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Aerodynamics in cars

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Aerodynamics in cars

  1. 1. AERODYNAMICS IN CARS By Ravi malla thakuri U11ME380 3nd Year B.Tech (Mech)
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION AERODYNAMICS : Study of forces generated by motion of air on moving body. CLASSIFACATION OF AERODYNAMICS : external and internal, subsonic , supersonic , hypersonic FIELDS OF APPLICATION : aerospace engineering, design of automobiles , ships , civil engineering , design of bridges etc.
  3. 3. AERODYNAMIC FORCES ON A BODY LIFT (DOWNFORCE) DRAG WEIGHT THRUST
  4. 4. HISTORY OF EVOLUTION OF AERODYNAMICS IN CARS DESIGN¶S IN EARLY 20th CENTURY : cars with low speeds, no aerodynamic problems. CAR¶S IN THE EARLY 50s : cars designed for big familys , complete negligence of aerodynamics. CARS AFTER 70s : fuel crisis , need of economic designs , evolution of aerodynamics.
  5. 5. WHY WE NEED TO IMPROVE AERODYNAMICS IN CARS SPEED better aerodynamics higher will be the speeds. FUEL EFFICIENCY better aerodynamics , less work for engine.
  6. 6. FRONT END FRONTAL PRESSURE PRESSURE DIFFERENCE MINIMISE FRONTALAREA REDUCE cd
  7. 7. REAR END REAR VACCUM FLOW DETACHEMENT TURBULANCE
  8. 8. AERODYNAMICS IN MCLAREN F1 SPECIFICATIONS FRONT END REAR END SCOOPS WINGS Mclaren F1
  9. 9. AERODYNAMIC DEVICES SPOILERS NACA DUCTS Increase rate of flow To expose air to areas not exposed to direct air flow.
  10. 10. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ METHODS TO EVALUATE AERODYNAMICS IN CARS WIND TUNNELS Research tool to study effect of air moving over a solid object. Trial and error process. Special pressure paints for analysis. Detailed analysis of air flow patterns. Analyzing for the optimal design.
  11. 11. SOFTWARES DEVELOPMENTS IN CAD ANSYS, CATIA,ALIAS STUDIO ANALYZE CHANGES DURING DESIGN PHASE AND DEVELOPMENT REDUCES TIME TO DEVELOP OPTIMAL DESIGN ABLE TO STUDY INDIVIDUAL ELEMENTS, MORE EFFECTIVE
  12. 12. AERODYNAMIC IMPROVEMENTS IN THE CAR THAT WE ALREADY OWN Keep your vehicle washed and waxed Remove mud flaps behind wheels Place license plate out of air flow Avoid roof-racks or carriers Close windows, close sunroof
  13. 13. SCOOPS ENGINE COOLING INCREASES FLOW RATE OF AIR
  14. 14. WINGS PRODUCE DOWNFORCE REDUCE DRAG
  15. 15. COEFFICIENT OF DRAG Drag = 1/2xd x Cd x A Xv2 Measure of aerodynamic efficiency.
  16. 16. Drag Reduction System The Drag Reduction System (DRS) is perhaps the most interesting of the new Technical Regulations imposed on Formula 1 in 2011. Its purpose? To promote overtaking by counteracting the loss of downforce incurred when following another Formula 1 car. This is acheived by reducing the following car's aerodynamic drag by opening a driver activated flap on the rear wing of the car. The device opens an adjustable flap on the rear wing of the car (which when closed creates more downforce for greater cornering) to reduce downforce, thus giving a pursuing car more speed and a greater chance of overtaking a car in front.
  17. 17. Functional description The horizontal elements of the rear wing consist of the main plane and the flap. The DRS allows the flap to lift a maximum of 50 mm from the fixed main plane. This reduces opposition (drag) to airflow against the wing and results in less downforce. In the absence of significant lateral forces (straight line), less downforce allows faster acceleration and potential top speed, unless limited by the top gear ratio and engine rev limiter.
  18. 18. Diffuser A diffuser, in an automotive context, is a shaped section of the car underbody which improves the car's aerodynamic properties by enhancing the transition between the high-velocity airflow underneath the car and the much slower freestream airflow of the ambient atmosphere. It works by providing a space for the underbody airflow to decelerate and expand (in area, density remains constant at the speeds that cars travel) so that it does not cause excessive flow separation and drag, by providing a degree of "wake infill". The diffuser itself accelerates the flow in front of it, which helps generate downforce.
  19. 19. Operation When a diffuser is used, the air flows into the underbody from the front and sides of the car, accelerates and reduces pressure. There is a suction peak at the transition of the flat bottom and diffuser. The diffuser then eases this high velocity air back to normal velocity and also helps fill in the area behind the car making the whole underbody a more efficient downforce producing device by reducing drag on the car and increasing downforce. The diffuser also imparts upward momentum to the air which further increases downforce.

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