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Gods And Godesses A E


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Ancient Egypt History - Gods and Goddesses

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Gods And Godesses A E

  1. 1. Ancient Egyptian History<br />Gods and Goddesses<br /> <br />A continuation of the <br />Egyptian Hieroglyphs<br />Presented by Riquette Mory<br />7.09.2009<br />1<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />
  2. 2. Ancient Egyptian History<br /> <br />Some gods and goddesses took part in <br />creation, some brought the flood every <br />year, some offered protection, and some <br />took care of people after they died. Others <br />were either local gods who represented <br />towns, or minor gods who represented plants <br />or animals.<br />The ancient Egyptians thought that it was <br />very important to please the gods and <br />goddesses. For that reason, worshipping <br />the deities was a large part of life in <br />ancient Egypt.<br />7.09.2009<br />2<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />
  3. 3. Ancient Egypt History<br />7.09.2009<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />3<br /> Other gods and goddesses were worshipped by <br />ordinary people in their homes.<br /> These were the gods and goddesses like Bes and <br /> Tawaret who protected people from the dangers of <br /> daily life, like scorpion bites, crocodile attacks and <br /> childbirth.<br />Some gods and goddesses were worshipped by the pharaoh and priestIn large temples. These were the &apos;official&apos; gods and goddesses of the state, like Amun, Horus and Bastet<br />Some gods and goddesses were identified with particular animals.<br />For example, the goddess of war, named Sekhmet was sometimes shown with the head of a lioness to show that she was ferocious.<br />
  4. 4. Pre-dynastic and Proto-Dynastic Egypt<br />7.09.2009<br />4<br />Pre-dynastic Egypt refers to the period before the unification of Egypt. Proto-Dynastic refers to the period of Egyptian history with pharaohs, but before the Old Kingdom period. <br />Some evidence for this event comes from the Narmer Palette, named for the first known Egyptian king. <br />The hieroglyphic symbol on the palette for Egyptian king Narmer is a catfish.<br />The culture of southern Egypt of the Pre-dynastic period is described as Nagada; that of northern Egypt as Maadi. <br />The old kingdomPeriod was the great age of pyramid building that started with Djoser&apos;s 6-step pyramid at <br />Saqqara. <br />The First Intermediate Period began when the Old Kingdom&apos;s <br />centralized monarchy grew weak as provincial rulers <br />became powerful. This period ended when a local monarch <br />from Thebes gained control of all Egypt. <br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />
  5. 5. Middle Kingdom<br />7.09.2009<br />5<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />In the Middle Kingdom, a feudal period of Egyptian history began.<br />The 2nd Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt -- another period of de-centralization, like the first – began when <br />the 13th Dynasty pharaohs lost power. <br />New Kingdom<br />The New Kingdom Period included the Amarna and the Ramessid Periods. It was the most glorious period in Egyptian history.<br />The most familiar names in pharaohs ruled over Egypt, including Ramses, Tuthmose, and the heretic king Akhenaten. Military expansion, developments in art and architecture, and religious innovations marked the New Kingdom. <br />
  6. 6. Third Intermediate Period<br />7.09.2009<br />6<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />After Ramses XI, Egypt again entered a period of divided power. First rulers from Avaris (Tanis) and Thebes .<br />Late Period <br />In the Late Period, Egypt was ruled by a succession of foreigners and local kings.<br />Ptolemaic Dynasty<br />The large empire Alexander the Great had conquered was too big for one successor, he divided it into three,<br />and three generals ruledthe region.<br />Cleopatra, the only one of the Ptolemy&apos;s known to have learned the language of the subject people -- Egyptian -- was a direct descendant of the Macedonian general Ptolemy Soter and a daughter of the flute-playing Ptolemy, Ptolemy Auletes<br />Roman Period<br />Following the death of Cleopatra on August 12, 30 B.C., Rome, under Augustus, assumed control of Egypt.<br />
  7. 7. The Beginning1<br />7.09.2009<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />7<br />At first, there was only Nun. Nun was the<br />Dark Waters of chaos. And on a hill stood<br />Atum, the first god. Atum coughed and<br />spat out Shu, the god of the air, and<br />Tefnut, the goddess of moisture.<br />Shu and Tefnut had two children. First,<br />There Was Geb, the god of the earth. <br />Then, there was Nut, the goddess of the<br />sky.<br />Shu lifted Nut up so that she became a<br />Canopy Over Geb. <br />Nut and Geb had four children named<br />Osiris, Isis, Seth and Nephthys.<br />
  8. 8. The Beginning2<br />7.09.2009<br />8<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />Osiris was the king of the earth and Isis was the queen. Osiris was a good king and he ruled over the earth for many years.<br />However, everything was not well. Seth was jealous of Osiris because he wanted to be the ruler of the earth. He grew angrier and angrier until one day he killed Osiris.<br />Osiris went down into the under world and Seth remained on earth and became king.Osiris and Isis had one son called Horus. Horus battled against Seth and regained the throne.<br />After that, Horus was the king of the earth and Osiris was the king of the underworld.<br />
  9. 9. The Pharaoh<br />7.09.2009<br />9<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />The pharaoh was the political and <br />religious leader of the Egyptian <br />people, holding the titles: &apos;Lord of <br />the Two Lands and &apos;High Priest of<br />Every Temple&apos;.<br />The pharaoh represented the gods <br />on Earth. He performed rituals and <br />built temples to honor the gods.<br />Many pharaohs went to war when <br />their land was threatened or when <br />they wanted to control foreign lands.<br />For example:<br />Ramses II has travelled from Egypt to the land called <br />Nubia for a battle. The Egyptian pharaoh wants to control <br />Nubia for two reasons. The first is that Nubia is just south <br />of Egypt and threatens Egypt&apos;s borders. The second is <br />that Nubia has exotic animals, wood, and gold.<br />
  10. 10. The battle has started, and Ramses II drives a chariot towards his enemy. He gets ready to attack with his bow and arrow. Ramses II&apos;s two young sons follow behind in their chariots. <br />7.09.2009<br />10<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />Ramses II <br />
  11. 11. G O D S<br />7.09.2009<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />11<br />Amun<br />Appearance:<br /><ul><li>Man with a ram-head
  12. 12. A ram
  13. 13. Man wearing an ostrich plumed hat</li></ul>Amun was one of the most powerful gods in ancient Egypt.<br />At the height of Egyptian civilization he was called the &apos;King of the Gods&apos;.<br />when Amun was combined with the sun god Ra he was even more powerful. He was then called Amun-Ra.<br />A large and important temple was built at Thebes to honor Amun.<br />Anubis<br />Appearance:<br />Man with a jackal head<br />A jackal<br />Anubis was the god of embalming and the dead.<br />Since jackals were often seen in cemeteries, the ancient Egyptians believed that Anubis watched over the dead.<br />Anubis was the god who helped to embalm Osiris after he was killed by Seth. Thus, Anubis was the god who watched over the process of mummifying people when they died.<br />Priests often wore a mask of Anubis during mummification ceremonies.. <br />
  14. 14. G O D S<br />7.09.2009<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />12<br /> <br />Aten <br />Appearance:<br />A sun disk with rays which end in hands<br />Aten was a form of the sun god Ra.<br />During the reign of Akhenaten, the Aten was made the &apos;king&apos; of the gods.<br />Bastet<br />Appearance:<br />Woman with the head of a cat<br />Bastet was a protective goddess.<br />However, she sometimes appeared with the head of a lioness to protect the king in battle.<br />The cat was a symbol of Bastet. <br />Bastet was one of the daughters of the sungod, Ra. <br />Bes<br />Appearance:<br /><ul><li>Dwarf with lion and human features
  15. 15. Dwarf wearing the skin of a lion</li></ul>Bes was the protector of pregnant women, newborn babies and the family.<br />Amulets of Bes were popular at all levels of Egyptian society.<br />
  16. 16. G O D S<br />7.09.2009<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />13<br />Hapy<br />Appearance:<br />Man with a pot belly, shown with water plants<br />Hapy was the god of the inundation.<br />Hapy was especially important to the ancient Egyptians because he brought the flood every year.<br />The flood deposited rich silt on the banks of the Nile, allowing the Egyptians to grow crops.<br />Hathor &apos;House of Horus&apos;<br />Appearance:<br />Woman with the ears of a cow -<br />Woman with a headdress of horns and a sun disk.<br />Hathor was a protective goddess. She was also the goddess of love and joy.<br />Hathor was the wife of Horus, and was sometimes thought of as the mother of the pharaoh. A large temple was built to honor Hathor at Dendera.<br /> <br />Appearance:<br /><ul><li>Man lying down below the arch of the sky goddess Nut
  17. 17. Man with a goose on his head</li></ul>Geb was the god of the earth.<br />Geb was the husband and brother of the sky goddess Nut. He was also the father of Osiris, Isis, Nepthys and Seth.<br />When Seth and Horus fought for the throne of Egypt, Geb made Horus the ruler of the living.<br />The ancient Egyptians believed that earthquakes were Geb&apos;s laughter.<br /> <br />Geb<br />
  18. 18. G O D S<br />7.09.2009<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />14<br />Horus &apos;The One Far Above‘<br />Appearance:<br />Man with the head of a hawk<br />Horus was a god of the sky.<br />He is probably most well-known as the protector of the ruler of Egypt.<br />The Egyptians believed that the pharaoh was the &apos;living Horus&apos;.<br />Horus was a god of the sky.<br />The ancient Egyptians had many different beliefs about the god Horus. One of the most common beliefs was that Horus was the son of Isis and Osiris.<br />After Osiris was murdered by his brother Seth, Horus fought with Seth for the throne of Egypt.<br />In this battle, Horus lost one of his eyes. <br />The eye was restored to him and it became a symbol of protection for the ancient Egyptians. After this battle, <br />Horus was chosen to be the ruler of the world of the living.<br />One of the best-preserved temples in Egypt today was dedicated to Horus. It is located in Upper Egypt at a town called Edfu.<br />
  19. 19. G O D S<br />7.09.2009<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />15<br />Isis<br />Isis was a protective goddess. Woman with headdress in the shape of a throne.<br />A pair of cow horns with a sun disk.<br />She used powerful magic spells to help people in need.<br />Isiswas the wife of Osiris and the mother of Horus.<br />Since each pharaoh was considered the &apos;living Horus&apos;, <br />Isis was very important.<br />Isisis often shown holding Horus on her lap. Isis is associated with thrones because her lap was the first &apos;throne&apos; that Horus sat .<br />A temple was built to honor Isis at Philae.<br />Khepri &apos;He Who is Coming into Being&apos;<br />Appearance:<br />Man with the head of a scarab<br />A scarab beetle.<br />Khepri was a god of creation, the movement of the sun, and rebirth.<br />In certain creation stories, Khepri is connected with the god Atum. He is also connected to the sun god Ra who pushed the sun through the sky every day.<br /> <br />Nut<br />Appearance:<br />Woman whose body arches across the sky, wearing a dress decorated with stars.<br />Nut was the sky-goddess, whose body created a vault or canopy over the earth.<br />Nut was the sister/wife of Geb, the god of the earth. She was also the mother of Isis, Osiris, Nepthys and Seth.<br />The ancient Egyptians believed that at the end of the day, Nut swallowed the sun-god, Ra, and gave birth to him again the next morning. <br />
  20. 20. G O D S<br />7.09.2009<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />16<br />
  21. 21. G O D S<br />7.09.2009<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />17<br />Ra- Horakhty &apos;Horus in the Horizon&apos;<br />Appearance:<br />Man with the head of a hawk, with a sun disk headdress <br />Ra- Horakhtywas a combination of the gods Horus and Ra.<br />Horus was a god of the sky, and Ra was the god of the sun. Thus, Ra- Horakhtywas thought of as the god of the rising sun.<br />Seshat  <br />Appearance:<br />Woman wearing a panther skin dress and a star headdress<br />Seshat was the goddess of writing and measurement.<br />Seth <br />Appearance:<br />Man with the head of a &apos;Seth animal&apos; (unidentifiable)<br />Seth was the god of chaos.<br />Seth represented everything that threatened harmony in Egypt. He was the brother of Osiris and Isis, as well as the brother/husband of Nepthys. <br />He murdered his brother Osiris, then battled with his nephew Horus to be the ruler of the living.<br />At certain times in the history of ancient Egypt, Seth was associated with royalty.<br /> <br /> <br />
  22. 22. 7.09.2009<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />18<br /> <br />G O D S<br />Shu &apos;He Who Rises Up&apos;<br />Appearance:<br />Man wearing a headdress with feathers<br />A lion<br />Shu was the god of the air.<br />Shu held up the figure of Nut so that the earth and the sky were separated.<br />Sobek<br />Appearance:<br />Man with the head of a crocodile and a headdress of feathers and a sun-disk<br />Sobek was a Nile god.<br />Sobek had also a crocodile form<br />Sobek was connected with the Nile, and protected the king. Live crocodiles were kept in pools at temples built to honor Sobek.<br />Tawaret The Great One&apos;<br />Appearance:<br />Head of a hippopotamus with the arms and legs of a lion, the back and tail of a crocodile, and the breasts and stomach of a pregnant woman.<br />Tawaret was a goddess who protected women during pregnancy and childbirth.<br />People often wore amulets like this, or kept them in their homes.<br /> <br />Tawaret<br />Amulet<br />
  23. 23. G O D S<br />7.09.2009<br />Ancient Egypt - Gods and Goddesses<br />19<br /> <br />Tefnut<br />Appearance:<br />Woman with the head of a lioness<br />Tefnut was the goddess of moisture.<br />She was the wife of Shu and the mother of Nut (the sky) and Geb (the earth).<br />Thoth<br />Appearance:<br />A man with the head of an ibis holding a writing palette<br />An ibis<br />A baboon<br />Thoth was the god of writing and knowledge.<br />The ancient Egyptians believed that Thoth gave them the gift of hieroglyphic writing. Thoth was also connected with the moon. <br />Thoth amulet<br />The E N D<br /><br />