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Spanish American War

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Spanish American War

  1. 1. Spanish-American War "It has been a splendid little war, begun with the highest motives, carried on with magnificent intelligence and spirit favored by that fortune which loves the brave." -John Hay, United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom
  2. 2. Spain and Cuba • 1895: Cuban revolt against the rule of Spain Columbia (the American people) reaches out to help oppressed Cuba in 1897 while Uncle Sam (the US Government) is blind.
  3. 3. U.S. Sympathizes with Cubans • William Hearst’s New York Journal and Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World publish atrocity stories (some true, some created) • Men like Hearst and Pulitzer created what would be known as Yellow Journalism- is a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead used eye- catching headlines to sell more newspapers.
  4. 4. U.S. War Fever was Incited • USS Maine visited Cuba and mysteriously exploded in Havana Harbor February 15, 1898 • A Spanish letter critical of President McKinley angered Americans • President McKinley asked Congress for a declaration of war
  5. 5. Congress’s Declaration of War • Issues a four part statement on April 19, 1898 - They declared Cuba free - They stated that Spain must withdraw - They stated that armed forces would be used to achieve the above two items - They declared that the U.S. had no intention of annexing Cuba (Teller Amendment)
  6. 6. Time Line and Events of the War • May 2, 1898: Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish in the Philippines • August 13, 1898: American troops capture Manila in the Philippines • July 3, 1898: Spanish fleet destroyed in Cuba • August 12, 1898: armistice
  7. 7. Events to Consider during the War • The U.S. preparation for war with Cuba was poorly coordinated. Troops were poorly trained and conditions in the camps were very poor • The most famous of the troops were known as the Rough Riders. They were organized by Teddy Roosevelt and commanded by Col. Leonard Wood. • 5000 Americans died in the war, but only 500 died in battle. The remainder died of disease.
  8. 8. Treaty of Paris • U.S. received Guam and Puerto Rico from Spain • Cuba was freed • U.S. paid Spain 20 million for the Philippines John Hay, Secretary of State, signing the memorandum of ratification on behalf of the United States
  9. 9. Opposition to American Imperialism • Anti-imperialists argued against acquisition of the Philippines: -it violated the American ideal of “consent of the governed” as found in the Declaration of Independence -despotism abroad might lead to despotism at home -annexation would propel the U.S. into the political and military cauldron of the Far East
  10. 10. McKinley’s Decision • The President decides to keep control of the Philippines • This decision was followed by a rebellion in the Philippines led by Emilio Aguinaldo • The rebellion lasted 3 years, cost more than 170 million dollars, and resulted in the lives of 4000 Americans and 20000 Filipinos • With the Philippines as a base, the U.S. now sought an Open Door Policy in China Emilio Aguinaldo in the field. Filipino soldiers outside Manila in 1899.
  11. 11. McKinley’s Decision continued… • Cuba was freed, but the U.S. imposed the Platt Amendment which gave the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuba and to guarantee a U.S. base in southeast Cuba (Guantanamo Bay)
  12. 12. McKinley’s Considerations • He considered commercial interests: a base for trade in Asia; the need to keep other countries from seizing it • He considered what was the “White Man’s Burden”: to develop, educate, and uplift less fortunate peoples • He considered the need for refueling bases for the growing U.S. Navy (Alfred Thayer Mahan’s book, “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783”) The white man's burden – The Journal, Detroit, 1898.

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