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U6. secondary sector



U12 Ancient Rome

U12 Ancient Rome

  1. 1. 753 BC (8th Century BC)
  2. 2. LOCATION:  The Roman civilisation was originated in the centre of the Italian Peninsula. GREECE EGYPT
  3. 3. WHO INHABITED THE ITALIAN PENINSULA BEFORE THE ROMANS? In the 8th Century BC it was inhabited by different tribes:  Etruscans  north  Latins  centre  Greeks  south THE ITALIAN PENINSULA IN THE 8TH CENTURY BC
  4. 4. Activity 1: ORIGINS OF ROME a) In which Peninsula did the Roman Civilization originated? b) Which were the 3 main tribes that inhabited it in the 8th Century BC? Draw a map locating them in it. THE ITALIAN PENINSULA IN THE 8TH CENTURY BC
  5. 5. FOUNDING OF ROME: The origins of Rome are not clear. It’s a mix of...  Facts  archaeological remains and ancient texts.  Legend  twins Romulus & Remus.
  6. 6.  ACCORDING TO FACTS: Rome was founded in the mid-8th century BC by Latin tribes that settled in 7 hills near the river Tiber. THE ITALIAN PENINSULA IN THE 8TH CENTURY BC
  7. 7.  ACCORDING TO THE LEGEND: Rome was founded in 753 BC by the twin brothers Romulus & Remus, in the place where they were found by the she-wolf. Its name comes from Romulus, who killed his brother and became the first king of Rome.
  8. 8. Let’s role-play this story!!!
  9. 9. Activity 2: copy & answer in your notebook: FOUNDING OF ROME: 1)According to historical facts, what’s the origin of Rome? 2)According to the legend, what’s the origin of Rome?
  10. 10. CHRONOLOGY: The Roman Civilisation went through 3 periods: Monarchy 753 BC – 509 BC Republic 509 BC – 27 BC Empire 27 BC – 476 AD
  11. 11. Activity 3: Copy and fill in the following chart in your notebook. HISTORICAL PERIODS OF ANCIENT ROMAN CIVILISATION Period Chronology
  12. 12. 753 – 509 BC
  13. 13.  Chronology: 753 – 509 BC.  Form of government: Absolute monarchy.  There were 7 kings in total: • 4 Latin kings • 3 Etruscan kings  End: in 509 BC the Patricians organised a revolt against the king Tarquin the Proud:  Tarquin the Proud was expelled.  A new form of government was established: the REPUBLIC.
  14. 14. 1. Romulus 2. Numa Pompilius 3. Tullus Hostilius 4 LATIN KINGS 4. Ancus Marcius 5. Tarquin Priscus 6. Servius Tullius 7. Tarquin the Proud 3 ETRUSCAN KINGS
  15. 15.  Tarquin used violence, murder & intimidation to maintain control over Rome. People hated him!!  Tensions came to a head when his son (Sextus Tarquinius) raped Lucretia, a woman of a patrician family. As a consequence, the patricians organized a revolt and in 509 BC they expelled the last king of Rome: Tarquin the Proud.
  16. 16. Activity 4: copy & answer in your notebook: 1st PERIOD OF THE HISTORY OF ROME 1)What was the first form of government of Rome? 2)How many kings were there during the Roman Monarchy? Name the first & the last one. 3)What happened in 509 BC?
  17. 17. 509 – 27 BC
  18. 18. The main characteristics of this period are: a) Political changes: the form of government of Rome changed. It became a REPUBLIC. b) Territorial expansion:  509 BC 19 BC
  19. 19. a) POLITICAL CHANGES: the Republican form of government:  Now power was divided among three institutions:  COMITIA  SENATE  MAGISTRATES
  20. 20. The motto of the Roman Republic was “Senātus Populus Que Rōmānus ”, in English “The Senate and People of Rome”. It meant that the power was held by the Senate and the People of Rome (not by a king anymore!).
  21. 21. COMITIA • All Roman citizens. • Functions: • Passed laws. • Elected the magistrates. MAGISTRATES • Elected annually: • Aedile (police) • Consul (army) • Quaestor (taxes) • Praetor (justice) • Censor (list of citizens) • Plebeian tribune (defense of plebeians rights). • Functions: • Governed Rome. SENATE • 300 former magistrates. • Functions: • Approved laws that had been previously passed by the Comitia. • Controlled the magistrates • Decided on foreign policy.
  22. 22. The Roman Senate
  23. 23. The fight over political rights!!   At the beginning only the patricians had political rights. The plebeians fought during 200 years to have the same political rights. Examples: 494 BC: They achieved the right to have a magistrate that defended their interests, the Plebeian Tribune.  449 BC: They achieved a written law code, the Twelve Tables.   In the 3rd Century BC they finally achieved the same political rights as the patricians.
  24. 24. PLEBEIAN TRIBUNE (magistrate that defended the interests of the Plebeians). Plebeians achieved to have this representative in 494 AC, after a kind of strike (“secessio plebis”) in which they abandoned Rome and threaten with founding their own city. They emptied & paralyzed Rome!!
  25. 25. The Twelve Tables of Rome (449 BC) By publishing the laws in the Forum all Romans could read and know them, so plebeians were freed from injustice during trials.
  26. 26. Activity 5: copy & answer in your notebook: 2nd PERIOD OF THE HISTORY OF ROME 1) What form of government was established in 509 BC after the Absolute Monarchy? 2) In this form of government, who had the power? 3) Who elected the magistrates of Rome? Say which magistrate… • Administered justice? • Controlled the army? • Was in charge of the police? • Made the list of citizens of Rome? • Defended the plebeians interests? • Collected the taxes? 4) Did patricians and plebeians had the same political rights during all the Republic? Explain it.
  27. 27. b) TERRITORIAL EXPANSION:    During the Republic Rome began to expand territorially. This expansion was possible thanks to a very disciplined & organized army. PHASES OF THE EXPANSION:    1º) Italian Peninsula. 2º) Western Mediterranean. This was achieved by defeating Carthage in the Punic wars. 3º) Eastern Mediterranean. This was achieved by defeating the Hellenistic Monarchies. With the final conquests of Egypt (30 BC) and Hispania (19 BC) the Romans controlled all the Mediterranean area which they called “Mare Nostrum” (our sea).
  28. 28. 1st ) Domination over all the Italian Peninsula 270 BC
  29. 29. 2nd ) Control of the Western Mediterranean These conquests involved 3 wars against Carthage: the PUNIC WARS. 140 BC
  30. 30. 1st Punic War (264 – 241 BC) 2nd Punic War (218 – 201 BC) Video about the Punic Wars 3rd Punic War (149 – 146 BC)
  31. 31. 3rd ) Control of the Eastern Mediterranean After defeating the Hellenistic Monarchies and conquering Egypt (30 BC) and Hispania (19 BC) the Romans controlled all the Mediterranean area which they called “MARE NOSTRUM”. 19 BC
  32. 32. Evolution of the territories under Roman control (.gif image)
  33. 33.  CONSEQUENCES OF THE EXPANSION: POSITIVES It provided:    Raw materials Land People NEGATIVES It caused:  Social conflicts: due to the unequal distribution of wealth. Peasants who left their lands to serve in the army couldn’t compete with large landowners who’s lands were worked by slaves, so they were ruined.  A political crisis: to solve the social conflicts, the Senate gave the power to military chiefs, who fought for absolute power in Civil Wars. In 48 BC Julius Caesar was made dictator for life, but he was murdered in the Senate (44 BC). A new civil war started that led to the end of the Republic in 27 BC.
  34. 34. Activity 6: copy & answer in your notebook: 2nd PERIOD OF THE HISTORY OF ROME 5) Explain the phases of the territorial expansion of Rome during the Republic. 6) Who fought in the Punic Wars? Who won? What territorial changes did they brought? 7) What were the consequences of the territorial expansion? 8) Who was Julius Caesar? What happened after his death?
  35. 35. 27 BC – 476 BC
  36. 36. The main characteristics of this period are: a) Political changes  Rome became an EMPIRE. b) Historical evolution: Pax Romana (1st – 2nd Cent)  Decline of the Roman Empire (3 – 5th Cent.)     Crisis of the 3rd century Division of the Empire (395) Fall of the Western Roman Empire (476)  395 AD 
  37. 37. a) Political Changes:   After Julius Caesar’s death (44 BC), a civil war started (Octavian Augustus VS Marc Antony). 27 BC: Octavian Augustus won, and he was granted complete power establishing a new form of government: the Empire.   The emperor hold all the power: he summoned the Senate, passed the laws, appointed the magistrates... The Republic’s institutions continued to exist, but under control of the emperor.
  38. 38. b) Historical evolution:  1– 2nd Centuries: period known as PAX ROMANA:  Maximum expansion of Rome  Peace inside Roman frontiers   Division into provinces ruled by governors to make it easier to control such a huge territory. Romanisation: process through which the conquered people (Barbarians) assimilated the Roman culture (Latin language, art, towns...)
  39. 39. Roman Empire at its maximum extension under emperor TRAJANUS
  40. 40. Division of the Roman Empire into provinces. They were ruled by governors (proconsul)
  41. 41. Romanisation of the conquered people: they adopted Roman language (Latin), art, urbanism…
  42. 42. Activity 7: copy & answer in your notebook: 3rd PERIOD OF THE HISTORY OF ROME 1) What happened after Julius Caesar’s death? What form of government was established? 2) What is the Pax Romana? 3) What name did the Romans gave to the conquered people? 4) How was the huge territory organized and governed during the empire? 5) What was Romanisation?
  43. 43. b) Historical evolution:  3rd Century AD: the end of the territorial expansion caused a deep CRISIS!!!!!  Political crisis: first defeats by the barbarians. Frontiers no longer safe, so military chiefs took control in some areas.  Economic crisis: as conquests ended, there were fewer slaves to work, so: • Prices increased • Production & trade decreased • The Empire became poorer!!!  Social crisis: to solve the economic crisis, the empire increased the taxes, so many people migrated to the countryside. The empire became ruralised (self-sufficient economy; no trade; no prosperity...)
  44. 44. In the 3rd century the Roman Empire suffered some defeats against the barbarians.
  45. 45. The governor of the province of Germania “Postumus” took control over the western provinces (Gaul, Germania, Britannia & Hispania) and created the “Gallic Empire” (260-274).
  46. 46.  395: to try to solve the crisis, emperor Theodosius divided the empire in two parts:  Western Roman Empire  Eastern Roman Empire
  47. 47. Western Roman Empire • • Capital: Rome Evolution: in 476 it fell due to the invasion of the Germanic tribes. Odoacre deposed the last Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus. Eastern Roman Empire • Capital: Constantinople • Evolution: after 476 AD it continued existing as the Byzantine Empire until 1453, when it fell to the Turks.
  48. 48. Invasions of the Germanic tribes (also known as barbarians!!)
  49. 49. Germanic Kingdoms established after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
  50. 50. Map of Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire
  51. 51. Activity 7: copy & answer in your notebook: 3rd PERIOD OF THE HISTORY OF ROME 6) Explain the reasons that caused the crisis of the 3rd Century AD. 7) What did the Roman Empire do to try to solve the crisis? (say who and when!) 8) What caused the fall of the Western Roman Empire? Who was the last Roman emperor? who deposed him? When? 9) What happened to the Eastern Roman Empire after 476 AD?
  52. 52. Activity 7: copy & answer in your notebook: 3rd PERIOD OF THE HISTORY OF ROME 10) Fill in the map representing the situation of the Roman Empire in 395 AD: • Locate the area occupied by the Western Roman Empire • Locate the area occupied by the Eastern Roman Empire. • Locate the capital of each of the parts of the empire. • Next to the name of each capital, write: • Which civilization put an end to that part of the empire. • The year in which it happened.
  53. 53.  The Roman economy was based on slaves. • Worked in both agriculture and urban activities • Slaves were acquired by Roman conquests of territories
  54. 54.  The main economic activity was agriculture. Mediterranean triad: olives, cereals & vines.  Small properties  worked by their owners  Large properties  worked by slaves.
  55. 55.    Very important activity for Rome. Due to its huge size, in Rome there were many different valuable minerals: gold, silver, iron, coal and tin. Workforce was completely slaves. Las Médulas gold mines for Roman Empire (Castilla-León)
  56. 56.  Production took place in large workshops with slaves.  Food processing was also important: • Olives into oil • Grapes into wine
  57. 57.  Trade was a huge part of Rome’s economic activity.  They imported raw materials and exported manufactured materials (look at p.132 for products)
  58. 58.  Commerce increased with the following developments: • A common currency • A road network • Standardized weights • Control over the Mediterranean (security against pirates)
  59. 59. The use of the same currency & units of measure across the whole empire made trading easier.
  60. 60. Network of Roman roads (“calzadas romanas”)
  61. 61. Activity 8: copy & answer in your notebook: ROMAN ECONOMY  P. 132: exercises 1 & 2.  What factors helped commerce grow in Rome?
  62. 62. During the Monarchy & early years of the Republic (until 3rd Century BC) Since the late years of the Republic (from 3rd Century BC onwards) Social division was based on political rights Social division was based on wealth We distinguish: - Patricians - Plebeians - Slaves We distinguish: - Citizens: · Honestiores · Humiliores - Non-citizens: · Conquered population · Foreigners · Freedmen · Slaves
  63. 63. Monarchy & early years of the Republic PATRICIANS: • Were the aristocracy of Rome. • Richest & most powerful families. • Had huge plots of land. • Had political rights, and controlled the government. PLEBEIANS: • Artisans, small farmers… • Paid taxes. • Had some civil rights, but no political rights. SLAVES: • Worked for their owner. • Had no rights at all.
  64. 64. Late years of the Republic & the Empire THE CITIZENS: had all political and civil rights. Divided into:  Honestiores: the wealthiest  Humiliores: lower social status Female citizens: less rights than a man of the same status. THE NON-CITIZENS: all the people who had no right to citizenship:  Conquered populations: non-citizens until 212 AD, when, thanks to the Edict of Caracalla, they became citizens.  Foreigners: came from beyond the Empire's borders. Usually traders or artisans.  Freedmen: slaves freed by their owners (manumission) or who had bought their freedom  Slaves: no rights; property of their master. People could become slaves if: • Conquered in war • Not paying debts • Born from slave parents
  65. 65. Activity 9: copy & answer in your notebook: ROMAN SOCIETY 1) Define “patrician” & “plebeian”. 2) Design 2 social pyramids: • One for the Roman society until the 3rd Century BC. • One for the Roman society after the 3rd Century BC. 3) Explain the Edict of Caracalla: When and by who was it issued? What was its consequence? 4) What is manumission? 5) Why could a person become a slave?
  66. 66. At first, Romans were polytheistic:  Domestic/private religion:    Worship of household gods (lares & penates) and the spirits of ancestors (manes). The pater familias (head of the house) made offerings in the lararium (altar). State/official religion:   Worship of different gods, many taken from Greek mythology (Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Neptune...). From the 1st Century AD onwards: worship of the emperor.
  67. 67. LARARIUMS Place where domestic offerings & rituals took place
  68. 68. The apotheosis (transformation into gods) of Antoninus Pius and his wife Faustina. 161 AD. Sculpted relief.
  69. 69.  BIRTH OF CHRISTIANITY:    1st Century AD. Preached by Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified by Pontius Pilatus. EXPANSION OF CHRISTIANITY:    EARLY DAYS: Christians were persecuted by the Romans (refusal to worship the emperors, to enrol in the army...). However, Christianity expanded rapidly since it promised life after death in heaven, equality... 313 AD: emperor Constantine announced the Edict of Milan  Christians were authorized to practice their religion. 380 AD: emperor Theodosius announced the Edict of Thessalonica  made Christianity the official religion of the empire.
  70. 70. Christians’ persecution Christian catacombs: burial & cult places
  71. 71. Activity 10: copy & answer in your notebook: ROMAN RELIGION P.134: Exercises: 1 / 2 / 3 / 5 / 6/
  72. 72. CHARACTERISTICS:  It was practical.  Influenced by Greek art.  Materials: stone, brick, concrete.  Flat ceilings supported by columns: o Greek architectural orders: Doric, Ionic & Corinthian. o A new order: Tuscan. o They also combined different orders.  Arches & domes
  73. 73. Bricks & concrete Stone (Temple of Jupiter, Baalbek, Lebanon)
  74. 74. Greek orders New order (Tuscan) Sometimes they combined different orders!!!
  75. 75. Arch Dome (The Pantheon of Rome, temple consecrated to all the Roman gods)
  76. 76. Activity 11: copy & answer in your notebook: ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 1) Complete: • Roman architecture was ... and functional. • The ceilings were ... and supported by ... . However, they also used ... and ... to cover large surfaces. 2) Which civilisation mostly influenced Roman architecture? 3) What materials did Romans use to construct their buildings? 4) What architectural orders did Romans used?
  77. 77.  MAIN  Religious buildings: o o  BUILDINGS: Temples: Greek influence. Tombs: catacombs (subterranean collective burials) Public buildings: o o Entertainment: circuses, amphitheatres, theatres, thermal baths. Administrative: basilicas Commemorative: columns, triumphal arches. o o o o Roads Bridges Sewer systems Aqueducts o  Engineering constructions:
  78. 78. Temple of Hercules Pantheon of Rome (Temple of all the Roman gods)
  79. 79. Catacombs of Saint Callixtus (Rome)
  80. 80. Gladiators & naumachia shows
  81. 81. Roman theatre in Merida (Extremadura)
  82. 82. Water & air was heated using the hypocaust system
  83. 83. Basilica of Maxentius & Constantine (Roman Forum, Rome, Italy)
  84. 84. Trajan column (Rome, Italy) It commemorates emperor Trajan's victory in the Dacian Wars (Rome VS Dacia, an area north of Macedon and Greece)
  85. 85. Arch of Constantine (Rome, Italy) It was erected to commemorate Constantine I's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312.
  86. 86. Ruins of a Roman road that belonged to the Silver Route (Vía de la Plata. Caceres, Extremadura)
  87. 87. Roman bridge in Cordoba Roman bridge in Merida
  88. 88. Roman aqueduct in Segovia (Spain)
  89. 89. Activity 12: ROMAN ARCHITECTURE POSTER!! • In groups of 2, you need to prepare a poster about ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. You’ll be given a topic: • Religious buildings • Entertainment buildings • Administrative buildings • Commemorative buildings • Engineering constructions • AT HOME: you need to look for (internet, books, magazines...): • Pictures of buildings of your topic. • Information of each building (function, when was it build, by who...) • IN CLASS: you’ll be given time in class to prepare your poster (organize information, stick pictures, write information, colour things in...) YOU HAVE TO PRESENT TO THE CLASS YOUR FINISHED POSTER
  90. 90.  Sculptures: o o o  Painting: o o  Copied Greek models. Very realistic. Romans developed 2 new genres:  Portrait  Historical relief Frescoe technique Used to decorate walls of Roman villas. Mosaics: o o Made with small pieces of coloured stone (tessellas). Used to decorate floors.
  91. 91. Portrait of a emperor Caracalla Sculpture of Neptune Portrait of a Roman priest Detail of the column of emperor Trajan
  92. 92. Frescoe: technique in which colour pigments are dissolved in water and applied to a wet plaster wall. When it dries the paint becomes an integral part of the wall. Frescos in “Villa dei Misteri” (Villa of the Mysteries). Pompey (Italy) Frescos in a Roman Villa in Herculaneum (Italy) In both cases, they survived quite undamaged to the eruption of the Vesuvius volcano of 79 AD
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