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Principle of Management - Communication Management & Interpersonal Skills

The way of communication and interpersonal skills in management perspective for education views.

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Principle of Management - Communication Management & Interpersonal Skills

  2. 2. COMMUNICATIONS Communication is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, written, or behavior. It is the meaningful exchange of information between two or more living creatures. • Definition of communication is: • Any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person information about that person's needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. • Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or non-linguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes.
  3. 3. • Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the receiver does not have to be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication so communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. • Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver understands the sender's message. • Communicating with others involves three primary steps: a) Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the sender. This can be a concept, idea, information, or feeling. b) Encoding: Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols. c) Decoding: Lastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or information that a person can understand.
  4. 4. VERBAL COMMUNICATION • Human spoken and pictorial languages can be described as a system of symbols and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word "language" also refers to common properties of languages. Language learning normally occurs most intensively during human childhood. • Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them. Languages seem to share certain properties although many of these include exceptions. • There is no defined line between a language and a dialect. Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, and various mathematical formalisms are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages. • Communication is the flow or exchange of information within people or a group of people.
  5. 5. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION • Nonverbal communication describes the process of conveying meaning in the form of non-word messages. • Some forms of non verbal communication include chronemics, haptics, gesture, body language or posture, facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyles, architecture, symbols, info-graphics, and tone of voice, as well as through an aggregate of the above. • Speech also contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage. This form of communication is the most known for interacting with people. These include voice lesson quality, emotion and speaking style as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. • Likewise, written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotional expressions in pictorial form.
  6. 6. Eye Contact Verbal and Non Verbal Communications Sign Language Haptic Communications Chronemics Tactile Communications Braille Pictures and Media Body Language Graphic
  7. 7. ORAL COMMUNICATION • Oral communication, while primarily referring to spoken verbal communication, can also employ visual aids and non-verbal elements to support the conveyance of meaning. • Oral communication includes speeches, presentations, discussions, and aspects of interpersonal communication. • As a type of face-to-face communication, body language and choice tonality play a significant role, and may have a greater impact upon the listener than informational content. • This type of communication also garners immediate feedback.
  8. 8. Communication can be seen as processes of information transmission governed by three levels of semiotic rules: 1) Pragmatic (concerned with the relations between signs/expressions and their users) 2) Semantic (study of relationships between signs and symbols and what they represent) and 3) Syntactic (formal properties of signs and symbols). Therefore, communication is social interaction where at least two interacting agents share a common set of signs and a common set of semiotic rules. This commonly held rule in some sense ignores auto-communication, including intrapersonal communication via diaries or self-talk, both secondary phenomena that followed the primary acquisition of communicative competences within social interactions.
  9. 9. COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT • Communications management is the systematic planning, implementing, monitoring, and revision of all the channels of communication within an organization, and between organizations; it also includes the organization and dissemination of new communication directives connected with an organization, network, or communications technology. • Aspects of communications management include developing corporate communication strategies, designing internal and external communications directives, and managing the flow of information, including online communication. • New technology forces constant innovation on the part of communications managers. • As a manager, one must take a contingency approach to communicating with their employees and communicate on a personal level. • It’s the manager’s responsibility to determine if their employee’s personality falls under the following: Reactors, Workaholics, Persisters, Dreamers, Rebels, or Promoters.
  10. 10. • One simple and popular communications method is called the weekly reporting method: • Every employee composes an e-mail report, once a week, including information on their activities in the preceding week, their plans for the following week, and any other information deemed relevant to the larger group, bearing in mind length considerations. • Reports are sent to managers, who summarize and report to their own managers, eventually leading to an overall summary led by the CEO, which is then sent to the board of directors. • The CEO then sends the board's summary back down the ladder, where each manager can append an additional summary or note before referring it to their employees. • Eventually, each employee will receive a long e-mail, containing many or all of the above-mentioned summaries, from every level of management; reading the full result is rarely a requirement. Curious or ambitious employees are considered more likely to read the result; task-centered employees, however, are not.
  11. 11. Communication Methods: When Used: Formal Written Project management plans, project charter, communicating over long distance. Formal Verbal Presentations Informal Written Emails, notes Informal Verbal Conversation
  12. 12. COMMUNICATION METHODS, TECHNOLOGIES, AND CHANNELS Communication Technologies a) Face to face b) Telephones c) Fax d) Email e) Meetings f) Skype g) Facebook/Twitter h) Messaging software i) Blog Communication Channels
  13. 13. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS • There are five organizations of communication networks if we consider the number of members in group is five, which was proposed by Bavelas in 1950. The communication structures are as follows: Circle, Chain, Y, Wheel and Concom.
  14. 14. • Take Circle pattern as example, a person can only communicate to his/her neighbour on both left-hand and right-hand side, so does everyone else. In such pattern, information or messages can only be delivered by person to person like cascade form but in two directions from the start. • You may notice the situation that if one of them receives the message but do nothing about it, such as not telling the other neighbour, that neighbour still have chance to get the message if others are responsible to deliver the message to their neighbours. • Imagine that a group of students deliver paper note in class, one pass the note to another and the note can be delivered back from different student, which forms the circle pattern.
  15. 15. • We can easily cut off one of those communications to form Chain pattern, just like the situation we mentioned that one do nothing about the communication to the next one. • Unlike the Circle pattern, its disadvantage is obvious that the information may not go further if one in the middle of chain is unwilling to pass on the message. • So in this Chain pattern, a requirement that members must be active in the group is needed. • The Chain pattern is just like the process of posting a letter.
  16. 16. • We continue cutting off one of communications’ connection but link the separate member to the middle one of the chain, thus we gain the Y pattern. • Y pattern is similar to the Chain pattern yet the one who can communicate with three members plays a more important role in the group
  17. 17. • It can be seen more easily that the middle member’s status isn’t the same as others if we keep on cutting off the connection and do the same thing that link the apart one to the middle member, where we get the Wheel pattern. • The middle member is called as central person or key person. Nowadays, many enterprises’ management structure is using this Wheel pattern to managing the company and normally the key person is exactly the CEO. • Centralized networks is recognized as a structure that is both appropriate and fast to deal with simple task while decentralized network is apt to handle complex task.
  18. 18. • The Concom pattern is formed if every two members can communicate with each other and it is the most popular pattern in building social networking communication. • In this pattern, there is no such a central person or leader existing, so everyone in the group plays an equal role with the highest participants’ satisfaction. • Members can talk without any hesitate like in the real life because that the social network doesn’t have his/her boss or superior. • We can hardly see any e-commerce social network don’t use this pattern to form their social networking and thus the users have the highest flexibility to buy things from one online-shop to the other.  To sum up, Communication Networks is diverse and each of them leads to different level of leadership among the members.  To find out the most suitable and effective communication pattern to solve different problems is very important in social networks.
  19. 19. • Interpersonal skills are the life skills we use every day to communicate and interact with other people, both individually and in groups • Interpersonal communications means "showing appropriate ways to exchange your ideas and needs.
  20. 20. • Gaining Information • Building a Context of Understanding • Establishing Identity • Interpersonal Needs : • Control • Affection
  21. 21. 26 listening questioning language & communication using feedback conflict handling
  22. 22. • People who have worked on developing strong interpersonal skills are usually more successful in both their professional and personal lives. • Employers often seek to hire staff with 'strong interpersonal skills' - they want people who will work well in a team and be able to communicate effectively with colleagues, customers and clients
  23. 23. • A student demonstrates appropriate application of this skill when he / she can do a good job of presenting both sides of an issue, showing how both sides feel and interact, showing respect, using appropriate language.
  24. 24. • Some examples of activities that help to build this skills include skills, role plays, dialogue, and puppet shows.
  25. 25. Poor Listening Emotional Arousal Lack of Time Differences in objective 30
  26. 26. • Written word • Spoken word • Visual images • Multimedia • Symbolic gesture
  27. 27. 1. MEMO – less formal than letter, more likely to be read, not confidential 2. NOTICE BOARDS – may never be read, good for staff-to-staff 3. letter to staff – private, personal, lends weight to its subject 4. E-MAIL – private, less formal than letter, less likely to be kept like letter 5. FAXES – personal, public 6. INTERNAL NEWSLETTER – public, not for bad news, useful for minor but necessary news
  28. 28. 1. TELEPHONE – immediate, informal, private 2. ONE-TO-ONE MEETING – confidential, more formal than phone call 3. DEPARTMENTAL OR INTER-departmental meeting – for group interaction, for discussion 4. PRESENTATION – persuasive, one-sided (control interruptions) 5. COMPANY MEETING – for very important news, everyone hears at the same time
  29. 29. • You listen to and acknowledge other people's thoughts and feelings: Rather than showing that you only care about broadcasting your feelings and insisting that others agree with you, you encourage others to express what they are thinking and feeling. You listen and try to understand.
  30. 30. • You express your own thoughts and feelings openly and directly: If you only listen to what other people are thinking or feeling and you don't express your own thoughts or feelings, you end up feeling shortchanged or "dumped on."
  31. 31. • A respectful tone of voice conveys that you are taking others seriously and that you also expect to be taken seriously. • In addition, people with good communication skills are assertive without being aggressive or manipulative
  32. 32. Eye contact is vital for good communication. For example, how would you feel if the person you were talking to kept looking around the hallway or out the window?
  33. 33. Appropriate body language encourages conversation. Nodding your head, smiling, laughing, using words such as "uh- huh" and "yeah" and asking questions at appropriate times assure the person that you are really listening.
  34. 34. Clear, organized ideas help you accurately and honestly describe your feelings and contribute to conversations and to decisions that need to be made. Good communicators are also specific. For example, a good communicator would say, "I need to use the computer from 7-9," as opposed to "I'll need the computer tonight."
  35. 35. • Passive communication involves the inability or unwillingness to express thoughts and feelings. Passive people will do something they don't want to do or make up an excuse rather than say how they feel.
  36. 36. • Assertive behavior involves standing up for oneself. Assertive people will say what they think and stand up for their beliefs without hurting others
  37. 37. • The aggressive style of communication involves overreaction, blaming and criticizing. Aggressive people try to get their way through bullying, intimidating or even physical violence. • They do not or will not consider the rights of others.
  38. 38. • Effective Listening • Audience Understanding • Perceptual Clarity
  39. 39. • Effective Verbal Messages • Reasoning • Evidence • Credibility • Style
  40. 40. • Effective Nonverbal Messages • Vocalics • Artifacts • Touch • Environmental factors
  41. 41. • keep everyone inform at the same time • give everyone important instructions collectively • encourage people to ask questions • involve people in key decisions • be available • let them see that you are rooting from them • keep your sense of humor
  42. 42. • less gossip • better motivation • higher productivity • increased staff loyalty • lower staff turnover