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Evolution of Human Brain
From Neanderthal to Homo
Sapiens
Neanderthal
• The term ‘Neanderthal’ comes
from the Neander Valley near
Dusseldorf, Germany. The first
Neanderthal fossils that scient...
INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT NEANDERTHAL:
• Not that a maimed Neanderthal could afford to retire. Instead
they nursed each othe...
• Neanderthals Had Style
The 2009 study concludes that
Neanderthals likely enjoyed body
painting, and had a special fondne...
CRO-MAGNON
First found at a rock shelter site at Go-
Magnon near the village of Lez Eyzpies,
France in 1868.
COMMON FEATURES:
• Skull is long headed and the forehead is straight.
• Brow ridges only slightly projecting.
• Cranial va...
Interesting facts about Cro-Magnon
• They made their stable homes out of leftover tusks and large animal
bones.
• Fire was...
HOMO SAPIENS
• AGE -300,000 years ago to present.
• BUILT- bodies with short, slender
trunks and long limbs.
• BRAIN SIZE- about 1350 c...
Why did bipedalism become the primary
adaptation of hominids?
• Carrying behavior
• Reduction of overall heat stress -
fac...
DID YOU KNOW?
• Culture and technology- The explosion of artistic material is due to a change in
human cognition - humans ...
Examples from Movies & Shows
Advanced culture.
Sophisticated tools.
Long-distance
transport.
Social networks.
Large dwellings.
Tailored clothing....
A Comparative Chart
HOMO HABILIS HOMO ERECTUS HOMO SAPIENS
MEANING Handy human Upright human Wise human
AGE 2 million year...
NEANDERTHAL CRO MAGNUN HOMO SAPIENS
PHYSICAL
1. Built Strongest. Robust built,
shorter limbs, wider ribcage.
Reduced chin....
THANK YOU!
Evolution of man
Evolution of man
Evolution of man
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Evolution of man

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Presentation on evolution of brain from Neanderthal to Homo Sapiens

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Evolution of man

  1. 1. Evolution of Human Brain From Neanderthal to Homo Sapiens
  2. 2. Neanderthal
  3. 3. • The term ‘Neanderthal’ comes from the Neander Valley near Dusseldorf, Germany. The first Neanderthal fossils that scientists identified as prehistoric people were found there in 1856. • Evolved to be cold-adapted: – Short and stocky – Large nose (for warming air) – Barrel chest (for warming air) – Long, low, thick skull but with large Brain
  4. 4. INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT NEANDERTHAL: • Not that a maimed Neanderthal could afford to retire. Instead they nursed each other back to health, enlisting their greatest concept of all: empathy. • They also had medicine. Traces of chamomile and yarrow, two anti-inflammatories, have been detected in the plaque on Neanderthal teeth. • Evidently Spain was the place to be if you were a Neanderthal with cultural pretensions. Last summer, paintings in El Castillo Cave on the Pas River were found to be at least 40,800 years old. • They were better painters than talkers. The anatomy of their vocal tracts would have prevented them from sounding some vowels. • First beings known to have buried their dead.
  5. 5. • Neanderthals Had Style The 2009 study concludes that Neanderthals likely enjoyed body painting, and had a special fondness for glitter and jewellery. • Neanderthals Cared for their Own Neanderthal had a dangerous life was, life span — an average of 30 years — they actively cared for their sick, elderly, and wounded instead of literally abandoning them to the wolves.
  6. 6. CRO-MAGNON First found at a rock shelter site at Go- Magnon near the village of Lez Eyzpies, France in 1868.
  7. 7. COMMON FEATURES: • Skull is long headed and the forehead is straight. • Brow ridges only slightly projecting. • Cranial vault noticeably flattened and its capacity is large - 100cubic inches. • Occipital bone(at the back of the head) projects outwards. • Forward projection of the upper jaw is also distinctive. • Eye sockets are low-set, wide. • Strongly developed points of muscular attachment. • Massive ascending remus (the upward projection of the lower jaw, where it attaches to the skull).
  8. 8. Interesting facts about Cro-Magnon • They made their stable homes out of leftover tusks and large animal bones. • Fire was used for trapping animals, as they were attracted to the heat and light. Also used for protection against wild animals. • Cro-Magnons made burial art, and they prepared their dead with beautiful flowers, seashells, and art. They also had ceremonies for boys going into manhood, and after good hunting. • Cro-Magnons did not have a wide variety of language, so instead they made clicking sounds with their throats. They did not have written language. Note- Scientists believed that the physical dimensions of the “cro-magnon” are not sufficiently different enough from modern humans to warrant a separate designation. Scientist today use “AUTOMATICALLY MODERN HUMAN ( AMH)” or “EARLY MODERN HUMAN (EMH)” to designate the human beings who looked a lot like us ,but did not have the complete suit of modern human behaviours
  9. 9. HOMO SAPIENS
  10. 10. • AGE -300,000 years ago to present. • BUILT- bodies with short, slender trunks and long limbs. • BRAIN SIZE- about 1350 cubic centimeters which makes-up 2.2% of our body weight. • JAWS are short and teeth are relatively small compared with earlier species. • LIMB BONES - thinner and less robust than earlier species and indicates a reduction in muscle size. • LEGS- are relatively long compared with the arms.
  11. 11. Why did bipedalism become the primary adaptation of hominids? • Carrying behavior • Reduction of overall heat stress - facilitates heat loss through convection by exposing body to air currents, only humans have sweat glands that produce moisture to cool body • Most energy efficient way to travel long distances • Allows for better vision in open environments & defensive action against predators by freeing hands to throw objects
  12. 12. DID YOU KNOW? • Culture and technology- The explosion of artistic material is due to a change in human cognition - humans developed a greater ability to think , communicate symbolically , memorize better. • Tools- Homo sapiens made stone tools such as flakes, scrapers which required an ability for abstract thought to mentally plan a series of steps that could then be executed. • Evidence of musical instruments first appeared in Europe. Paleolithic bone flutes and whistles from various sites in France. • Settlement- Shelters were constructed using a range of materials including wooden poles and the bones of large animals, such as mammoths. They were covered with animal hides and the living areas included fire hearths. • Burial- They began to be more elaborate with the inclusion of valued objects – tools, body adornments. Red ochre was sprinkled over the bodies. • Environment and diet- Humans began to domesticate plants and animals although wild foods still remained important in the diet.
  13. 13. Examples from Movies & Shows
  14. 14. Advanced culture. Sophisticated tools. Long-distance transport. Social networks. Large dwellings. Tailored clothing. Rituals. Art. Linguistic communication. Warfare. Our ancestors had large brains but did not show creativity or intelligence. Between 50,000-35,000 years ago, the following appeared:
  15. 15. A Comparative Chart HOMO HABILIS HOMO ERECTUS HOMO SAPIENS MEANING Handy human Upright human Wise human AGE 2 million years ago 1.6 million years ago 200,000 yrs; 100,000 yrs ago. LOCATION Africa Migrated to Europe and Asia. Africa and Asia; Europe.
  16. 16. NEANDERTHAL CRO MAGNUN HOMO SAPIENS PHYSICAL 1. Built Strongest. Robust built, shorter limbs, wider ribcage. Reduced chin. Larger length & width, very strong arms. Red and blond hair. Light skin tone. Eye sockets were larger. Forehead was slanting. Large teeth. Strong muscular body. Face short and wide with prominent chin. Eye sockets are rectangular. Forehead was straight. Teeth big. Lighter built, jaws less heavy. Limb strength decreased. Teeth are small and fine. 2. Height Males- 5.3 ft Females- 4.9 ft Males- 6.5 ft Females- 5.9 ft 3. Brain Size 1400cm3 1600cm3 (6% of modern brain cerebrum). Long and low skulls. Cerebral cortex develops in womb. HABITAT Lived in caves and in nomadic style Lived in tents and began residing in one place More permanent houses. OCCUPATION Nomads, hence survived through means of hunting and gathering. Worked individually. Hunting- in group, social affiliation. Agriculture. INVENTION Invention of fire. Weapons and stone tools. Cave painting using iron oxide. Made jewelries and tools like bow and arrow Invention of wheels.
  17. 17. THANK YOU!

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