ROBERT EDGAR RBEDGAR@STANFORD.EDU
PROGRAM MANAGER, LEARNING SYSTEMS DESIGN
TakesToo LongTo Develop
Is Impersonal And Standardized
IsToo Dependent On LMSs
CURRENT IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES
eLearning: Strategies/Buzzwords Include:
IsToo Long Microlearning
IsToo Boring Gamification
Is Ineffective New Design and Delivery Strategies
TakesToo LongTo Develop Agile Development Strategies
IsTechnically Problematic Newer Authoring Systems
Is Impersonal And Standardized Data-Informed Delivery
IsToo Dependent On LMSs Good luck…
• WHAT IT IS: Online experiences of short durations (usually > 30 seconds and > 5
minutes), delivered over a longer period of time (weeks or months).
• REPLACES: eLearning courseware requiring 60 minutes or more of online connection.
• ENHANCES: ability to use spacing retrieval for improved learning (Thalheimer, 2006).
• RETRIEVES: daily practice instead of “cramming”
• REVERSES: support for ability to sustain attention
• WHAT IT IS: Use of play, game, and reward structures as instructional design and/or
reinforcement strategies.Two major areas of application: immersion and extrinsic
• REPLACES: Didactic, presentational designs
• ENHANCES: use of positive reinforcement for correct behavior (often with social
reinforcement and scored competition), learner amusement
• RETRIEVES: concern over intrinsic and extrinsic reinforcement, simulations that work by
immersion that gradually removes learner support
• REVERSES: learning in isolation, study, individual creativity, attempts to shorten learning time.
SOCIAL MEDIA STRATEGIES
• WHATTHEY ARE: Use of social media to engage students in learning
• REPLACES: LMS-based elearning
• ENHANCES: Use of student-owned hardware for learning, digital media production and
• RETRIEVES: after-school events, constructivism, portfolios
• REVERSES: textbooks, standardization of content and testing
AGILE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES
• WHATTHEY ARE: Iterative development strategies with frequent version releases to
• REPLACES: waterfall-structured development, ISD (Instructional System Design), top-down
• ENHANCES: user input during multiple stages of learning material development, speed of
delivery, bottom-up development
• RETRIEVES: development over design
• REVERSES: reliance on standard authoring system tools, detailed design, pre-determined
interdependencies of individual course elements
NEWER AUTHORING SYSTEMS
• WHATTHEY ARE: Software programs dedicated to developing eLearning. Provide support
for quicker and easier development by individuals or small teams that can substitute for
artists, instructional designers, programmers and/or audio producers
• REPLACES: artists, instructional designers, programmers and/or audio producers, learning
• ENHANCES: role of subject matter experts (SMEs), writers, agile development, bespoke
• RETRIEVES: use of simple traditional teaching strategies: teach, exercise, then test; jack-of-all-
• REVERSES: research on learning, specialism, attention to detail, development and application of
• WHAT IT IS: Using data-driven engines for sequencing learning events within a given course
• REPLACES: pre-set learning sequences, set durations for learning, single learning paths, one-
size-fits-all; post tests; synchronous learning; intervention of teacher;
• ENHANCES: student-centric sequencing of learning events, individualized instruction;
• RETRIEVES: iterative testing strategies; real-world performance measurement; collection,
retention and analysis of individual and large-group online test and performance results
• REVERSES: roles of client and server in determining learning sequence
LMSVS SCORM 1.2, 2004,AND EXPERIENCE API
• WHATTHEY ARE: Protocols for communications between eLearning clients and learning
management servers. SCORM 1.2 supported hosting courseware and collection of pass/fail information.
SCORM 2004 expanded collection of student data from eLearning events within an eLearning course.
xAPI expanded collection of data from learning experiences beyond eLearning courseware.
• REPLACES: Each replaces the data collection scope of the previous protocol; drill-and-kill courseware.
• ENHANCES: Each supports the ability to collect, track and analyze a student’s learning in continually
expanding experiential contexts and spaces. Real-world performance date collection.
• RETRIEVES: portfolios, real-world interactions, field trips, lab experiments
• REVERSES: brick and mortar classroom learning, traditional eLearning courseware
QUESTIONS AND RETORTS…
Full appreciation to Marshall McLuhan for his tetrad structure.
Program Manager, Learning Systems Design