TERMINOLOGY (acc.to glossary of
A graft is any tissue or organ used for implantation or
An autograft is a tissue transferred from one position to a
new position in the same individual.
Homograft: a graft between genetically similar individuals of
the same species.
Isograft: graft between genetically identical individuals,
Allograft. A tissue (bone) graft between individuals of the
same species but of nonidentical genetic disposition, an
allograft was formerly referred to as a homograft.
Xenograft is a tissue graft between members of different
Alloplast. A synthetic bone graft material: a bone graft
Attachment apparatus. The cementum, the periodontal
ligament and the alveolar bone.
Bone fill. The presence of bone tissue within a periodontal
osseous defect following therapy.
Repair: describes healing of a wound in response to injury in an
attempt to restore normal structure and function.
Regeneration. refers to the reproduction or reconstitution of a
lost or injured tissues that the architecture and function of the
lost or injured tissues are completely restored..
Periodontal regeneration is defined as the restoration of lost
periodontium or supporting tissues and includes formation of
new alveolar bone, new cementum, and new periodontal
• Re-attachment- was used to describe the regeneration of a fibrous
attachment to a root surface surgically or mechanically deprived of its
periodontal ligament tissue.
• New attachment was preferred in the situation where the fibrous
attachment was restored on a root surface deprived of its connective
tissue attachment due to the progression of periodontitis.
• Guided tissue regeneration is a method for the prevention of
epithelial migration along the cemental wall of the pocket and
maintaining space for clot stabilization.
BIOLOGY OF PERIODONTAL REGENERATION
POSSIBLE OUTCOMES OF A PERIODONTAL THERAPY:
New attachment with periodontal regeneration is the ideal
outcome of therapy because it results in obliteration of the
pocket and reconstruction of the periodontium .
However, the techniques available are not totally dependable, and
other therapeutic results may be seen as follows:
Healing with a long junctional epithelium, which can result even if
filling of bone has occurred.
Ankylosis of bone and tooth with resultant root resorption.
Recurrence of the pocket.
Any combination of these results.
• In 1976, Melcher in a review paper suggested that the type of cell
which repopulates the root surface after periodontal surgery
determines the nature of the attachment that will form.
• After flap surgery the curetted root surface may be repopulated by
four different types of cell :
• 1. Epithelial cells
• 2. Cells derived from the gingival connective tissue
• 3. Cells derived from the bone
• 4. Cells derived from the periodontal ligament.
PERIODONTAL WOUND HEALING
If the epithelium proliferates along
the root surface before other tissues
reach the area, the result will be long
If the cells from gingival
connective tissue are first to
populate the area, result will be
fibers parallel to the tooth surface &
remodelling of alveolar bone with
no attachment to the cementum.
If bone cells arrive first, root
resorption & ankylosis may occur.
When cells from the periodontal
ligament proliferate coronally, there
is new formation of cementum &
OBJECTIVES OF REGENERATIVE
– Pocket reduction;
– Clinical attachment gain;
– Bone fill of the osseous defect; and
– Regeneration of new cementum, PDL, and bone as
determined by histologic analysis.
– Establishment of healthy maintainable environment.
INDICATIONS OF REGENERATIVE
Deep Intraosseous Defects
– The deeper the defect , the greater amount of bone fill that can be
– Greater the number of osseous walls and the greater the support
and containment for the graft material, the greater will be the
The use of bone grafts may restore functional stability to such a degree as
to obviate the need for extraction.
Support for Critical Teeth
– Teeth severely weakened by loss of alveolar support can benefit
from the use of osseous grafts.
– This may be the case for an abutment tooth or those teeth that are
critical for the preservation of arch integrity.
Bone Defects Associated With Aggressive Periodontitis
These extensive lesions have been reported to respond very favourably
to osseous grafting, especially when grafting is combined with an
antibiotic, such as tetracycline.
• The use of osseous grafts to reconstruct bone architecture
allows placement of the gingival margin as close as possible to
its original position. Successful healing will result in minimal
apical displacement of the gingival margin.
– This indication applies mainly to class II furcation defects.
– Bone grafts, especially if used in conjunction with guided tissue
regeneration, have proven to be the therapeutic modality of
choice for treating this type of lesion.
ASSESSMENT OF PERIODONTAL
• Evidences of reconstruction of the marginal
periodontium can be obtained by
• Surgical re-entry or
• Histologic procedures.
• All of these methods have advantages and
• Consists of comparison of pre and post treatment pocket
probing and determination of clinical gingival findings.
• Determination of attachment level is more useful than probing
• Depth of the probe penetration in a periodontal pocket varies
according to the
• degree of the inflammatory changes at the base of the
• Probing force
• Therefore even though the forces used may be standardized with
the pressure sensitive probes, there is inherent margin of error in
this method that is difficult to overcome. Fowler and colleagues
(1982) have calculated this error to be 1.2mm.
• Therefore, clinical methods are subjected to errors.
• This reproducibility of probing may be facilitated in part by
using a grooved stent to guide the introduction of the probe
To detect changes in bone support over time, two or more
radiographs must be compared.
Radiographic evaluation of periodontal regeneration allows
assessment of the bone tissue adjacent to the tooth.
Standardized technique for reproducible positioning of the
film and tube is required.
The simplest methods for assessment of alveolar bone involve
direct measurements from the cemento-enamel junction to
the alveolar bone levels on radiographs.
• The surgical re-entry after a period of healing can give a
good view of the state of the bone crest that can be
compared with the view taken during the initial surgical
intervention and can also be subject to measurements.
• Models from the impression of the bone at the initial
surgery and later at reentery can be used to assess the
results of the therapy.
• This method is very useful but has two shortcomings:
• it requires a unnecessary second operation, and
• it does not show the type of attachment that exists (i.e.,
new attachment or long junctional epithelium
• Type of attachment can be detirmined only by histological analysis of
the tissue blocks obtained from the healed site.
• Ultimate standard to detect the presence of and to measure the extent
of periodontal regeneration
• For future histologic reference, notches can be placed clinically
• (1) at the most apical part of the calculus
• (2) real landmark that
determines whether new
attachment has taken place
is the base of the pocket
• (3) at the level of the
Disadvantages of histological examination:
The need to remove a tooth with its periodontium after successful treatment limits this method to
volunteers who need the extraction for prosthetic or other reasons and agree to the procedure.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE OUTCOME OF
• Attention has focused on some important
• Patient and
• Defect factors.
• Periodontal regeneration does not treat periodontitis,
but rather is an approach for regenerating defects that
have developed as a result of periodontitis.
– Therefore, appropriate periodontal treatment should always
be completed before periodontal regeneration is initiated
• The persistence of
• poor plaque control,
• high levels of bleeding upon probing in the dentition, as well as
• persistence of high loads of total bacteria or of specific
microbial pathogens (or complexes of pathogens)
have all been associated in a dose-dependent manner with poor
• Strongest potential influence on periodontal diseases.
– In general, poorly controlled diabetes appears to be associated
with an increased risk of loss of attachment and loss of bone.
– Well-controlled diabetics do not appear to be at an increased risk
• Some have suggested that endodontically treated teeth
may be less than ideal candidates for regenerative therapy.
• Others have suggested little relationship between pulp
status and regeneration. (Bjorn H et al. 1965)
• Increased tooth mobility as a factor influencing the
• rate of progression of periodontal disease,
• effect of therapy as well as maintenance,
has been examined in several studies.
• Fleszar et al. 1980, have reported a negative influence of
increased baseline mobility.
• They concluded that teeth with initially elevated tooth
mobility gained less attachment than teeth with initial low
mobility, regardless of the therapeutic modality rendered.
Other patient factors
• It has been suggested that other patient factors, genetics or
stress levels, may be associated with sub-optimal regenerative
– There is no evidence to suggest that age effects the outcome
following regenerative surgeries.
– No differences have been demonstrated when patients ages
27 to 44 were compared to patients ages 48 to 66 in terms of
outcomes following GTR surgery. (Machtel JP 1994)
Type of defect
• Regenerative therapy is limited mainly to intrabony
defects and class II furcations.
Morphology of the defect
• Defect morphology plays a major role in healing following
periodontal regenerative treatment of intrabony defects.
• Depth and width of the intrabony component of the defect
influence the amount of clinical attachment and bone gained at
The deeper the defect, the greater was the amount of clinical
improvements, while the wider the defect, the lower were the
attachment and bone gain. (Garrett et al. 1988; Tonetti et
DEEP DEFECT WIDE DEFECT
• Measured as the angle that the bony wall of the defect forms
with the long axis of the tooth.
• Cortellini and Tonetti (1999) demonstrated that defects with a
radiographic angle of 25º or less gained consistently more
attachment (1.6 mm on average) than defects of 37º or more.
NARROW ANGLE WIDE ANGLE
– Hence, it may be stated that defect morphology
expressed by a more acute angle of the defect (less
than 45⁰) results in a substantially better treatment
outcome than when the defect angle is greater.
• There is some evidence that 2 & 3wall infrabony defects
respond better to regenerative therapy than 1-wall
REQUIREMENTS FOR PREDICTABLE REGENERATION
(1) Undisturbed Healing
(2) Wound Stability
(3) Space Provision
(4) Root Biomodification
(5) Thorough Root Planing
(6) Preparation Of The Osseous Defects For New Attachment
(8) Flap Management
BONE GRAFTING TECHNIQUE
The following steps in the procedure provide a road map that leads toward success
most the time.
1. Remove all etiologic factors.
Local and systemic factors must be under control for grafts to be successful.
2. Stabilize teeth if necessary
Extremely mobile teeth that are going to be treated may benefit from provisional
stabilization for at least 6 months post surgically
3. Flap design with a plan for closure
Scalloped incisions with full gingival preservation are necessary to be able to
completely close the site
4. Degranulation of defect and flap
All granulomatous soft tissues should be removed from the bony walls of the defect
and the associated tooth surfaces. Inner aspect of the flap should be checked for
tissue tags and epithelial remnants.
5. Root preparation
It is essential that all calculus, bacterial plaque, other soft debris and altered
cementum be removed from the involved root surfaces
Loose placement of sutures, left untied, prior to the filling of the defect reduces
the possibility of displacing the graft material during the suturing process.
7. Condense graft materials well
Small increments of material are placed in the defect, gently packed into the
angles and base of the defect with small pluggers or curettes.
Useful in this regard are sterile plastic or Teflon-lined amalgam carriers to place
8. Fill to a realistic level.
Defects should be filled with the synthetic graft materials only to the level of
the defect walls.
There is little suggestion that overfilling with these materials results in
supracrestal bone formation. Overfilling may actually be counterproductive
in that it may preclude proper flap closure, thereby retarding healing and
possibly resulting in loss of the graft material.
9. Periodontal dressing.
The use of a firm, protective periodontal dressing for 10 days following
bone replacement graft surgery is suggested. It has become popular
not to use dressing for many periodontal surgical procedures.
10. Antibiotic coverage.
They are administered in therapeutic doses for the first 10 days
following surgery or until the patient can practice proper plaque
control in the area.
11. Postsurgical care
The patient is started immediately on gentle but thorough plaque-
control methods, including the use of antibacterial rinses, and is
scheduled for professional plaque control in the office as follows:
every week for first month, bimonthly for second month every 3
TYPES OF PERIODONTAL
Non graft associated new attachment Graft associated new attachment
• The rationale and techniques that must be considered for a successful
outcome in periodontal bone regeneration are;
(1) the removal of the junctional and pocket epithelium
(2) the prevention of their migration into the healing area after therapy
(3) clot stabilization, wound protection, and space creation
(4) guided tissue regeneration
(5) the biomodification of the root surface
(6) selection of the proper graft materials
(7) biologic mediators (growth factors) and enamel matrix proteins to enhance
or direct healing
(8) the combination of graft materials, membranes, and biologic mediators
used to enhance new attachment and bone growth.
NON GRAFT ASSOCIATED NEW ATTACHMENT
1. Removal of Junctional and Pocket Epithelium
The presence of junctional and pocket epithelium has been
perceived as a barrier to successful therapy because its presence
interferes with the direct apposition of connective tissue and
cementum, thus limiting the height to which periodontal fibers can
become inserted to the cementum.
Methods recommended to remove the junctional and pocket
• chemical agents
• surgical techniques.
• In subgingival curettage, all the epithelium lining the pocket together
with the underlying inflammatory tissue as well as the epithelial
attachment is removed.
• The tooth surface is carefully planed and the gingival tissue is
carefully readapted to the tooth, a blood clot being allowed to form
in the operated area.
• If the procedure is successful, the blood clot undergoes organization
with production of connective tissue.
• A layer of cementum forms on the tooth surface while bone
deposition takes place on the alveolar side, both surfaces having
periodontal fiber insertions.
• The depth of the crevice will then be situated at a new location on
the tooth, lying occlusally to the point of formation of the new tissue
(By Henry M. Goldman 1949)
• The excisional new attachment procedure consists of
an internal bevel incision performed with a surgical
knife, followed by removal of the excised tissue. No
attempt is made to elevate a flap.
• Glickman and Prichard have advocated performing a
gingivectomy to the crest of the alveolar bone and
debriding the defect.
(2) Prevention of Epithelial Migration
• Elimination of junctional and pocket epithelial may not be sufficient
because the epithelium from the excised margin may rapidly proliferate to
become interposed between the healing connective tissue and the
• excluding the epithelium by amputating the crown of the tooth and
covering the root with the flap (“root submergence”).
• total removal of the interdental papilla covering the defect and its
replacement with a free autogenous graft obtained from the palate. During
healing, the graft epithelium necroses and is slowly replaced by
proliferating epithelium from the gingival surface. The graft simply delays
the epithelium from proliferating into the healing area.
• coronally displaced flaps, which increase the distance between the
epithelial wound edge and the healing area.
3. Clot Stabilization, Wound Protection, and Space
• Graft materials, barrier membranes, and coronally displaced flaps
to the fact that these techniques protect the wound and create a
space for undisturbed and stable maturation of the clot.
• This hypothesis suggests that preservation of the root surface
fibrin clot interface prevents apical migration of the gingival
epithelium and allows for connective tissue attachment during the
early wound-healing period.
• The space can be created by using a titanium-reinforced expanded
polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane to prevent its collapse.
• For the study of reconstructive techniques, these membranes
were placed over experimentally created supraalveolar bone
defects in dogs, and considerable bone reconstruction was
4. Guided Tissue Regeneration
• The method for the prevention of epithelial migration along the
cemental wall of the pocket and maintaining space for clot
stabilization that has gained wide attention is the guided tissue
– This method derives from the classic studies of Nyman, Lindhe,
Karring, and Gottlow and is based on the assumption that only
the periodontal ligament cells have the potential for
regeneration of the attachment apparatus of the tooth.
• In 1976 – Melcher described the basic concept that led to
development of clinical technique of GTR. He said that
cells that repopulate the root surface after pdl surgery will
determine the type of attachment that forms on the root
• In 1982 – Nyman et al first described the clinical
procedure of GTR using a non absorbable barrier.
• In 1982 – W.L. Gore and associates, began
investigating materials that would limit the migration of
epithelial around dental implants and teeth.
• George Winter proposed that specific porosities in grew
with connective tissue and stopped or slowed the migration
of epithelial -> called, this phenomenon as “contact
• Following this, Nyman, lindhe and Karring introduced the
Millipore cellular acetate filter paper which provided
the first human histological evidence of pdl regeneration in
response to GTR.
• Guided tissue regeneration" (GTR) is based on a
principle of guiding the proliferation of the various
periodontal tissue components during healing following
• GTR involves the placement of a barrier covering the
periodontal defect in such a way that the gingival tissues
(epithelium and connective tissue) are prevented from
contacting the root surface during healing.
• At the same time, a space is formed between the barrier
and the root allowing periodontal ligament cells (PDL
cells) to produce new connective tissue attachment and
bone cells to produce new bone.
Narrow 2 or 3 walled infrabony defects.
• Circumferential defects.
• Class II furcation defects accompanied by a medium to long root trunk.
• Early class III furcation
• Augmentation of ridge deficiencies.
• Coverage of root recession.
• Osseous fill around immediate implant placement sites.
• Repair of apicoectomy defects.
• Repair of osseous defects associated with failing implants.
- Patient with poor oral hygiene.
- Generalised horizontal bone loss.
- Class III furcation defects or furcation with short root trunks.
- Advanced defects with a minimum amount of remaining periodontium.
- Multiple adjacent defects.
- Areas with inadequate zone of attached gingiva.
- Any medication or disease or condition that interferes with healing potential or
ability to perform home care.
- In case of Flap perforations and cases in which flap vascularity will be compromised.
Ideal characteristics of the barrier membrane
1)The material should be biocompatible.
2)It should have acceptable handling properties.
3)Should have the ability to adhere to the root surface.
4)Should promote tissue coverage with reduced barrier exposure
5)Should resist bacterial contamination.
6)Should promote selective cell proliferation with in the defect.
7)Should absorb at a rate that parallels regenerative tissue formation
i.e 4 weeks – 6 months.
Classification of GTR materials
1) Nonbioresorbable membrane.
Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)
Obtained in different shapes and sizes to suit proximal
space and facial/lingual surfaces of the furcation.
Non Resorbable Membranes
• They maintain their structural integrity, and,
consequently, the essential features they possess, for as
long as they are left in the tissues.
• This compositional and design stability provides the
operator with complete control over time of application,
with the potential to minimize variation in effectiveness
(Tatakis et al. 1999).
• They require a second surgical procedure for removal.
• Patient acceptance, time, cost, and possible morbidity
associated with any surgical procedure.
• The function of the barrier membrane is temporary and,
once the function is completed, there is no longer any
need for it to remain in place.
• Risk of latent or postsurgical bacterial contamination.
• Fluorocarbon polymer with exceptional inertness and
• Solid polytetrafluoroethylene is nonporous, does not allow tissue
ingrowth and does not elicit a foreign-body reaction in tissue.
• Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) polytetrafluoroethylene
subjected to tensile stress during manufacture, resulting in
differences in physical structure.
• It has a porous microstructure of solid nodes and fibrils.
• The size of the resulting fibrils and the spacing of the
interconnecting nodes can be controlled through changes in the
• The optimal size of fibrils and internodal distance depends on
the type of application the device is intended for.
• Three different ePTFE membrane qualities with different
porosities (internodal distances <8, 20–25 and 100 mm) were
• The material with the smallest internodal distance did not
integrate well with the surrounding soft tissue, leading to a lack
of stabilization of the membrane and more soft tissue ingrowth
from the side (Zellin and Linde 1996).
• The use of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene
devices has been associated with minor
complications such as :
• Pain, purulence
• Swelling and tissue sloughing, with an incidence
slightly higher than that reported for conventional
periodontal surgery (Tatakis et al. 1999).
Titanium reinforced ePTFE
• Titanium-reinforced membranes consist of a double
layer of ePTFE with a titanium framework interposed.
• The rigidity of the reinforced expanded
polytetrafluoroethylene device supports improved space
provision and maintenance.
• It is used in situations where bone formation is desired in
large defects or supracrestal defects, where conventional
pTFE donot adequately maintain space unless unless
supported by grafting materials.
Have been used successfully in
• Vertical ridge augmentation
• Large defects in the alveolar process
• Intrabony defects and in gingival recessions
• It is important to note that the surgical principles and
procedures that apply to nonresorbable membranes
also apply to resorbable barriers.
• The main differences will be in postoperative
considerations and a lack of a need for a secondary
removal surgery in most cases.
1. Raise a mucoperiosteal flap with vertical incisions, extending a
minimum of two teeth anteriorly and one tooth distally to the tooth
2. Debride the osseous defect
and thoroughly plane the roots.
3. Trim the membrane to the
approximate size of the area being treated.
The apical border of the material
should extend 3 to 4 mm apical to
the margin of the defect and laterally
2 to 3 mm beyond the defect.
The occlusal border of the membrane should be placed 2 mm apical to
the cementoenamel junction.
4. Suture the membrane tightly around the tooth with a sling suture.
5. Suture the flap back in its original position or slightly coronal to it,
using independent sutures interdentally and in the vertical incisions.
The flap should cover the membrane completely.
6. The use of periodontal dressings is optional,
and the patient is placed on antibiotic therapy
for 1 week.
7. After 4 to 6 weeks, the margin of the membrane may become
exposed. The membrane is removed carefully, minimizing trauma to
the underlying tissue. If it cannot be removed easily, the tissues are
anesthetized, and the material is surgically removed using a small
• The results obtained with the GTR technique
are enhanced when the technique is combined
with grafts placed in the defects
An illustration of “theoretical” complete
regeneration following Goretex membrane
placement. In reality at six weeks, when
membranes were removed, the regenerated
tissue was a red gelatinous tissue which did
not resemble architecturally the definitive
regenerated structures: this process takes
approximately 12 months.
The placement of an ePTFE membrane. The
open micropore surface is designed to slow
down the migration of large (relative to
fibroblasts) epithelial cells. The occlusive
“skirt” draped over the alveolus had a smaller
micropore structure designed to prevent
slender gingival fibroblasts from traversing the
membrane onto the root surface.
• They were intended to omit the surgery of membrane retrieval and
reduce the treatment time (El Helow and El Askary 2008).
• They include collagens such as:
Bio-Guide (Geistlich Biomaterials, Wolhusen, Switzerland)
Bio-mend (cross-linked bovine type I collagen)
Polyglactin 910 knitted mesh such as Vicryl (Ethicon, Norderstedt,
Polylactic acid such as Atrisorb (dl-lactide polymer,Atrix Laboratories
Inc., Fort Collins, CO);
37% polylactic acid
• Copolymer of polylactic and polyglycolic acid such as Resolut
XT (Gore and associates Inc., Flagstaff, AZ)
• Freeze-dried fascia lata
• Laminar bone barrier (Lambone, Pacific Coast Tissue Bank, Los
Angeles, CA) made from 100- to 300-mm thick sheets of
demineralized, freezeddried ethylene oxide sterilized cortical
• Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)
• PHB copolymerized with hydroxyvalerate
• PHB copolymerized with hydroxyvalerate and polyglactin 910
• No need for membrane removal surgery
• Simplified surgical procedure with an implant system
with two-stage surgical approach
• Wider range of surgical techniques possible at
abutment connection (which coincides with
membrane removal for non resorbable membranes)
• Better cost-effectiveness
• Decreased patient morbidity
• Uncontrolled duration of barrier function
• Resorption process possibly interfering with wound healing and
• Need for membrane supporting material.
• By their inherent nature, absorbable barriers offer limited
control over the length of application.
• This is because the disintegration process starts upon placement
in the tissues, and the ability of each individual patient to
degrade a particular biomaterial may vary significantly,
particularly for materials requiring enzymatic degradation (such
• Absorbable devices should maintain their in vivo
structure for at least 4 weeks, but because of their
biodegradability, absorbable devices elicit inevitable
and necessary tissue reactions that may influence
• Ideally, these inflammatory reactions should not
compromise the intended regenerative outcome.
• Collagen forms a 3-D cellular matrix of all tissues.
• Collagen surrounds the cells and gives each tissue its characteristic
structure, texture and shape.
• It is the structural building block of the body.
• The subunit chains of collagen are synthesized from free amino acids,
mostly in fibroblasts and osteoblasts, by the ribosomes of the rough
endoplasmic reticulum as larger pro-chains.
• Proline and lysine residues are selectively hydroxylated enzymatically,
and the prochains are often glycosylated during this stage.
• A type I collagen guided tissue regeneration membrane
approved for clinical use is manufactured from collagen
derived from bovine deep flexor (Achilles) tendon
• This membrane is semiocclusive (effective pore size 0.004
mm), and is paper-white in the dry state with a surface
texture similar to leather.
• In cross-section, the composition of condensed, laminated
sheets is visible.
• The BioMend membrane becomes translucent when
hydrated but remains nonslippery and adaptable to the
tooth root, which facilitates placement.
• OsseoQuest (Gore), a combination of polyglycolic acid,
polylactic acid, and trimethylene carbonate that
resorbs at 6 to 14 months
• BioGuide (Osteohealth), a bilayer porcine-derived
Atrisorb (Block Drug), a polylactic acid gel; and
BioMend (Calcitech), a bovine Achilles tendon collagen
that resorbs in 4 to 18 weeks.
Of these, BioGuide is the most popular resorbable
Other Bioresorbable membranes
• Dura mater
• Cargile membranes
• Oxidized cellulose mesh
• Laminar bone
• Acellular dermal matrix (ADM),
• Synthetic resorbable materials are usually organic
aliphatic thermoplastic polymers.
• The materials most commonly used are poly-a-hydroxy
acids, which include polylactic polyglycolic acid and
• They get hydrolysed to final products water and carbon
MEMBRANE SELECTION: NONRESORBABLE
1. Maintain the sterility of the material.
2. Choose a size that offers the most ideal design for defect coverage.
3. Shape the material with scissors. Avoid leaving sharp edges.
4. Enough material should be left to permit lateral and interproximal
suturing while leaving at least 3 mm apical and lateral
overextension of the defect margin.
5. The material should fit smoothly, avoiding folds, overlaps, and
protrusions, which may compromise the overlying gingival tissue.
6. In either periodontal or bony ridge defects, the amount of space
beneath the material determines the maximum potential regeneration.
Without space maintenance, regeneration is not possible.
5. Biomodification of Root Surface.
• Changes in the tooth surface wall of periodontal pockets
(e.g., degenerated remnants of Sharpey’s fibers,
accumulation of bacteria and their products, disintegration
of cementum and dentin) interfere with new attachment.
• Although these obstacles to new attachment can be
eliminated by thorough root planing, the root surface of
the pocket can be treated to improve its chances of
accepting the new attachment of gingival tissues.
• Applied to the roots to demineralize the surface and attempts to
induce cementogenesis and attachment of collagen fibers.
• Following actions of citric acid have been reported:
1. Accelerates healing and new attachment formation occur after
surgical detachment of the gingival tissues and
demineralization of the root surface.
2. After root planing the acid produces a 4um-deep demineralized
zone with exposed collagen fibers.
3. Removes smear layer and exposes dentinal tubules.
4. Citric acid has also been shown to eliminate endotoxins and bacteria
from the diseased tooth surface.
5. An early fibrin linkage to collagen fibers exposed by the citric acid
treatment prevents the epithelium from migrating over treated roots.
• The recommended technique is as
1. Raise a mucoperiosteal flap.
2. Thoroughly instrument the root
surface, removing calculus and
3. Apply cotton pledgets soaked
in a saturated solution of citric
acid (pH 1), and leave on for 2
to 5 minutes.
4. Remove pledgets, and irrigate
root surface profusely with
5. Replace the flap and suture.
– Because of its low pH vitality of surrounding periodontal
tissues may be compromised (Blomlof & Lindskog
– It has been reported to cause gingival recession &
discouraged alveolar bone growth
– Immediate (within 20s) necrotizing effects on both
mucosal flaps and periodontal tissues
(Blomlof et al. 1995).
Ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA)
– EDTA is the only one which exclusively exerts its
demineralizing effect through chelating divalent cations
at neutral pH.
– Different concentrations of EDTA have been used
1.5%, 5%, 15% & 24%.
– The supersaturated (24%) solution is more effective
when applied for 2 minutes in order to obtain an
acceptable smear removing & collagen exposing effect.
– Fibronectin is the glycoprotein that fibroblasts require to
attach to root surfaces. The addition of fibronectin to the root
surface may promote new attachment . (Caffesse et al.1987,
– It is a biologic mediator that enhances the tissue response in
the early phases of wound healing, prevents separation of
the flap, and favors hemostasis and connective tissue
• TETRACYCLINE increases the binding of fibonectin, which
stimulates fibroblast attachment and growth while suppressing
epithelial cell attachment and migration.
• Tetracycline application for 5 minutes has:
–removes smear layer
–expose dentinal tubules
• Baker et al. (1983) demonstrated the ability of tetracycline to
bind to dentin. The bound tetracycline is released and serves as
a local antimicrobial delivery vehicle for up to 14 days.
Autografts Allografts Xenografts
• Bone graft materials are also evaluated based on their osteogenic,
osteoinductive, or osteoconductive potential.
• Osteogenesis refers to the formation or development of new bone by cells
contained in the graft.
• Osteoinduction is a chemical process by which molecules contained in the graft
(e.g., bone morphogenetic proteins) convert the neighboring cells into osteoblasts,
which in turn form bone.
• Osteoconduction is a physical effect by which the matrix of the graft forms a
scaffold that favors outside cells to penetrate the graft and form new bone.
• Schallhorn defined the considerations that govern the selection of a
material as follows:
1. biologic acceptability
3. clinical feasibility
4. minimal operative hazards
5. minimal postoperative
6. sequelae, and patient acceptance.
It is difficult to find a material with all these characteristics
• All grafting techniques require presurgical scaling, occlusal
adjustment as needed, and exposure of the defect with a
• The flap technique best suited for grafting purposes is the papilla
preservation flap because it provides complete coverageof the
interdental area after suturing.
Autogenous bone grafts
Bone from Intraoral Sites
In 1923, Hegedüs attempted to use bone grafts for the reconstruction of bone
defects produced by periodontal disease.
• Bone obtained from the same individual.
• AUTOGRAFTS retain some cell viability and are considered to promote bone
• They are gradually resorbed and replaced by new viable bone.
• Bone Harvested from:
1. healing extraction wounds
2. bone from edentulous ridges
3. bone trephined from within the jaw without damaging the roots
4. newly formed bone in wounds especially created for the purpose
5. bone removed from tuberosity and the ramus
6. bone removed during osteoplasty and ostectomy.
a) Cortical bone chips – These are not used today because they are generally
much longer particles 1,559.6 × 183 mm and have a higher potential for
sequestration (Zaner and Yukna 1984).
b) Osseous Coagulum.
Robinson described a technique using a mixture of bone dust and blood
that he termed “osseous coagulum.”
• The technique uses small particles ground from cortical bone.
• The advantage of the particle size is that it provides additional surface area
for the interaction of cellular and vascular elements.
• Sources of the graft material: the lingual ridge on the mandible, exostoses,
edentulous ridges, the bone distal to a terminal tooth, bone removed by
osteoplasty or ostectomy, and the lingual surface of the mandible or maxilla
at least 5 mm from the roots.
• Bone is removed with a carbide bur #6 or #8 at speeds between 5000 and
30,000 rpm, placed in a sterile dappen dish and used to fill the defect.
• Advantage: Ease of obtaining bone from a area already exposed during
• Disadvantages are its relatively low predictability and the inability to
procure adequate material for large defects.
c. Bone Blend
• Bone blend is the combination of cortical and cancellous
• The bone blend technique uses an autoclaved plastic
capsule and pestle. Bone is removed from a predetermined
site, triturated in the capsule to a workable, plasticlike
mass, and packed into bony defects.
• Froum et al found osseous coagulum–bone blend
procedures to be at least as effective as iliac autografts and
D. Cancellous Bone Marrow Transplants.
Cancellous bone can be obtained from the maxillary tuberosity,
edentulous areas, and healing sockets.
• After a ridge incision is made distally from the last molar, bone is
removed with a curved rongeur.
• Edentulous ridges can be approached with a flap, and cancellous
bone and marrow are removed with curettes, back-action chisels or
• Extraction sockets are allowed to heal for 8 to 12 weeks before
reentering and removing the newly formed bone from the apical
portion, which is used as the donor material.
E. Bone Swaging
• The bone swaging technique requires an edentulous area adjacent to
the defect, from which the bone is pushed into contact with the root
surface without fracturing the bone at its base.
• Bone swaging is technically difficult, and its usefulness is limited
Bone from Extraoral Sites
• In 1923, Hegedüs also pioneered the use of extraoral sites as a
source of bone for grafting into periodontal osseous defects, using
bone from the tibia.
• Schallhorn and Hiatt revived this approach in the 1960s using the
• Iliac Autografts are no longer used because of :
1. postoperative infection
2. bone exfoliation
4. varying rates of healing
5. root resorption,
6. rapid recurrence of the defect
7. increased patient expense and difficulty in procuring the donor
Among the biomaterials, autogenous bone has been
adopted as the gold standard because:
(1) Autograft bone includes cells participating in osteogenesis.
(2) A tissue reaction is induced without inducing immunological
(3) There is a minimal inflammatory reaction.
(4) There is rapid revascularization around the graft particles .
(5) A potential release of growth and differentiation factors
sequestered within the grafts.
• Allografts are obtained from a different individual of the same species.
• They are foreign to the patient and therefore have the potential to provoke
an immune response.
• Attempts have been made to suppress the antigenic potential of allografts
and xenografts by radiation, freezing, and chemical treatment.
• Bone allografts are commercially available from tissue banks.
• They are obtained from cortical bone within 12 hours of the death of the
donor, defatted, cut in pieces, washed in absolute alcohol, and deep-frozen.
• The material may then be demineralized, and subsequently ground and
sieved to a particle size of 250 to 750 μm and freeze-dried.
• Finally, it is vacuum-sealed in glass vials.
• They include :
1 . Freeze-dried bone allografts (FDBA)
2. Demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA).
• FDBA is a mineralized bone graft, which through the manufacturing process
loses cell viability and,therefore, is supposed to promote bone regeneration
through osteoconduction (Goldberg & Stevenson 1987).
• The freeze drying also markedly reduces the antigenicity of the material.
(Turner & Mellonig 1981, Quattlebaum et al. 1988).
• Mellonig, Bowers, and co-workers reported bone fill exceeding 50% in 67%
of the defects grafted with freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) and in 78%
of the defects grafted with FDBA plus autogenous bone.
• Histologic evidence- implantation of FDBA in intrabony defects yielded no
periodontal regeneration but resulted in a long epithelial attachment on
the previously diseased root surface (Dragoo & Kaldahl 1983).
Demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft
Urist have established the osteogenic potential of DFDBA.
Demineralization in cold, diluted hydrochloric acid exposes the
components of bone matrix, which are closely associated with
collagen fibrils and have been termed bone morphogenetic proteins
(BMPs). This enhances its osteogenic potential.
• BMPs have the ability to induce host cells to differentiate into
osteoblasts. (Urist & Strates 1970, Mellonig et al. 1981).
• Histologic evidence - of regeneration following grafting with DFDBA
was provided by Bowers et al.
• Complete regeneration with new cementum, periodontal ligament
and bone amounting to 80% of the original defect depth was
reported at sites treated with DFDBA, which was considerably more
than that observed in defects treated with surgical debridement
• Xenografts are grafts shared between different species.
• Currently, there are two available sources of xenografts used
as bone replacement grafts in periodontics: bovine bone and
• Recently, porcine bone xenografts have also been described.
• Xenografts are osteoconductive, readily available and risk
free of disease transmission.
• New processing and purification methods have been utilized
which make it possible to remove all organic components
from a bovine bone source and leave a non-organic bone
matrix in an unchanged inorganic form.
• (e.g. Bio-Oss, Endobone , Laddec®, Ost Development,on-
Apatite®, Bio-Interfaces Inc.).
Anorganic Bovine Bone Xenograft
• The BDX is a xenograft consisting of deproteinized, sterilized bovine
bone with 75–80% porosity and a crystal size of approximately 10
mm in the form of cortical granules.
• Regarding both the chemical and physical features, BDX is considered
identical to the human bone.
• It has demonstrated efficacy for :
1. Reconstruction of atrophied alveolar ridges
2. around endosseous implants
3. sinus floor elevation procedures
4. peri-implantitis defects
5. large periapical lesion.
• A composite of autogenous bone and bone substitute is widely used
in oral surgery procedures because it combines the osteogenic
property of autogenous bone and the osteoconductive property of
• It contains osteogenic cells and provides a scaffold and internal pores
for bone cells to grow and remineralize to new bone.
• Bio-Oss (Osteohealth) has been successfully used both for
periodontal defects and in implant surgery.
• Bio-OssR (Osteohealth Co., Shirley, NY) is a natural, nonantigenic,
porous bone mineral matrix.
• It is produced by the removal of all organic components from bovine
• It is available in cancellous (spongiosa) and cortical granules and
• Bio-Oss undergoes a low-heat (3,000°C) chemical extraction process
by which all organic components are removed, but maintains the
natural architecture of bone.
• Implantation of Bio-Oss® resulted in pocket reduction, gain of
attachment and bone fill in periodontal defects to the same extent as
that of DFDBA (Richardson et al. 1999).
• Human histology and animal experiments have also suggested a
beneficial effect of placing bovine bone-derived biomaterials in
periodontal bone defects.
• Periodontally, Bio-Oss has been used as a graft material
covered with a resorbable membrane (BioGuide). The
membrane prevents the migration of fibroblasts and
connective tissues into the pores and between the granules
of the graft.
• Histologic studies of this technique have shown significant
osseous regeneration and cementum formation.
• Bio-Oss CollagenR consists of Bio-Oss Spongiosa granules
(0.25–1 mm) with the addition of 10% highly purified
• The collagen component allows Bio-Oss Collagen to be
easily adapted into the defect.
• The cohesion of the particles is ensured, even without a
• The collagen component is resorbed within 4–6 weeks.
Coralline Calcium Carbonate
• Natural coral graft substitutes are derived from the exoskeleton of
marine madreporic corals.
• The structure of the commonly used coral, Porites, is similar to that
of cancellous bone, and its initial mechanical properties resemble
those of bone.
• Depending on the pre-treatment procedure, the natural coral turns
into non-resorbable porous hydroxyapatite or to a resorbable calcium
• Implantation of coralline porous hydroxyapatite in intrabony
periodontal defects in humans produced more probing pocket depth
reduction, clinical attachment gain and defect fill than non-grafting.
• The main differences between natural coral and bone include
the organic content and the mineral composition.
• One third of the total weight in bone is composed of organic
components, while the coral organic content is limited to 1–
• The mineral composition of bone is mainly hydroxyapatite and
amorphous calcium phosphate associated with calcium
carbonate, while coral is essentially calcium carbonate (Demers
et al. 2002).
• Biocoral is a commercially available product.
• Histologic evidence that grafting of natural coral may enhance
the formation of true new attachment.
• Alloplastic materials are synthetic, inorganic, biocompatible
and/or bioactive bone graft substitutes which are claimed
to promote bone healing through osteoconduction.
• There are four kinds of alloplastic materials, which are
frequently used in regenerative periodontal surgery:
1. hydroxyapatite (HA),
2. beta tricalcium phosphate (13-TCP),
4. bio-active glasses (bio-glasses).
• Synthetic hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, has been available for
more than 30 years. It is the primary mineral found in bone.
• Synthetic hydroxyapatite can be found as porous or non porous.
• HAs present remarkable biocompatibility with little inflammatory
response when implanted within connective and bone tissue.
• The HA products used in periodontology are of two forms:
1. a particulate non-resorbable ceramic form (e.g.Periograf®, Calcitite)
2. a particulate, resorbable non-ceramic form
• Histologic evidence showed that bone formation was
limited and that a true new attachment was not formed
consistently after grafting of intrabony periodontal defects
• The majority of the HA particles were embedded in
connective tissue and new bone was only observed
occasionally around particles in close proximity to host
• A junctional epithelium was lining the major part of the
• The advantages of using hydroxyapatite are:
(1) immunoreaction can be ignored.
(2) postoperative morphologic changes and volume decreases do not
occur if small blocks and chips are adequately packed during
(3) postoperative adsorption of hydroxyapatite, if any, is slight and slow
and is replaced by bone.
(4) cement fixation performed on a layer of hydroxyapatite particles
prevents the harmful influence of polyethylene wear particles of
The clinical disadvantages hydroxyapatite particles are that they tend
not to stay in place in a bleeding site, and there is a relatively slow
restoration of bone within the assemblage of particles (Oonishi et
Various types of HA
1. The polycrystalline ceramic form of pure densely sintered HA is non-
resorbable, osteoconductive, has a low microporosity and act
primarily as inert biocompatible fillers. It is prepared in relatively
large particle size (18–40 mesh).
2.The coralline porous non-resorbable hydroxylapatite is a replica of a
marine coral skeleton, Porites. After the organic components of the
coral have been removed, the aragonite of the coral skeleton is
converted to HA by treatment with an ammonium phosphate at
elevated temperature and pressure. This hydroxylapatite is formed as
3. The resorbable nonceramic hydroxylapatite is highly microporous,
non-sintered (nonceramic), composed of small particles measuring
300–400 mm (35–60 mesh), with a controlled, predictable rate of
resorption. As the material resorbs, it acts as a mineral reservoir and
predictably induces new bone formation via osteoconductive
4. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NHA). Researchers have found that
nanoparticular hydroxyapatite not only provides the benefits of
traditional hydroxyapatites, but also resorbs.
5. Fluoroapatite: The commercially available porous biomaterial FRIOSR
AlgiporeR (Friadent GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) is manufactured
from calcifying marine algae (Corallina officinalis). The particles
contain a pore system with a mean diameter of 10 mm that is
periodically septated (mean interval 30 mm) and interconnectively
microperforated (mean diameter of perforations 1 mm).
b- tricalcium phosphate
• The crystal structure of alpha tricalcium phosphate (a-Ca3(PO4)2 is monoclinic and
consists of columns of cations, while the beta tricalcium phosphate has a
• The former is formed by heating the latter above 1,180°C and quenching in air to
retain its structure.
• Alpha form is less stable than beta and forms the stiffer material calcium-deficient
hydroxyapatite when mixed with water.
• Calcium phosphates can be bound to collagen carriers or mixed with fibrin. The
concept is that collagen and fibrin form a network on which minerals can
• Collagen can also bind to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins of importance in the
• Histologic evidence Showed that 13-TCP is rapidly resorbed or encapsulated by
connective tissue, with minimal bone formation and no periodontal regeneration.
• There are two polymer materials that have been used as
bone graft substitutes in the treatment of periodontal
1. a non-resorbable, calcium hydroxide coated co-polymer of
poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and poly-
hydroxylethyl-methacrylate (PHEMA) which is often
referred to as HTR (hard tissue replacement) e.g. HTRTM
2. resorbable polylactic acid (PLA) polymer e.g.Driloc ®.
• Histologic evaluation revealed that grafting of osseous
periodontal defects with HTR does not promote periodontal
• The HTR particles were most frequently encapsulated by
connective tissue with only scarce evidence of bone
• Healing resulted in a long junctional epithelium along the
root surface, and true new attachment formation was not
• When PLA particles were implanted into intrabony defects in
humans and compared with DFDBA or surgically debrided
controls, it was found that the healing results were less
favorable than after flap operation alone, both in terms of
clinical parameters (PPD and PAL gain), and in terms of bone
Bioactive Glass (BG)
• Bio-glasses are composed of SiO2, Na2O, P2O5 and are
resorbable or not resorbable depending on the relative
proportion of these components.
• When bio-glasses are exposed to tissue fluids, a double
layer of silica gel and calcium phosphate is formed on their
• Through this layer the material promotes absorption and
concentration of proteins used by osteoblasts to form
extracellular bone matrix which theoretically may promote
bone formation .
• Commercially available bio-glasses in particulate form, and
theoretically resorbable, have been proposed for
periodontal treatment (e.g. PerioGlass'j, BioGran®.)
• The bioactive glass particles formed a cohesive mass when wetted
with blood, which allowed very easy manipulation and packing
into the extraction sockets or periodontal defects.
• This transparent bioactive material has proven ability to bond to
connective tissue and bone without an intervening fibrous
connective tissue interface.
• Upon contact with body fluid, there is an immediate exchange of
ions which results in a physiochemical bond between Bioglass, soft
tissue and bone.
• The ion exchange creates an environment resulting in the
formation of a hydroxyl-carbonate apatite layer (HCA), a biological
apatite identical to the mineral phase of bone, which allows for
more rapid repair and regeneration of bone than other synthetic
• It was showed that bioactive glass several antibacterial effect
against on a large panel of clinically important bacterial species
(A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, Actinomyces naeslundii,
Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Streptococcus
mutans, and Streptococcus sanguis, Candida albicans)
• Bioactive glass is a particulate bioactive ceramic,
which has the ability to bond to bone tissue and
enhance bone growth because of its
• It also has an osteostimulatory effect showing bone
growth within eroded particles.
• These islands of newly formed bone tissue function
as nuclei for further bone growth and enhance the
repair of osseous defects.
Enamel matrix protein (Emdogain)
• Enamel matrix protein derivatives
obtained from developing porcine
teeth has been approved by the FDA
and is marketed under the trade name
• The material is a viscous gel consisting
of enamel-derived proteins from tooth
buds in a polypropylene liquid; 1 ml of
a vehicle solution is mixed with a
powder and delivered by syringe to the
• 90% of the protein in this mixture is
amelogenin, with the rest primarily
proline-rich non-amelogenins, tuftelin,
tuft protein, serum proteins,
ameloblastin, and amelin.
• The use of enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) for periodontal regeneration
has been suggested because it is thought that this process might mimic
way these materials behave in normal tooth development.
• Purified enamel matrix proteins have been extracted from porcine
• The enamel matrix proteins, mainly amelogenin, are secreted by Hertwig’s
epithelial root sheath during tooth development and are known to induce
acellular cementum formation.
• These protein believed to enhance periodontal regeneration by promoting
bone cell attachment & cell spreading & enhance the proliferation of
more immature bone cells while stimulating the differentiation of more
mature bone cells.
• Enamel matrix derivative enhances human periodontal ligament fibroblast
• The technique, as described by Mellonig, is as
1. Raise a flap for regenerative purposes
2. Remove all granulation tissue and tissue tags,
exposing the underlying bone, and remove all
root deposits by hand, ultrasonic scaling, or
3. Completely control bleeding within the
4. Demineralize the root surface with citric
acid pH 1, or preferably with 24%
ethylenediaminetetracetic acid(EDTA Biora)
pH 6.7 for 15 seconds.
This removes the smear layer and facilitates
adherence of the Emdogain.
5. Rinse the wound with saline and apply the gel
to fully cover the exposed root surface.
Avoid contamination with blood or saliva.
6. Close the wound with sutures. Perfect
abutment of the flaps is necessary; if
this cannot be obtained, correct the
scalloping of the gingival margin or
perform a slight osteoplasty.
Although placement of the dressing
is optional, it may protect the wound
Systemic antibiotic coverage for 10 to
21 days is recommended (Doxycycline,
100 mg daily).
Heijl et al compared the use of enamel matrix derivatives with
a placebo in 33 patients with 34 paired test and control sites, mostly
one-wall and two-wall defects, followed for 3 years.
They found a statistically significant radiographic bone gain of 2.6 mm.
Froum et al reported that use of Emdogain resulted in a reduction in
probing depth of 4.94 mm, increase in attachment level of 4.26 mm,
and bone fill of 3.83 mm (74% of defects).
In a histologic study of 10 defects in 8 patients, Yukna and Mellonig
reported evidence of regeneration (new cementum, bone, and
periodontal ligament) in three specimens, new attachment
(connective tissue attachment, adhesion only) in three specimens,
and a long junctional epithelium in four specimens.
GROUP MATERIAL EFFECT ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGE
Viable cells, growth
ALLOGENIC DFDBA Osteoinductive
release of BMPs
FDBA Osteoconductive Antigenecity?
XENOGENIC Bovine material Osteoconductive Similar results as
Coralline Osteoconductive Long junctional
ALLOPLASTIC HA Osteoconductive No predictable
Osteoconductive No predictable
Bioactive glass Osteoconductive Long junctional
Polymers Osteoconductive No regeneration
• BONE GRAFTS has shown some regeneration and is usually limited to
the base or apical aspect of the defect and the resultant tissue
formation is not sufficient in terms of quantity or predictability.
• For these reasons, new therapeutic approaches for periodontal
regeneration have been sought.
• The recognition and appreciation that new tissues are formed by cell
populations have resulted in efforts to stimulate the cells that are
located in the periodontal defect.
• One way to stimulate these cells is to use proteins (growth factors)
that can bind to surface receptors on the cell membranes, which in
turn trigger a series of events to occur that alter the genetic activity
of the cell with the result that cell behavior is stimulated.
Growth regulatory factors for periodontal regeneration.
• Growth factor is a general term to denote a class of polypeptide
hormones that stimulate a wide variety of cellular events such as:
4. production of extracellular matrix proteins. (Terranova & Wikesjo
migration of periodontal
synthesis of extracellular
Therefore, it is conceivable that
growth factors may represent a
potential aid in attempts to
regenerate the periodontium.
prerequisite for obtaining
• These growth factors, primarily secreted by macrophages,
endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and platelets, include:
1. platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
2. Insulin like growth factor (IGF)
3. basic fibroblast growth factor (bfGF),
4. BMP bone morhogenetic protein
5. Transforming growth factor(TGF).
These biologic mediators have been used to stimulate periodontal
wound healing (e.g., promoting migration and proliferation of
fibroblasts for periodontal ligament formation) or to promote the
differentiation of cells to become osteoblasts, thereby favoring
BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS
• The bone morphogenetic proteins are a group of related proteins
that are found in the body and are important for skeletal
• Each of the proteins has relatively specific functions:
• BMP-2 has been shown to have some of the strongest bone
• BMP-7 (also called osteogenic protein-1, or OP-1) and BMP-3 (also
know as osteogenin) have also been shown to stimulate bone
• The BMPs were originally isolated from bovine bone by Marshall
• Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are osteoinductive factors that
may have the potential to stimulate mesenchymal cells to
differentiate into bone forming cells (Wozney et al. 1988).
• Many carriers have been tested with the BMPs, but the binding and
release kinetics using bovine type I collagen have proven to be the
most useful clinically.
• BMP binds tightly to the collagen within minutes and has been shown
to be released over time for 2 to 3 weeks at the defect site.
• The extended release kinetics likely allow the migrating into the
wound site to be exposed to the growth factor.
Platelet Derived Growth Factor
PDGFs are secreted primarily from the platelet a-granules, but also from
macrophages, fibroblasts, myocytes, and endothelial and bone
marrow hematopoietic cells. The PDGF family encompasses four
isoforms (A, B, C and D) that always appear in a dimeric form (i.e. -AA,
-BB, -AB, etc.)
1) The primary effect of platelet-derived growth factor is that of a
mitogen, initiating cell division.
2) It is an important stimulator of cellular chemotaxis, proliferation and
3) Plays an important role in gingival wound healing.
It is secreted locally during clotting by the blood platelets at the site of
soft- or hard-tissue injury that stimulates a cascade of events leading
to a wound-healing response.
4) It stimulates mitogenic activity and chemotaxis in osteoblasts.
5) Also stimulates the proliferation of periodontal ligament cells and
acts a potent mitogen for periodontal ligament cells.
6) PDGF enhances collagen type I and osteopontin production in both
periodontal ligament cells and osteoblasts
Insulin like Growth factor
• IGF system has a fundamental role in protecting cells from
programmed cell death.
• IGF is found in platelets. It is released during clotting along with
other growth factors present in platelets.
• IGF-I is produced by osteoblasts. It thus induces proliferation and
differentiation of osteoblasts with subsequent increases in
• IGF-I increases type I collagen formation, bone matrix apposition
rate, and inhibits bone collagen degradation due to the blocking of
collagenase activity by osteoblasts.
Transforming Growth Factor
• This is stored in the alpha granules of the platelets. Three forms of
TGF- β have been found. Viz. type I, II and III.
• TGF-β is chemotactic for fibroblasts and promotes accumulation of
fibroblasts and fibrosis in the healing process.
• It has a potent effect on matrix synthesis, giving rise to increased
production of collagen and fibronectin and decreased production of
matrix degrading enzymes.
Fibroblast Growth factor
• bFGF (also known as FGF-2) appears to be the most recognized
form of FGF.
• bFGF stimulates wound healing and tissue repair by promoting
angiogenesis, cell proliferation and noncollagenous protein
• bFGF appears to be produced primarily by PDL fibroblasts and
endothelial cells, while bFGF levels appear to be decreased in
chronic periodontal lesions.
• Platelet concentrates are blood-derived products used
for the prevention and treatment of hemorrhages due to
serious thrombopenia of the central origin.
• Fibrin glue was originally described in 1970 and is formed
by polymerizing fibrinogen with thrombin and calcium. It
was originally prepared using donor plasma; however,
because of the low concentration of fibrinogen in
plasma, the stability and quality of fibrin glue were low.
PLATELET RICH PLASMA
• Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous modification of fibrin glue,
which has been described and used in various applications with
apparent clinical success. PRP obtained from autologous blood is
used to deliver growth factors in high concentrations to the site of
bone defect or a region requiring augmentation.
• In addition to the growth factors, PRP contains fibrinogen and a
number of adhesive glycoproteins that support cell migration.
1.Venous blood is drawn into a tube containing an anticoagulant to
avoid platelet activation and degranulation.
2. The first centrifugation is called ‘soft spin’, which allows blood
separation into three layers, namely bottom-most RBC layer
(55% of total volume), topmost acellular plasma layer called PPP
(40% of total volume), and an intermediate PRP layer (5% of
total volume) called the buffy coat.
3. Using a sterile syringe, the operator transfers PPP, PRP and some
RBCs into another tube without an anticoagulant.
Separation of plasma (2400 rpm, 10 min). Separation of platelet-rich
plasma from platelet-poor
plasma (3600 rpm, 15 min).
4. This tube will now undergo a second centrifugation, which is longer
and faster than the first, called ‘hard spin’. This allows the platelets
(PRP) to settle at the bottom of the tube with a very few RBCs, which
explains the red tinge of the final PRP preparation. The acellular
plasma, PPP (80% of the volume), is found at the top.
5. Most of the PPP is removed with a syringe and discarded, and the
remaining PRP is shaken well.
6. This PRP is then mixed with bovine thrombin and calcium chloride at
the time of application. This results in gelling of the platelet
concentrate. Calcium chloride nullifies the effect of the citrate
anticoagulant used, and thrombin helps in activating the fibrinogen,
which is converted to fibrin and cross-linked.
Application of activated PRP on
PLATELET RICH FIBRIN
• The advantages of PRF over PRP are its simplified
preparation and lack of biochemical handling of the
• The required quantity of blood is drawn into 10-ml test
tubes without an anticoagulant and centrifuged
• Blood is centrifuged using a tabletop centrifuge (REMY®
Laboratories) for 12 min at 2,700 rpm.
• The resultant product consists of the following three layers:
• Topmost layer consisting of acellular PPP
• PRF clot in the middle
• RBCs at the bottom
• Because of the absence of an anticoagulant, blood begins to
coagulate as soon as it comes in contact with the glass
Pre operative view Platelet rich fibrin clot
Platelet rich fibrin membrane
PRF Is placed after flap elevation
PRF has many advantages over PRP.
• It eliminates the redundant process of adding
anticoagulant as well as the need to neutralize it.
• The addition of bovine-derived thrombin to promote
conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin in PRP is also
• Hematoma formation
– Release of cytokines and growth factors
– Development of fibrovascular tissue
• Vascular ingrowth
– Often extending Haversian canals
• Focal osteoclastic resorption of graft
• Intramembranous and/or endochondral bone
formation on graft surfaces
• Healing processes of treated periodontal lesions express
variations of repair rather than regeneration.
• Specifically, the treated periodontal lesion repairs by
• 1) epithelial adhesion; at times occlusal to the base of the
• 2)Collagen adhesion; most frequently observed
immediately apical to the newly adhering junctional
epithelium but occlusal to the marginal alveolar crest.
• 3) in the infrabony portion of periodontal lesions,
simultaneous and/or sequential deposition of repair
cementum, functionally oriented ligament fibers and
narrowing of the vertical defect by osteogenesis.
• With the commonly used treatments of infrabony defects,
the healing responses to subcrestal debridement of these
lesions with or without the use of grafts have created new
• The clinical observation of major significance is the
recognition that such lesions "fill" to some extent and
within certain limitations
• Regenerative surgical treatment of intrabony periodontal defects
results in dramatic improvements of bone loss attachment level and
pocket depths that cannot be matched by other nonsurgical and
• These improvements are maintainable over many years if appropriate
maintenance care is used.
• The combined approach is most useful in large wide defects where
bone grafts supply structural functions, membranes provide guided
tissue and graft retention functions, and biologic agents give cellular
• Carranza’s Clinical Periodontology. 11th edition.
• Clinical Periodontology & Implant Dentistry,4th& 5th
Ed , Jan Lindhe