Modern instructional approaches like cooperative learning
and collaborative learning helps to deliver the teaching learning
process effectively. Cooperative learning is educational
approaches which aim to organize classroom activities into
academic and social learning experience. These are a great
number of cooperative learning techniques available. Among
them easy to implement structures are Think-pair-share and
Jigsaw. Learning collaborative learning is a situation in which
two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together.
The learning circle has been used to describe a group effort with
clear links to social change.
Cooperative learning is an instructional method that
encourages the student to work in groups to master material
presented by the teacher. It is a kind of teaching learning
strategy in which students learns together and complete common
goals. In this method students listen, argue, discuss, explain and
teach in their effort to teach each other and master the academic
content presented by the instructor. Group members are
responsible for making sure all members understand the
Cooperative learning method helps students to learn
from each other by creating small mixed group towards a
common purpose in academic subjects, both in classroom and in
other environment. It increases self confidence and
communication skills of the individual, strengthen power of
solving and critical thinking and student participation in the
process of education.
The important cooperative learning techniques are think-pair-
share and jigsaw learning.
The learning activity involves explaining answers/ideas to
another student. The instructor poses a question to the class.
Students write to response and then share it with a student
nearby. Students clarify their positions and discuss points of
agreement and disagreement. The instructor can use several
answers to illustrate important points or facilitate a whole class
1. Instructor poses questions to class
2. Students write a response(1-2minutes)
3. Students pair up with another student nearby
4. Each student explains his/her response to the other.
5. If they disagree, each clarifies his/her position and determine
how/why they disagree
Why use it?
1. Keep students engaged in large classes
2. Prime students for whole class discussion
3. Target key concepts for review
4. Enhance students metacognition -they become more aware of
gaps in their thinking
5. Student responses are feedback to the instructor about how they
are making sense of the material.
The jigsaw classroom is very simple to use. If you are
teacher, just follow these steps:
1. Divide students into 5-or 6 person jigsaw groups. The groups
should be diverse in terms of gender, ethnicity, race, and ability.
2. Appoint one student from each group as the leader. Initially,
this person should be the most mature student in the group.
3. Divide the day’s lesson into 5-6 groups. For example, if you
want history students to learn about Eleanor Roosevelt, you
might divide a short biography of her into stand-alone segments:
(1) Her childhood, (2) Her family life with Franklin and their
children, (3) Her life after Franklin and their children, (3) Her
life after Franklin contracted polio, (4) Her work in the White
House as First Lady, and (5) Her life and work after Franklin’s
4. Assign each student to learn one segment, making sure students
have direct access only to their own segment.
5. Give students time to read over their segment at least twice and
become familiar with it. There is no need for them to memorize
6. Form temporary “expert groups” by having one student from
each jigsaw group join other students assigned to the same
segment. Give students in these expert groups, time to discuss
the main points of their segment and to rehearse the
presentations they will make to their jigsaw group.
7. Bring the students back into their jigsaw groups.
8. Ask each student to present his or her segment to the group.
Encourage others in the group to ask questions for clarifications.
9. Float from group to group, observing the process. If any group
is having trouble (e.g., a member is dominating or disruptive),
make an appropriate intervention. Eventually, it’s best for the
group leader to handle this task. Leader can be trained by
whispering an instruction on how to intervene, until the leader
gets the hang of it.
10. At the end of the session, give a quiz on the material so that
students quickly come to realize that these sessions are not just
fun and games but really count.
Collaborative learning is a situation, in which two or more
people learn or attempt to learn something together. Unlike
individual learning, people engaged in collaborative learning
capitalize on one another’s resources and skills (asking one
another for information, evaluating one another’s ideas,
monitoring one another’s work). Collaborative learning
activities can include collaborative writing, group projects, joint
problem solving, debates, study teams, and other activities.
Collaborative learning is based on the following principles:
1. Working together results in a greater understanding than would
likely have occurred if one had worked independently.
2. Spoken and written interactions contribute to this increased
3. Participation is voluntary and must be freely entered into.
4. Some elements of understanding are unpredictable.
Collaborative learning group will experience different stages of
interaction as they to work together to complete a project,
Forming- getting to know each other.
Storming-struggling to determine how they will work together.
Norming- hopefully finding their niche within the team.
Performing- completing the project
THE LEARNING CIRCLE
It is highly interactive, participating structure for
organizing group work. The goal is to build, share, and express
knowledge through a process of open dialogue and deep
reflection around issues or problems with a focus on a shared
Online Learning Circles are teams of distance learners who
use technology to acquire a deeper understanding of areas of
Models of Learning Circle
Model:1 Open Agile Learning Circle
Includes four steps and four capacities
It is an agile system of project and team management. In the
open agile system the learning circle is simple and practical
model of effective learning, this model describes learning as a
series of four steps:
The four steps in the learning circle are reflection, learning,
planning and action.
Four capacities: Openness, Search, Love for the work,
Model: 2 Distributed Leadership and Collective
A learning circle is a form of distributed learning and
distributed leadership. It has been an essential part of recent
school reform approaches. No single person is teaching the
group, but rather the task of leading, teaching and learning is
distributed among all the participants.
The modern instructional strategies increase student’s
engagement and achievement. It can boost self esteem and
school attitude and fosters acceptance of students with diverse
needs. It helps to develop consideration and cooperation. All
these techniques refers to students working together to
accomplish a common goal or purpose.
1) Teaching of science – M.S. Yadav