Principle of Management - Communication Management & Interpersonal Skills
MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION &
Presenter: 1. REEFEAR EAPEAR
2. NOR AMANINA ZULKIFLI
Group Member: MOHD YUSUF KHAIRON
NOR AKILAH MOHD AMIR
Communication is the activity of conveying information through the exchange
of thoughts, messages, or information, as by
speech, visuals, signals, written, or behavior. It is the meaningful exchange of
information between two or more living creatures.
• Definition of communication is:
• Any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person
information about that person's needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or
• Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional
or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or non-linguistic forms, and may
occur through spoken or other modes.
• Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the
receiver does not have to be present or aware of the sender's intent to
communicate at the time of communication so communication can occur across
vast distances in time and space.
• Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of
communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the
receiver understands the sender's message.
• Communicating with others involves three primary steps:
a) Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the sender. This can be a
concept, idea, information, or feeling.
b) Encoding: Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols.
c) Decoding: Lastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or
information that a person can understand.
• Human spoken and pictorial languages can be described as a system of symbols
and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word
"language" also refers to common properties of languages. Language learning
normally occurs most intensively during human childhood.
• Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for
symbols which enable communication with others around them. Languages
seem to share certain properties although many of these include exceptions.
• There is no defined line between a language and a dialect. Constructed
languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, and various
mathematical formalisms are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared
by human languages.
• Communication is the flow or exchange of information within people or a group
• Nonverbal communication describes the process of conveying meaning in the
form of non-word messages.
• Some forms of non verbal communication include chronemics, haptics, gesture,
body language or posture, facial expression and eye contact, object
communication such as clothing, hairstyles, architecture, symbols, info-graphics,
and tone of voice, as well as through an aggregate of the above.
• Speech also contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage. This form of
communication is the most known for interacting with people. These include
voice lesson quality, emotion and speaking style as well as prosodic features such
as rhythm, intonation and stress.
• Likewise, written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style,
spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotional
expressions in pictorial form.
Verbal and Non
Pictures and Media
• Oral communication, while primarily referring to spoken verbal
communication, can also employ visual aids and non-verbal
elements to support the conveyance of meaning.
• Oral communication includes
speeches, presentations, discussions, and aspects of interpersonal
• As a type of face-to-face communication, body language and choice
tonality play a significant role, and may have a greater impact upon
the listener than informational content.
• This type of communication also garners immediate feedback.
Communication can be seen as processes of information transmission
governed by three levels of semiotic rules:
1) Pragmatic (concerned with the relations between signs/expressions and
2) Semantic (study of relationships between signs and symbols and what
they represent) and
3) Syntactic (formal properties of signs and symbols).
Therefore, communication is social interaction where at least two interacting
agents share a common set of signs and a common set of semiotic rules. This
commonly held rule in some sense ignores auto-communication, including
intrapersonal communication via diaries or self-talk, both secondary
phenomena that followed the primary acquisition of communicative
competences within social interactions.
• Communications management is the systematic planning, implementing,
monitoring, and revision of all the channels of communication within an
organization, and between organizations; it also includes the organization and
dissemination of new communication directives connected with an organization,
network, or communications technology.
• Aspects of communications management include developing corporate
communication strategies, designing internal and external communications
directives, and managing the flow of information, including online
• New technology forces constant innovation on the part of communications
• As a manager, one must take a contingency approach to communicating with
their employees and communicate on a personal level.
• It’s the manager’s responsibility to determine if their employee’s personality
falls under the following: Reactors, Workaholics, Persisters, Dreamers, Rebels, or
• One simple and popular communications method is called the weekly reporting
• Every employee composes an e-mail report, once a week, including information on
their activities in the preceding week, their plans for the following week, and any
other information deemed relevant to the larger group, bearing in mind length
• Reports are sent to managers, who summarize and report to their own managers,
eventually leading to an overall summary led by the CEO, which is then sent to the
board of directors.
• The CEO then sends the board's summary back down the ladder, where each
manager can append an additional summary or note before referring it to their
• Eventually, each employee will receive a long e-mail, containing many or all of
the above-mentioned summaries, from every level of management; reading the
full result is rarely a requirement. Curious or ambitious employees are
considered more likely to read the result; task-centered employees, however,
Project management plans, project charter,
communicating over long distance.
TECHNOLOGIES, AND CHANNELS
a) Face to face
h) Messaging software
• There are five organizations of communication networks if we
consider the number of members in group is five, which was
proposed by Bavelas in 1950. The communication structures are as
follows: Circle, Chain, Y, Wheel and Concom.
• Take Circle pattern as example, a person can
only communicate to his/her neighbour on both
left-hand and right-hand side, so does everyone
else. In such pattern, information or messages
can only be delivered by person to person like
cascade form but in two directions from the
• You may notice the situation that if one of them
receives the message but do nothing about
it, such as not telling the other neighbour, that
neighbour still have chance to get the message
if others are responsible to deliver the message
to their neighbours.
• Imagine that a group of students deliver paper
note in class, one pass the note to another and
the note can be delivered back from different
student, which forms the circle pattern.
• We can easily cut off one of those
communications to form Chain
pattern, just like the situation we
mentioned that one do nothing about
the communication to the next one.
• Unlike the Circle pattern, its
disadvantage is obvious that the
information may not go further if one
in the middle of chain is unwilling to
pass on the message.
• So in this Chain pattern, a
requirement that members must be
active in the group is needed.
• The Chain pattern is just like the
process of posting a letter.
• We continue cutting off one of
communications’ connection but link
the separate member to the middle one
of the chain, thus we gain the Y pattern.
• Y pattern is similar to the Chain pattern
yet the one who can communicate with
three members plays a more important
role in the group
• It can be seen more easily that the middle
member’s status isn’t the same as others
if we keep on cutting off the connection
and do the same thing that link the apart
one to the middle member, where we get
the Wheel pattern.
• The middle member is called as central
person or key person. Nowadays, many
enterprises’ management structure is
using this Wheel pattern to managing the
company and normally the key person is
exactly the CEO.
• Centralized networks is recognized as a
structure that is both appropriate and fast
to deal with simple task while
decentralized network is apt to handle
• The Concom pattern is formed if every two
members can communicate with each
other and it is the most popular pattern in
building social networking communication.
• In this pattern, there is no such a central
person or leader existing, so everyone in
the group plays an equal role with the
highest participants’ satisfaction.
• Members can talk without any hesitate like
in the real life because that the social
network doesn’t have his/her boss or
• We can hardly see any e-commerce social
network don’t use this pattern to form
their social networking and thus the users
have the highest flexibility to buy things
from one online-shop to the other.
To sum up, Communication
Networks is diverse and each of
them leads to different level of
leadership among the members.
To find out the most suitable
and effective communication
pattern to solve different
problems is very important in
• Interpersonal skills are the life skills we use
every day to communicate and interact with
other people, both individually and in groups
• Interpersonal communications means "showing
appropriate ways to exchange your ideas and
• Gaining Information
• Building a Context of Understanding
• Establishing Identity
• Interpersonal Needs :
• People who have worked on developing
strong interpersonal skills are usually more
successful in both their professional and
• Employers often seek to hire staff with 'strong
interpersonal skills' - they want people who
will work well in a team and be able to
communicate effectively with colleagues,
customers and clients
• A student demonstrates appropriate application
of this skill when he / she can do a good job of
presenting both sides of an issue, showing how
both sides feel and interact, showing
respect, using appropriate language.
• Some examples of activities that
help to build this skills include
skills, role plays, dialogue, and
Lack of Time
Differences in objective
• Written word
• Spoken word
• Visual images
• Symbolic gesture
1. MEMO – less formal than letter, more likely to be read, not
2. NOTICE BOARDS – may never be read, good for staff-to-staff
3. letter to staff – private, personal, lends weight to its subject
4. E-MAIL – private, less formal than letter, less likely to be kept
5. FAXES – personal, public
6. INTERNAL NEWSLETTER – public, not for bad news, useful for
minor but necessary news
1. TELEPHONE – immediate, informal, private
2. ONE-TO-ONE MEETING – confidential, more formal
than phone call
3. DEPARTMENTAL OR INTER-departmental meeting – for
group interaction, for discussion
4. PRESENTATION – persuasive, one-sided (control
5. COMPANY MEETING – for very important news,
everyone hears at the same time
• You listen to and acknowledge other people's thoughts
and feelings: Rather than showing that you only care
about broadcasting your feelings and insisting that others
agree with you, you encourage others to express what
they are thinking and feeling. You listen and try to
• You express your own thoughts and feelings
openly and directly: If you only listen to what
other people are thinking or feeling and you
don't express your own thoughts or feelings, you
end up feeling shortchanged or "dumped on."
• A respectful tone of voice conveys that you are
taking others seriously and that you also expect
to be taken seriously.
• In addition, people with good communication
skills are assertive without being aggressive or
Eye contact is vital for good communication.
For example, how would you feel if the person
you were talking to kept looking around the
hallway or out the window?
Appropriate body language encourages
conversation. Nodding your
head, smiling, laughing, using words such as "uh-
huh" and "yeah" and asking questions at
appropriate times assure the person that you are
Clear, organized ideas help you accurately and honestly
describe your feelings and contribute to conversations
and to decisions that need to be made. Good
communicators are also specific.
For example, a good communicator would say, "I need to
use the computer from 7-9," as opposed to "I'll need the
• Passive communication involves the inability or
unwillingness to express thoughts and feelings.
Passive people will do something they don't want
to do or make up an excuse rather than say how
• Assertive behavior involves standing up for
oneself. Assertive people will say what
they think and stand up for their beliefs
without hurting others
• The aggressive style of communication involves
overreaction, blaming and criticizing. Aggressive
people try to get their way through bullying,
intimidating or even physical violence.
• They do not or will not consider the rights of
• keep everyone inform at the same time
• give everyone important instructions collectively
• encourage people to ask questions
• involve people in key decisions
• be available
• let them see that you are rooting from them
• keep your sense of humor