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SPINAL CORD
DISEASES
Paraparesis
Quadriparesis

1
2

Where does the spinal cord
end?




Adult spinal cord - 45 cm long
Originates at the medulla
Ends at the conus medul...
Fetal life
3



Until the third month of fetal life
 Spinal



cord is as long as the vertebral canal

After the third ...
Adults
4




Vertebral column is longer than the spinal cord
Common cause of spinal cord disease
 Diseases

of the vert...
5

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6

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7

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8

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9

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10

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Adults – L 1
11





Spinal cord ends at the lower level of first
lumbar vertebral body
Cervical enlargement
 Innervate...
Cauda equina (horse's tail)
12



Different growth rates of the cord and spine
 Vertebral





column is longer than t...
13

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Spinal cord has 31 segments
16



8 cervical
 Only





seven cervical vertebrae

12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
 Sac...
Each segment
17



Ventral (motor) root
 Exit

from the vertebral column through
intervertebral foramina



Dorsal (sen...
18

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Ventral (anterior) roots
19



Alpha motor neuron axons
 To



the extrafusal striated muscle fibers

Gamma motor neuro...
Dorsal (posterior) roots
20



Sensory
 Convey

sensory information from the skin,
joints, and muscles to the central ne...
C1 to C7 spinal nerves
21



Exit above the same-numbered vertebral
bodies
 C2



spinal nerve root exits above C2 vert...
22

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SPINAL CORD LEVELS RELATIVE TO THE
VERTEBRAL BODIES
23

Spinal Cord Level
Upper cervical
Lower cervical
Upper thoracic
Low...
T4 SPINE
24




Level with the sixth CORD segment
T12
 S1cord

segment

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25

Hallmark of spinal cord
disease




Loss of motor and sensory functions below
the level of the lesion
Loss of autono...
Horizontal level in the body
26



Sensory level
 Damage



to the ascending spinothalamic tract

Motor level (i.e., pa...
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Spinal cord diseases

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Spinal cord diseases

  1. 1. www.medicinemcq.com SPINAL CORD DISEASES Paraparesis Quadriparesis 1
  2. 2. 2 Where does the spinal cord end?    Adult spinal cord - 45 cm long Originates at the medulla Ends at the conus medullaris www.medicinemcq.com
  3. 3. Fetal life 3  Until the third month of fetal life  Spinal  cord is as long as the vertebral canal After the third month of fetal life  Vertebral column elongates faster than the spinal cord www.medicinemcq.com
  4. 4. Adults 4   Vertebral column is longer than the spinal cord Common cause of spinal cord disease  Diseases of the vertebrae  Fracture  Infection  Secondary deposits www.medicinemcq.com
  5. 5. 5 www.medicinemcq.com
  6. 6. 6 www.medicinemcq.com
  7. 7. 7 www.medicinemcq.com
  8. 8. 8 www.medicinemcq.com
  9. 9. 9 www.medicinemcq.com
  10. 10. 10 www.medicinemcq.com
  11. 11. Adults – L 1 11   Spinal cord ends at the lower level of first lumbar vertebral body Cervical enlargement  Innervate  the upper extremities Lumbar enlargement  Innervate the lower limbs www.medicinemcq.com
  12. 12. Cauda equina (horse's tail) 12  Different growth rates of the cord and spine  Vertebral   column is longer than the cord Cord segments are above their corresponding vertebrae Lumbosacral region  Nerve roots descend almost vertically below the cord to form the cauda equina www.medicinemcq.com
  13. 13. 13 www.medicinemcq.com
  14. 14. 14 www.medicinemcq.com
  15. 15. 15 www.medicinemcq.com
  16. 16. Spinal cord has 31 segments 16  8 cervical  Only    seven cervical vertebrae 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral  Sacrum  formed by fusion of 5 vertebrae Few small coccygeal www.medicinemcq.com
  17. 17. Each segment 17  Ventral (motor) root  Exit from the vertebral column through intervertebral foramina  Dorsal (sensory) root www.medicinemcq.com
  18. 18. 18 www.medicinemcq.com
  19. 19. Ventral (anterior) roots 19  Alpha motor neuron axons  To  the extrafusal striated muscle fibers Gamma motor neuron axons  To the intrafusal muscle fibers www.medicinemcq.com
  20. 20. Dorsal (posterior) roots 20  Sensory  Convey sensory information from the skin, joints, and muscles to the central nervous system www.medicinemcq.com
  21. 21. C1 to C7 spinal nerves 21  Exit above the same-numbered vertebral bodies  C2  spinal nerve root exits above C2 vertebra C8 root  Exits  between vertebral bodies C7 and T1 All the subsequent spinal nerves exit below the same-numbered vertebral bodies. www.medicinemcq.com
  22. 22. 22 www.medicinemcq.com
  23. 23. SPINAL CORD LEVELS RELATIVE TO THE VERTEBRAL BODIES 23 Spinal Cord Level Upper cervical Lower cervical Upper thoracic Lower thoracic Lumbar Sacral Corresponding Vertebral Body Same as cord level 1 level higher 2 levels higher 2 to 3 levels higher T10-T12 T12-L1 www.medicinemcq.com
  24. 24. T4 SPINE 24   Level with the sixth CORD segment T12  S1cord segment www.medicinemcq.com
  25. 25. 25 Hallmark of spinal cord disease   Loss of motor and sensory functions below the level of the lesion Loss of autonomic functions occurs below the level of the lesion  Loss of urinary bladder tone  Paralytic ileus www.medicinemcq.com
  26. 26. Horizontal level in the body 26  Sensory level  Damage  to the ascending spinothalamic tract Motor level (i.e., paraplegia or quadriplegia)  Damage to the descending corticospinal and other motor tracts……….. For rest of the slides visit www.medicinemcq.com > Neurology www.medicinemcq.com

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