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Health Communication

This presentation gives an introduction of Health Communication, its defintion and the basic theories

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Health Communication

  1. 1. Ritu Awasthi, Deptt. of Journalism and Mass Communication BHU, Varanasi
  2. 2. <ul><li>When communication is used strategically to disseminate messages related to health, make people aware about diseases, encourage them to adopt healthy practices, sustain positive healthy behavior, empower them to make healthy choices in their life………. </li></ul><ul><li>Then this communication is HEALTH COMMUNICATION </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Health Communication encompasses the study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health*. </li></ul><ul><li>Links communication+health </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary element to improve personal and public health </li></ul><ul><li>Piotrow, Kincaid, Rimon </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Interdisciplinary field </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved from Psychology, public and community health and nursing </li></ul><ul><li>Kreps and Thortons’ (1984) Health Communication: Theory and Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Sharf_s (1984) The Physician_s Guide to Better Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Northouse and Northouse_s (1985) Health Communication: A Handbook for Professionals </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Therapeutic Communication interest group of the International Communication Association (ICA) formed in 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic Communication changed to Health Communication in 1975 ICA convention </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated Journal of Health Communication started in 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Tuft University School of Medicine was the first to offer HC courses in US </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Centers for Disease Control, the National Cancer Institute, and the National Institute for Drug Abuse have become increasingly more familiar with the field of health communication and receptive to health communication research </li></ul><ul><li>CDC is a reference site for major diseases, epidemics, outbreaks </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Health professional-patient relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals’ exposure to, search for, and use of health information </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals’ adherence to clinical recommendations and regimens </li></ul><ul><li>The construction of public health messages and campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>The dissemination of individual and population health risk information-risk communication </li></ul><ul><li>Images of health in the mass media and culture at large </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The education of consumers about how to gain access to the public health and health care systems </li></ul><ul><li>The development of telehealth applications </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>For individuals: </li></ul><ul><li>Raise awareness of health risks and solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the motivation and skills needed to reduce those risk </li></ul><ul><li>Help them find support from other people in similar situations </li></ul><ul><li>Affect or reinforce attitudes </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>For community: </li></ul><ul><li>Influence public agenda, advocate for policies and programs, </li></ul><ul><li>Promote positive changes in the socioeconomic and physical environments </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the delivery of public health and health care services </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage social norms that benefit health and quality of life </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Help in bringing about desired changes in people’s belief and behavior or in their physical and social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce disease promoting behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Increase health promoting behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal communication plays a powerful role in changing health behavior </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>A key element of behavior change interventions </li></ul><ul><li>BCC involves negotiation with the individual or community for behavior change </li></ul><ul><li>It uses dialogue, messages, persuasion, interpersonal and group communication as a means of exchanging information, ideas, skills and values aimed at bringing about behavior change or adoption of safe behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation happens at all levels and involves several people. Ultimately it involves negotiation with ‘Self’ to practice desired behavior </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Not all individuals go through the same steps of the process in the same order, speed or time </li></ul><ul><li>People at different steps require different messages and sometimes different approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to know what stage the person is before beginning a communication process </li></ul><ul><li>As knowledge and approval reaches high levels, BCC emphasis must shift to later steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identifying cues for action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maximizing access and quality of services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identifying and removing barriers to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creating opportunities for increased peer advocacy </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviour change communication uses a science based approach to communication that involves behavioural sciences, social learning, persuasion theory to achieve realistic targets. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasises on audience involvement and participation throughout the BCC process. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognises that behaviour change is much a societal process as it is an individual decision making process. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal communication is the preferred choice for Targeted interventions as it involves a sustained contact and communication with the sub-population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mass Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used to support Interpersonal communication efforts and the creation of an enabling environment </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Major Theories and Models of Health Comm </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Rosenstock, Strecher and Becker, 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived Threat: Consists of two parts: perceived susceptibility and perceived severity of a health condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived Susceptibility: </li></ul><ul><li>One's subjective perception of the risk of contracting a health condition, </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived Severity: </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings concerning the seriousness of </li></ul><ul><li>contracting an illness or of leaving it untreated </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>(including evaluations of both medical and clinical consequences and possible social consequences). </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived Benefits: The believed effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce the threat of illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived Barriers: </li></ul><ul><li>The potential negative consequences that may result from taking particular health actions, including physical, psychological, and financial demands. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Cues to Action: </li></ul><ul><li>Events, either bodily (e.g., physical symptoms of a health condition) or environmental (e.g., media publicity) that motivate people to take action. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Efficacy: </li></ul><ul><li>The belief in being able to successfully execute the behavior required to produce the desired outcomes. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>The person needs to have an incentive to change behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>The person must feel there is a risk of continuing the current behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>The person must believe change will have benefits and these nedd to outweigh the barriers </li></ul><ul><li>The person must have the confidence to change the behaviour </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Prochaska and Diclemente (1983) </li></ul><ul><li>People change their behaviour at certain stages in life rather than making one major change. </li></ul><ul><li>Stages: </li></ul><ul><li>Precontemplation, </li></ul><ul><li>Contemplation </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Relapse </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Ajzen and Fishbein 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour to perform an action depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude to the behaviour-balancing of pros and cons </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective Norm-social pressure from others </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived Behaviour Control-perception that the person has the ability to perform that behaviour </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Health is a state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks </li></ul>