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The Paragraph and Topic Sentence

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The Paragraph and Topic Sentence is a PowerPoint presentation that details out what a paragraph is. Moreover, this PP will focus more on one essential part of a paragraph, which is the topic sentence -- its function and its position in the paragraph. A good paragraph must contain a good topic sentence. I hope this presentation will help you guys. Thanks :)

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The Paragraph and Topic Sentence

  1. 1. WRITING IN THE DISCIPLINE
  2. 2. WORDSmake up 2
  3. 3. PHRASESmake up 3
  4. 4. SENTENCESmake up 4
  5. 5. PARAGRAPHSBy Mr. Ranulfo T. Bacus 5
  6. 6. PARAGRAPH A paragraph is a group of related sentences that present and develop one main idea. has a three-part structure: The Introduction The Body The Conclusion
  7. 7. What is the relation of these shapes for today’s topic?
  8. 8. Dark clouds blocked the sun as it peeked over the farthest mountain. The clouds moved forward and played hide-and-seek with beams of sunlight and slowly overtook them. The clouds began to release large drops of rain. With the clouds a wind made its entrance, and it swirled across the hillsides. A storm was brewing.
  9. 9. TOPIC SENTENCE The
  10. 10. TOPIC SENTENCE ? What is a
  11. 11. THE TOPIC SENTENCE The topic sentence states the main or the general idea of the paragraph. The topic sentence states the subject and the purpose of the paragraph. The topic sentence in a paragraph summarizes what the entire paragraph is all about. In most academic essays, though, the topic sentence is at the beginning.
  12. 12. Features of a topic sentence: it states the main idea it addresses one aspect of the subject that can be adequately covered in one paragraph; it controls the other sentences in the paragraph; it is more general than the sentences that develop it
  13. 13. Two Types of Topic Sentence: 1. STATED OR OBVIOUS TOPIC SENTENCE – this is the type of topic sentence that is correctly expressed in the paragraph 1. IMPLIED TOPIC SENTENCE – this is the type of topic sentence that is not stated in the paragraph
  14. 14. EXAMPLE OF STATED TOPIC SENTENCE: Trees are very essential in our lives. The newspaper you read everyday and the books you study were trees once. Your home, your furniture, your clothes come from trees. In addition, forests provide a wonderful place where we can hold picnics and have a good time.
  15. 15. EXAMPLE OF IMPLIED TOPIC SENTENCE: Sometimes in the evenings, Bruno Mars would sit out in front of the ranch house near the cattle guards and play music. He would gather across the ditch and listen attentively. He liked to hear songs by Hank Williams, to which he would attempt to sing along by making little gurgling sounds deep in his throat. Occasionally, he would click his teeth if he played something with a beat to it.
  16. 16. Going back to these shapes!TOPIC SENTENCE POSITIONS
  17. 17. TOPIC SENTENCE Positions of
  18. 18. AT THE BEGINNING... Topic sentence is usually found at the beginning of a paragraph, where it gives a preview of and direction to the sentences that come after it. TOPIC SENTENCE
  19. 19. EXAMPLE: A brownout for students would be a horrendous disaster. The students will not be able to check their mail. They cannot receive their e-mails either. They cannot use the fax machine too.
  20. 20. ANOTHER EXAMPLE: Student life today is not what it was then. Students log on to web sites instead of going to libraries. Computers look for grammatical and typographical errors in their papers unlike before when students reviewed, reread, and reedited their work for hours. ANOTHER EXAMPLE: Student life today is not what it was then. Students log on to web sites instead of going to libraries. Computers look for grammatical and typographical errors in their papers unlike before when students reviewed, reread, and reedited their work for hours.
  21. 21. AT THE END... Sometimes, however, topic sentence comes at the end of the paragraph, where it draws a conclusion or functions as a summary. TOPIC SENTENCE
  22. 22. EXAMPLE: The mountain air around a lake invigorates and pleases me. I like a lake’s underwater life, such as minnows and trout, and I enjoy observing the plant life around me. Most important, a lake usually has no chemicals because lake water is clean, natural, and more refreshing for swimming. I prefer swimming in a mountain lake.
  23. 23. ANOTHER EXAMPLE: I cannot cut and paste excerpts without my computer. I need my CD-ROM to check the spelling and change fonts of my paper. I do all these on my computer at my own leisure. I really don’t know how to write a paper without doing it directly on the computer. ANOTHER EXAMPLE: I cannot cut and paste excerpts without my computer. I need my CD-ROM to check the spelling and change fonts of my paper. I do all these on my computer at my own leisure. I really don’t know how to write a paper without doing it directly on the computer.
  24. 24. AT THE MIDDLE... Less frequently, topic sentence comes in the middle of the paragraph, especially when the paragraph is part of a longer piece of writing. TOPIC SENTENCE
  25. 25. EXAMPLE: The bird next to me was immature. He still had brown and tawny plumage instead of the predominantly black color of the adult. For one thing, he may never have seen another human being. But there is a better explanation; in remote Galapagos Islands, there are hardly any land mammals, and the hawk is very nearly the sole predator. With no enemies and almost no competitors, it has nothing to fear and plenty to eat.
  26. 26. ANOTHER EXAMPLE: Dancing and chanting, Polynesian students give visitors to the Polynesian Culture Center a glimpse of Hawaii’s post. Through its exhibitions, the Polynesian Culture Center shows visitors the many elements of Hawaiian culture brought to Hawaii by Polynesians. For example, the Center shows the similarities between the Polynesian and Hawaiian villages with life-size models. In addition, the Center dramatizes Hawaiian legends of ancestors journeying across oceans. ANOTHER EXAMPLE: Dancing and chanting, Polynesian students give visitors to the Polynesian Culture Center a glimpse of Hawaii’s post. Through its exhibitions, the Polynesian Culture Center shows visitors the many elements of Hawaiian culture brought to Hawaii by Polynesians. For example, the Center shows the similarities between the Polynesian and Hawaiian villages with life-size models. In addition, the Center dramatizes Hawaiian legends of ancestors journeying across oceans.
  27. 27. AT BOTH BEGINNING AND END... In this type, if the paragraph is meant as a freestanding unit of discourse and not part of a larger whole, the topic sentence, or rather the ideas it contains, are frequently restated at the end of the paragraph. TOPIC SENTENCE TOPIC SENTENCE
  28. 28. EXAMPLE: Throwing a clay pot, requires many steps. The first step is by wedging the clay. The potter kneads the clay to prepare it for throwing. Once wedged and formed into a ball, the clay is thrown onto the center of a potter's wheel. The clay must be coerced into a perfectly symmetrical shape, dead center on the spinning wheel. When correctly centered, the clay is ready to be opened. After that, the clay can now be shaped and the potter should correctly reach its desired height. Finally, the pot is ready to be dried, fired, and glazed. Thus, even though a clay pot may appear simple to make, fashioning one by hand takes a long process.
  29. 29. ANOTHER EXAMPLE: Energy simply makes our daily lives more comfortable and convenient. Suppose you wanted to stop – and reverse – the economic progress of this nation, what would be the surest and quickest way to do it? Find a way to cut off the nation’s oil resources! Industrial plants would shut down, public utilities would stand idle, and all firms of transportation will halt. The country would be paralyzed, and our economy would plummet into the abyss of national economic ruin. In short, energy is one of the reason why we have an adequate life nowadays. ANOTHER EXAMPLE: Energy simply makes our daily lives more comfortable and convenient. Suppose you wanted to stop – and reverse – the economic progress of this nation, what would be the surest and quickest way to do it? Find a way to cut off the nation’s oil resources! Industrial plants would shut down, public utilities would stand idle, and all firms of transportation will halt. The country would be paralyzed, and our economy would plummet into the abyss of national economic ruin. In short, energy is one of the reason why we have an adequate life nowadays.
  30. 30. IMPLIED TOPIC SENTENCE... Some paragraphs doesn’t state there topic sentences. This does not mean that there is no topic sentence on it. Instead, it means that you have to figure it out by yourself. TOPIC SENTENCE
  31. 31. EXAMPLE 1: College and university sports team have nicknames. Most are common, such as the Bears, Lions, and Tigers. However, some are unusual. For instance, the University of California at Irvine is nicknamed “Anteaters”. The University of Washburn’s sports team are called “Thunderducks”. And perhaps the strangest of all belongs to the University of California at Santa Cruz. Their nickname is the “Banana Slugs”.
  32. 32. EXAMPLE 1: The suggested implied topic sentence for example 1 is: Some College and University sport teams have unusual College nicknames.
  33. 33. EXAMPLE 2: Yellow is a bright cheery color; it is often associated with spring and hopefulness. Green, since it is a color that appears frequently in nature (trees, grass, plants), has come to suggest growth and rebirth. Blue, the color of the sky may suggest eternity, or endless beauty. Red, the color of both blood and fire, is often connected with strong feelings such as courage, lust and rage.
  34. 34. EXAMPLE 2: The suggested implied topic sentence for example 2 is: Different colors may bring different meanings or symbolic representations.

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