• The term ‘Neanderthal’ comes
from the Neander Valley near
Dusseldorf, Germany. The first
Neanderthal fossils that scientists
identified as prehistoric people
were found there in 1856.
• Evolved to be cold-adapted:
– Short and stocky
– Large nose (for warming air)
– Barrel chest (for warming air)
– Long, low, thick skull but
with large Brain
INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT NEANDERTHAL:
• Not that a maimed Neanderthal could afford to retire. Instead
they nursed each other back to health, enlisting their greatest
concept of all: empathy.
• They also had medicine. Traces of chamomile and yarrow, two
anti-inflammatories, have been detected in the plaque on
• Evidently Spain was the place to be if you were a Neanderthal
with cultural pretensions. Last summer, paintings in El Castillo
Cave on the Pas River were found to be at least 40,800 years
• They were better painters than talkers. The anatomy of their
vocal tracts would have prevented them from sounding some
• First beings known to have buried their dead.
• Neanderthals Had Style
The 2009 study concludes that
Neanderthals likely enjoyed body
painting, and had a special fondness
for glitter and jewellery.
• Neanderthals Cared for their Own
Neanderthal had a dangerous life
was, life span — an average of 30
years — they actively cared for their
sick, elderly, and wounded instead of
literally abandoning them to the
First found at a rock shelter site at Go-
Magnon near the village of Lez Eyzpies,
France in 1868.
• Skull is long headed and the forehead is straight.
• Brow ridges only slightly projecting.
• Cranial vault noticeably flattened and its capacity is large - 100cubic
• Occipital bone(at the back of the head) projects outwards.
• Forward projection of the upper jaw is also distinctive.
• Eye sockets are low-set, wide.
• Strongly developed points of muscular attachment.
• Massive ascending remus (the upward projection of the lower jaw,
where it attaches to the skull).
Interesting facts about Cro-Magnon
• They made their stable homes out of leftover tusks and large animal
• Fire was used for trapping animals, as they were attracted to the heat
and light. Also used for protection against wild animals.
• Cro-Magnons made burial art, and they prepared their dead with
beautiful flowers, seashells, and art. They also had ceremonies for boys
going into manhood, and after good hunting.
• Cro-Magnons did not have a wide variety of language, so instead they
made clicking sounds with their throats. They did not have written
Note- Scientists believed that the physical dimensions of the “cro-magnon” are not
sufficiently different enough from modern humans to warrant a separate
designation. Scientist today use “AUTOMATICALLY MODERN HUMAN ( AMH)” or
“EARLY MODERN HUMAN (EMH)” to designate the human beings who looked a
lot like us ,but did not have the complete suit of modern human behaviours
• AGE -300,000 years ago to present.
• BUILT- bodies with short, slender
trunks and long limbs.
• BRAIN SIZE- about 1350 cubic
centimeters which makes-up 2.2% of
our body weight.
• JAWS are short and teeth are relatively
small compared with earlier species.
• LIMB BONES - thinner and less robust
than earlier species and indicates a
reduction in muscle size.
• LEGS- are relatively long compared
with the arms.
Why did bipedalism become the primary
adaptation of hominids?
• Carrying behavior
• Reduction of overall heat stress -
facilitates heat loss through
convection by exposing body to air
currents, only humans have sweat
glands that produce moisture to cool
• Most energy efficient way to travel
• Allows for better vision in open
environments & defensive action
against predators by freeing hands to
DID YOU KNOW?
• Culture and technology- The explosion of artistic material is due to a change in
human cognition - humans developed a greater ability to think , communicate
symbolically , memorize better.
• Tools- Homo sapiens made stone tools such as flakes, scrapers which required an
ability for abstract thought to mentally plan a series of steps that could then be
• Evidence of musical instruments first appeared in Europe. Paleolithic bone flutes
and whistles from various sites in France.
• Settlement- Shelters were constructed using a range of materials including wooden
poles and the bones of large animals, such as mammoths. They were covered with
animal hides and the living areas included fire hearths.
• Burial- They began to be more elaborate with the inclusion of valued objects –
tools, body adornments. Red ochre was sprinkled over the bodies.
• Environment and diet- Humans began to domesticate plants and animals although
wild foods still remained important in the diet.
Our ancestors had large brains but did not show creativity or
intelligence. Between 50,000-35,000 years ago, the
A Comparative Chart
HOMO HABILIS HOMO ERECTUS HOMO SAPIENS
MEANING Handy human Upright human Wise human
AGE 2 million years ago 1.6 million years ago 200,000 yrs;
100,000 yrs ago.
LOCATION Africa Migrated to Europe and
Africa and Asia;
NEANDERTHAL CRO MAGNUN HOMO SAPIENS
1. Built Strongest. Robust built,
shorter limbs, wider ribcage.
Reduced chin. Larger length
& width, very strong arms.
Red and blond hair.
Light skin tone. Eye sockets
were larger. Forehead was
slanting. Large teeth.
Strong muscular body. Face
short and wide with
prominent chin. Eye sockets
are rectangular. Forehead
was straight. Teeth big.
Lighter built, jaws less
heavy. Limb strength
decreased. Teeth are small
2. Height Males- 5.3 ft
Females- 4.9 ft
Males- 6.5 ft
Females- 5.9 ft
3. Brain Size 1400cm3 1600cm3 (6% of modern
brain cerebrum). Long and
Cerebral cortex develops in
HABITAT Lived in caves and in
Lived in tents and began
residing in one place
More permanent houses.
OCCUPATION Nomads, hence survived
through means of hunting
and gathering. Worked
Hunting- in group, social
INVENTION Invention of fire. Weapons
and stone tools.
Cave painting using iron
oxide. Made jewelries and
tools like bow and arrow
Invention of wheels.