks learners to work in pairs, discuss on this sentence for five minutes, write your friend and your own points in your notebook and then one of them will speak about his/her view point in this topic. Teacher will give some guiding questions which helps the learners to think on this topic like--------------------------------- </li></ul>01/20/11
  13. 13. Elicitation Technique <ul><li>What do you think about this statement? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we believe others? </li></ul><ul><li>In what sense has the speaker said this? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the speaker happy or sad? Why do you think so? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we follow others? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we follow others blindly? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the speaker a courageous and strong minded person? </li></ul><ul><li>In what context did the speaker give this statement? </li></ul>01/20/11
  14. 14. Task Three :Part Two <ul><li>Objective: Develop Speaking Skills through promoting group discussion in the class. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>“ We are all heroes at twenty, ready to attack anything, to do everything, and at thirty are worn-out, useless men”. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher divides learners into four groups and gives each group a distinct name from scholars, players, famous leaders, and famous leaders. Chair will be arranged as a round table. Each group will select a leader. They will discuss in their own group, later on leader of each group will speak to the whole class. Teacher gives ten minutes to discuss and 4-5 minutes to speak. Teacher monitors the whole class, move around the group, and checks whether everyone is participating in this discussion or not. Teacher will guide students and try to make conscious them on some points by giving guiding questions. </li></ul>01/20/11
  15. 15. Guiding questions <ul><li>Is it true in real life situation? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does he think like this? </li></ul><ul><li>Is he pessimistic or optimistic? What do you think? Give reasons. You can say what do you really think and find in your life? There is nothing like wrong and right points. </li></ul><ul><li>Is he a happy or sad person? How would you say so? </li></ul>01/20/11
  16. 16. Task Four :Writing Tasks   Task Four: Part one <ul><li>Objective: To develop Writing Skills . </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of person was Ivanov? Discuss with your friend and write 100 words about his character. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>This activity will enable the learners to develop writing skill. It will increase peer interactions and peer correction in the class. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher asks learners to work in pairs and write 100 words about Ivanov’s character. It is a 10-minute activity. Teacher will ask learners to exchange their note book with other classmates’ note and make necessary change like write correct words, grammar etc. Teacher helps the learners with some guiding questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher presents another piece of well developed model of characterization. It will help learners, what should be the gradation of the characterization. They will be able to put right information about a character. </li></ul>01/20/11
  17. 17. Task four :Part Two <ul><li>Ivanov talks so much about his wife. What kind of wife she is? Is she devoted to her husband or is she a cheater? Talk to your partner about Ivanov’s wife and write her wife’s characteristic features in about 5o words. </li></ul>01/20/11
  18. 18. Task Four: Part Three   <ul><li>Do you believe in love or arranged marriage? Suppose you are going to marry very soon. You are looking for a number of qualities in your wife/husband. Write an article in about 150 words on your Ideal husband/ Wife . You can discuss with your friend. You should include all these points like: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical beauty: fair, black , long , short ,lean and thin , fatty </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral quality: talkative, friendly, caring, devoted, faithful, introvert, extrovert etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>Family background </li></ul><ul><li>Any other qualities you would like to mention. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>01/20/11
  19. 19. Task Five: Part One Grammar: Past Tense   <ul><li>Teacher reads a biography of famous person in which many past incidents have been included like his habits, his interest, and his likes and dislikes etc. Teacher asks the learners to listen carefully. The text will be short so the interest of the learners is sustained. Now teacher asks learners to list all his habits, likes, dislikes and his activity which were mentioned in the text. Then teacher explains rule of past tense by using elicitation technique in the class. Further the teacher will ask students to collect all these information about Ivanov from the text. It will directly connect the learners to present knowledge e.g. I worked passionately, so I heaped the burdens on my back. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher gives clear instruction to the students, about time and what are they going to do. </li></ul>01/20/11
  20. 20. Task Five: Part two Vocabulary <ul><li>Objective : To enable the learners to identify different types of feelings like happiness and sadness used in the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Many words have been used in this text, which have negative meaning or which denote negative quality of a person, like ‘miserable and suffering, hate, bitterly etc. Can you list them into your notebook? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Many words have been used in the text which has positive meaning. Some of these words show positive aspects of human beings like happiness, confidence. Can you list them? </li></ul>01/20/11
  21. 21. Task Five : Part Three <ul><li>After above mentioned tasks, the students will have sound knowledge of the meaning of the words in the text. Now teacher gives some words and asks learners to give antonyms. </li></ul><ul><li>Give antonyms of these words. One has been done for you. Strong-weak </li></ul><ul><li>back, passionately, believe, love, bitterly, ridiculous, healthy, control, bright future, hope, forever, strength, coward, conscience. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A word can have similar meanings like, believe- faith. Can you give some synonym for these words? You can consult dictionary or you can ask your friend. You can work in pairs. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, strong, passionately, miserable, esteem, enthusiasm, bitterly, angry, coward. </li></ul>01/20/11
  22. 22. Word Power <ul><li>One word can be used as a noun, verb, adverb, adjectives etc . It depends on the context. </li></ul><ul><li>Passion </li></ul><ul><li>1. [n] - a feeling of strong sexual desire </li></ul><ul><li>2. [n] - strong feeling or emotion ,  Synonym: Feeling , Emotion .  Struggle  Struggle Strug&quot;gle, n. Great labor; forcible effort to obtain an object, or to avert an evil  Synonym: Endeavor; effort; contest; labor; difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>These are some words from the text. Choose ten words of your choice from the lists of words. Consult a dictionary and write their different types of use in different functions like noun, adjectives, adverb etc. You can talk to your friend.---------------------------continue--------------------------- </li></ul>01/20/11
  23. 23. Objectives: To develop word power <ul><li>Back, believe, passionately, miserable and suffering, love or esteem bitterly, ridiculous, disgusting! healthy , strong, energy ,enthusiasm, sorrow, beauty , romance ,silent bright future , trustfully , hope, idleness, control ruined, promised, forever, believed , sacrifices, strength struggles ,conscience, angry., Suffering, contemptible, coward, pleading . </li></ul>01/20/11
  24. 24. Reading Comprehension: Comprehension Questions   <ul><li>Who was his work man? </li></ul><ul><li>What he did to show a girl that he is strong? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did not he believe in others? </li></ul><ul><li>What was his profession? (i) Carpenter (ii) soldier (iii) doctor (iv) teacher. Give your reason to support your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>He said &quot; I believed in a bright future.&quot; What does it mean? If he is an optimistic, why did he use so many words like unhappy, disgusting etc? </li></ul><ul><li>What did he promise his wife? Is he able to keep his promise? </li></ul><ul><li>Is his wife an angry woman? How can you say? Support your answer. </li></ul>01/20/11
  25. 25. Comprehension <ul><li>In the second last line, he uttered this sentence. &quot;What is the matter with me? I can't understand it.&quot; Do you understand his problems? Discuss with your friend and write your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Select ten important words from this paragraph and write a summary in fifty words. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The easiest way out would be a bullet through the head” this is the last statement of Ivanov. Did he suicide himself? </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of emotion expressed in this text. Can you identify them? Do we have only two types of emotions happy and sad? Do you know any different kind of emotion? Discuss with your friend and write the answer in fifty words. </li></ul>01/20/11
  26. 26. Conclusion <ul><li>In fact many activities can be created on this text. But I have created very few on based of my experience, we can implement these tasks at Intermediate Level in ESL context. </li></ul><ul><li>English Language Teacher should design activities according to the age, social background , understanding level of learners. It can maximize learning English Language in the classroom. </li></ul>01/20/11
  27. 27. References <ul><li>Dougill, John (1987). Drama Activities for Language Learning. London: Macmillan </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson, K. & Morrow K. [Ed] (1981). Communication in the Classroom. London: Longman </li></ul><ul><li>Blatchford, Roy [Ed] (1986). The English Teacher's Handbook. London: Hutchinson </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. X, No. 10, October 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Maley, A. & Duff A (1982). Drama Teaching in Language Learning. London: CUP </li></ul><ul><li>www. </li></ul>01/20/11