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GO-GN Research Review Summer 2020

A presentation to accompany the review of research recently published by the Global OER Graduate Network

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GO-GN Research Review Summer 2020

  1. 1. Research Review Summer 2020 Dr. Robert Farrow Open Education Research Hub Institute of Educational Technology The Open University, UK rob.farrow@open.ac.uk @philosopher1978
  2. 2. 2 SUPPORTING DOCTORAL RESEARCH IN OPEN EDUCATION GLOBAL OER GRADUATE NETWORK http://go-gn.net/
  3. 3. 3 SUPPORTING DOCTORAL RESEARCH IN OPEN EDUCATION GLOBAL OER GRADUATE NEWORK GO-GN started in 2013 as an initiative from Fred Mulder, UNESCO Chair in OER at the Dutch Open Universiteit, in collaboration with Rory McGreal, UNESCO / COL Chair in OER at Athabasca University (Canada). GO-GN is currently funded through the OER programme of The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and administered by the Open Education Research Hub from the Institute of Educational Technology at The Open University, UK. The aims of the GO-GN are: • to raise the profile of research into open education, • to offer support for those conducting PhD research in this area, and • to develop openness as a process of research. More than 100 doctoral and post-doctoral researchers form the core of the network with more than 200 experts, supervisors, mentors and interested parties forming a community of practice
  4. 4. 4 Farrow, R. (ed.) et al. (2020). GO-GN Research Review (Summer 2020). Global OER Graduate Network. http://go-gn.net/gogn_outputs/research- review-summer-2020/
  5. 5. 5 Farrow, R., Iniesto, F., Weller, M. & Pitt., R. (2020). The GO-GN Research Methods Handbook. Open Education Education Research Hub. The Open University, UK. CC-BY 4.0. http://go- gn.net/gogn_outputs/research- methods-handbook/ Images by Visual Thinkery CC BY
  6. 6. 6 Farrow, R. & Mathers, B. (2020). Conceptualising Research Methodology for Doctoral Researchers in Open Education (with penguins) in Buckley, C. and Nerantzi, C. (eds.) ‘Exploring visual representation of concepts in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education’. Special issue of International Journal of Management and Applied Research, http://ijmar.org/v7n3/20-
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8 RATIONALE GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 • Part of wider research programme in this phase of GO-GN which includes Research Methods Handbook and other planned publications • Opportunities for network members to publish during their doctoral studies and practice academic publication • Collectively engaging with recent research • A platform for sharing diverse perspectives • Critical but constructive • Open research as emergent field • Building an artefact series that draws on member expertise for the benefit of all • Published every 6 months until at least 2022 • Reviews are voluntary – but encouraged!
  9. 9. 9 PROCESS GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 • Initial set of considered materials was produced using bibliographic searches for keywords like OER, open pedagogy, open educational practices, etc. • This collection of references was shared with members who expressed an interest in reviewing. • Reviews were aligned with reviewer expertise and interest • Reviews of 500 words were written in June-July 2020 • Open Review Process (Google Doc)
  10. 10. 10 GUIDANCE FOR REVIEWERS GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Guidance was not prescriptive. Reviewers were encouraged to focus on the relevance of the paper for educational technologists, instructional designers, and educators working in higher education institutions with a particular focus on research into open education. • A concise summary of what the paper is about • What is the research claim advanced by the paper? • Are the methods used robust and appropriate? • Does the data presented fully support the conclusions drawn? • Is the argument clearly articulated? • Is it written well and accessible? • Is all the relevant research included? • What is the relevance/importance for open education research? • What might be thought interesting about its contribution?
  11. 11. 11 ACCESSIBILITY Reviewer: Paco Iniesto
  12. 12. 12 ACCESSIBILITY GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Liyanagunawardena, T. R., Adams, A. A. & Williams, S. A. (2020). Open to Inclusion: Exploring Openness for People with Disabilities. In Conrad, D. & Prinsloo, P. (eds.) Open(ing) Education: Theory and Practice. Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004422988_008 • Presents a Global South perspective on the accessibility of OER • Uses fictional personas to explore obstacles to OER use • Suggests that provision of OER may not benefit disabled learners, who are often supported • Raises awareness of misalignment between rhetoric and reality of open
  13. 13. 13 ACCESSIBILITY GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Rets, I., Coughlan, T., Stickler, U. & Astruc, L. (2020). Accessibility of Open Educational Resources: how well are they suited for English learners? Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning. http://oro.open.ac.uk/70272/ • Highlights the prevalence of OERs in (linguistically complex) English • More than 86% of courses surveyed (OpenLearn & Saylor) required advanced English proficiency • No standard metrics for readability • Hard to see how to encourage authors to write differently • This area is under-researched
  14. 14. 14 ACCESSIBILITY GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Zhang, X., Tlili, A., Nascimbeni, F. et al. (2020). Accessibility within open educational resources and practices for disabled learners: a systematic literature review. Smart Learning Environments 7, 1 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-019-0113-2 • Presents the results of a literature review pertaining to accessibility of OER • 31 papers selected from a pool of 1617 • Demonstrates a lack of disabilities specification in accessibility research • Paper concludes that researchers should focus on Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) – though these are not pedagogical in nature – andusing OER with assistive technologies • Raises important themes: building capacity; developing authoring tools; use of learning analytics; raising awareness – but sample size is limited
  15. 15. ADOPTION STUDIES Reviewers: Marjon Bass, Glenda Cox
  16. 16. 16 ADOPTION STUDIES GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Bethel, E. (2020). Open Textbooks: Quality and Relevance for Postsecondary Study in The Bahamas. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 21(2), 61-80. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v21i2.4598 • Suggests a method for appraising open textbook quality based on pedagogy, openness, accessibility, and relevance • 41 textbooks from Openstax CNX and BCcampus OpenEd repositories were tested • Most scored highly for clear learning objectives, diagrams and graphs, activities and practice exercises • Makes recommendations for future advocacy work including awareness raising, faculty capacity building and exploring current faculty textbook use • Tool continues to be developed
  17. 17. 17 ADOPTION STUDIES GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 McGowan, V. (2020). Institution initiatives and support related to faculty development of open educational resources and alternative textbooks. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 35:1, 24-45, DOI: 10.1080/02680513.2018.1562328 • Analysis of 37 websites of higher education institutions in the USA • Thematic/factor analysis • Student savings still important, but need studies with more data about costs of production • Quality, accessibility generally not prioritised • Main contribution of the paper is description of how institutional grants for OER operate • 51% of OER grants required some preparation in OER/copyright • Grants handled in different ways by different institutions
  18. 18. 18 ADOPTION STUDIES GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Rabin, E., Kalman, Y. M. & Kalz, M. (2020) The cathedral’s ivory tower and the open education bazaar – catalyzing innovation in the higher education sector. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 35:1, 82-99, DOI: 10.1080/02680513.2019.1662285 10.1080/02680513.2019.1662285 • Considers whether open education is an augmentation or replacement for traditional education • Analysis based on cathedral and the bazaar (Raymond, 1999) • Used as inspiration for classifying different educational business models – but also argue that this is a continuum • Conceptually rich paper that may require slow reading in places
  19. 19. 19 ADOPTION STUDIES GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Tang, H., Lin, Y.-J. and Qian, Y. (2020). Understanding K-12 teachers’ intention to adopt open educational resources: A mixed methods inquiry. British Journal of Educational Technology. doi:10.1111/bjet.12937 • Mixed methods study exploring teacher intention to adopt OER in a K12 context • Under-researcher compared with higher education • Study uses statistical modelling though the sample is modest (N=68) • Qualitative elements may be more insightful • Paper offers theoretical and practical insights relevant to K12 settings
  20. 20. OPEN EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES Reviewers: Robert Farrow, Beck Pitt, Hélène Pulker
  21. 21. 21 OPEN EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Adam, T. (accepted). Open educational practices of MOOC designers: embodiment and epistemic location. Distance Education, 41(2). https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2020.1757405 • Intersectional approach draws on theories from feminism, decolonisation and critical pedagogy • Phenomenological interviews with South African MOOC designers (N=27) • Thematic analysis identifies four categories of experience with concomitant understandings of openness • personal background (broadening the target audience; respecting cultural practices; overcoming stereotypes; acknowledging one’s positionality); • academic background; • life experiences (disability; privilege); • ideological and political influences. • Call to include marginalised voices and plurality of knowledges • No control/comparison group
  22. 22. 22 OPEN EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Czerwonogora, A., & Rodés, V. (2019). PRAXIS: Open Educational Practices and Open Science to face the challenges of critical Educational Action Research. Open Praxis, 11(4), 381-396. http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.11.4.1024 • Educational Action Research explores benefits of open science and OEP in academic professional development communities • Social Network Analysis (SNA) of written exchanges from the 30 participants in 127 reflective writing-blog posts including 248 peer comments during a three months teacher training course • Detail of innovations well described but less to situate results within teacher education or professional development • Novel framework that HEIs could use and adapt
  23. 23. 23 OPEN EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Lee, Kyungmee (2020). Who opens online distance education, to whom, and for what?:A critical literature review on open educational practices. Distance Education. https://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/id/eprint/143340 • Critical literature review exploring open educational practices in online higher education • 29 scholarly narratives analysed, emergent concepts extracted: • Open education driven by individual effort • Technology driven • Driven by higher education institutions (traditional, distance, etc.) • Blurred distinction between formal/informal learning • Lack of clarity about what open educational practices are • 29 papers is a limited sample, and some important aspects of the narrative seem to be missing
  24. 24. 24 OPEN EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Wolfenden, F., Adinolfi, L., & Cross, S. (2020). Exploring Open Digital Badges in Teacher Education: a Case Study from India. Journal of Learning for Development, 7(1), 108-115. https://jl4d.org/index.php/ejl4d/article/view/383 • Global South research into open digital badging • Detailed account of perceptions, discussion and activity based on TESS-India workshops • Four reflective outcomes • Classroom as a site of professional learning • Educator responsibility for learning pathways (less didactic) • Tendency to isolate learning strategies from pedagogic practice – badging can encourage reflection/innovation • Classroom assessments could be updated/innovated to include recordings as evidence but badges might not be able to share this evidence for privacy/safeguarding reasons
  25. 25. OPEN PEDAGOGY Reviewers: Michael Dabrowski, Helen DeWaard, Caroline Kuhn
  26. 26. 26 OPEN PEDAGOGY GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Baran, E., & AlZoubi, D. (in press). Affordances, Challenges, and Impact of Open Pedagogy: Examining Students’ Voices. Distance Education. 10.1080/01587919.2020.1757409 • Explores open pedagogy through a qualitative case study with 13 students from 3 HEIs in the USA • Affordances and challenges organised around themes of content curation, peer feedback, community engagement, development, reflection, and scaffolding • These are used to propose a model for “open pedagogy in action” though the process of generating this model from the data may be unclear
  27. 27. 27 OPEN PEDAGOGY GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Katz, Stacy and Van Allen, Jennifer (2020). Evolving Into the Open: A Framework for Collaborative Design of Renewable Assignments. CUNY Academic Works. https://academicworks.cuny.edu/le_pubs/306 • Offers an account of transitioning from disposable to renewable assignments • Attempts to formalise open educational practices • Framework may be useful for institutional co-operation around OER development • Grounded in established literature regarding disposable assignments and OER (Wiley, Hilton)
  28. 28. 28 OPEN PEDAGOGY GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Tur, G., Havemann, L., Marsh, D., Keefer, J. M., & Nascimbeni, F. (2020). Becoming an open educator: towards an open threshold framework. Research in Learning Technology, 28. https://doi.org/10.25304/rlt.v28.2338 • Connects threshold concepts (Meyer & Land, 2006) with research into open educator identity (Nascimbeni & Burgos, 2016) • Develops discourse around open education identity • Need to redraw conceptual maps • Challenge to established ideas & habit • Further study of open educator identity needed – and supported by this paper
  29. 29. 29 OPEN PEDAGOGY GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Zapata, G. C. (2020). Sprinting to the Finish Line: The Benefits and Challenges of Book Sprints in OER Faculty-Graduate Student Collaborations. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 21(2), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v21i2.4607
  30. 30. OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES Reviewers: Caroline Kuhn, Kathy Essmiller
  31. 31. 31 OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Joseph, K., Guy, J., & McNally, M. (2019). Toward a Critical Approach for OER: A Case Study in Removing the ‘Big Five’ from OER Creation. Open Praxis, 11(4), 355-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.11.4.1020 • Case study (N=1) exploring power imbalances in OER production • Creating OER without using the technologies of the ‘Big Five’ – the costs outweigh the benefits • Open source software can be less usable, sustainable • Pragmatic arguments exist for the ongoing use of proprietary software but practitioners should remain alert to how their use exacerbates unequal power relations
  32. 32. 32 OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Stracke, C., Downes, S., Conole, G., Burgos, D., & Nascimbeni, F. (2019). Are MOOCs Open Educational Resources? A literature review on history, definitions and typologies of OER and MOOCs. Open Praxis, 11(4), 331-341. http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.11.4.1010 • Analysis of definitions and typologies relating to OER and MOOC • Uses the OpenEd Quality Framework as theoretical underpinning • Two perspectives: resources vs learning innovations • MOOCs can be considered a category of OER as resources; • As an innovation they transcend the category of resources • To some extent definitions are therefore perspectival • Provides a history of OER/MOOC that will be useful design, instruction and/or evaluation
  33. 33. 33 OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Tlili, A., Jemni, M., Khribi, M.K. et al. (2020). Current state of open educational resources in the Arab region: an investigation in 22 countries. Smart Learning Environments, 7, 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-020-00120-z • Results from a survey (N=735) into OER use in the Arab region • Progress is uneven: adoption “in its infancy” • High level of awareness of role of OER in improving learning • Perceived difficulty of creation/use of OER acts as a barrier • Perception of government support for OER but lack of vision/strategy • Increased use of OER could address social justice issues and improve learning outcomes
  34. 34. OPEN ECOSYSTEMS Reviewers: Robert Farrow, Beck Pitt, Martin Weller
  35. 35. 35 OPEN ECOSYSTEMS GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Rajagopal, K., Firssova, O., Op de Beeck, I., Van der Stappen, E., Stoyanov, S., Henderikx, P., & Buchem, I. (2020). Learner skills in open virtual mobility. Research in Learning Technology, 28. https://doi.org/10.25304/rlt.v28.2254 • Combines concepts of Virtual Mobility (VM) and Open Education (OE) into Open Virtual Mobility through group concept mapping (N=28) • Concept may be useful in framing OER and OEP to international audiences • Generic skills and competencies: • Digitalisation • Collaboration • Openness • Group concept mapping is an innovative technique which could be applied in other areas (especially in the context of an online pivot)
  36. 36. 36 OPEN ECOSYSTEMS GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Urbančič, T., Polajnar, A., & Jermol, M. (2019). Open Education for a Better World: A Mentoring Programme Fostering Design and Reuse of Open Educational Resources for Sustainable Development Goals. Open Praxis, 11(4), 409-426. http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.11.4.1026 • A presentation of the Open Education for a Better World (OE4BW) programme which offers a mentorship programme for those working in OER which is structured around the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals • Survey work revealed use and development of OER is siloed in many countries; capacity building often overlooked • Describes steps taken to ensure diversity and focus in mentoring programme • Describes how year 1 evolution influences year 2 operation • Findings are of interest to anyone interested in sustainable development goals; low-cost mentoring and social impact of OER
  37. 37. 37 OPEN ECOSYSTEMS GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 Wong, T., Xie, H., Zou, D. et al. (2020). How to facilitate self-regulated learning? A case study on open educational resources. Journal of Computers in Education 7, 51–77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40692-019-00138-4 • Study using 3 (mostly Likert) surveys (N = 149, N = 168, N = 150) to investigate self-regulated learning in terms of learning motivation; planning and management; and self-monitoring • Based in use of i-Classroom VLE which provides elementary school learners with access to OER (primarily video content) along with assessments • High support level compared with most informal learning – although the study is framed as being about non-formal learning • Results are interpreted through Connectivism – OER effects are incidental • Authors hypothesize that the that the pressure applied - even to young learners - by the Hong Kong schooling system may in fact inhibit learning through increased anxiety and procrastination
  38. 38. Future Editions
  39. 39. 39 IDEAS FOR FUTURE ISSUES GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 • JIME 2020(1) open education & social justice issue (ed. Lambert & Czerniewicz) https://jime.open.ac.uk/collections/special/open-education-and-social-justice/ • Asian Journal of Distance Education 15(1) (selection focused on open) http://asianjde.org/ojs/index.php/AsianJDE/issue/view/32 • Distance Education 41(2) ‘Critical questions for open educational practices’ (ed. Koseoglu, Bozkurt & Havemann) https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/cdie20/41/2 • Conrad & Prinsloo (ed.) (2020). Open(ing) Education Theory and Practice. Brill. https://brill.com/view/title/56897
  40. 40. Thanks to contributors!
  41. 41. 41 • Marjon Baas (Leiden University, Netherlands) • Natasha Chtena (University of California Los Angeles, USA) • Glenda Cox (University of Cape Town, South Africa) • Michael Dabrowski (Athabasca University, Canada) • Helen De Waard (Lakehead University, Canada) • Kathy Essmiller (Oklahoma State University, USA) • Paco Iniesto (Open University, UK) • Caroline Kuhn (Bath Spa University, UK) • Rebecca Pitt (Open University, UK) • Hélène Pulker (Open University, UK) • Martin Weller (Open University, UK)
  42. 42. 42 Look out for the call to participate in the Winter 2020 edition!
  43. 43. THANK YOU rob.farrow@open.ac.uk @philosopher1978 go-gn.net oerhub.net
  44. 44. 44 IMAGE ATTRIBUTION GO-GN RESEACH REVIEW SUMMER 2020 • Accessibility by mikicon from the Noun Project • pet adoption by Dan Hetteix from the Noun Project • synergy with hands by Bruno Castro from the Noun Project • presentation by WITDHAWAT THANAKORNNONTHAWIT from the Noun Project • ecosystem by Sharon Showalter from the Noun Project • Penguins of various denominations by Bryan Mathers @ Visual Thinkery CC BY

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