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  1. 1. LIGHTING Lighting is a form of energy without which there can be no vision. When light strikes an object, It may be reflected, absorbed or allowed to pass through.
  3. 3. NATURAL LIGHT The bright radiant energy of the sun, daylight, is a major determining factor in the design of hotel guestrooms and homes, especially where large wall areas have been decorated with glass.
  4. 4. ARTIFICIAL LIGHT Well panned artificial illumination helps us to see without strain and helps to prevent accidents. It makes a vital contribution to the attractiveness of homes and hotels.
  5. 5. INCANDESCENT / FILAMENT Here light is produced by heating any material, usually metal to a temperature at which it glows. Typical incandescent bulbs have tungsten filament in a sealed glass container. Many gas filled and halogen lamps with halogen mixed gas filling are also available.
  7. 7. FLUORESCENT / DISCHARGE Fluorescent tubes are cold (not produced by heat) source of light. A glass tube with inside coating of fluorescent powder is filled with vaporized mercury and argon. They ends are then sealed with cathodes. When electric current activates the gases in it, invisible UV rays cause the fluorescent coating to produce visible light.
  8. 8. DIRECT LIGHTING This kind of light comes from the sources such as ceiling fixtures or luminous ceiling that shed light downward, or from lamps with translucent shades spreading light in all directions
  9. 9. INDIRECT LIGHTING This is usually from concealed sources in alcoves, cornices, or valances. It may also come from a lamp with an opaque shade open only at the top – light is then thrown against the ceiling or washes against the wall and is reflected back into the room. It is soften than the direct lighting, but often more costly in both installation and operation.
  10. 10. DIFFUSED LIGHTING When light fitting are completely enclosed or concealed, as with some globes and ceiling panels, the light is diffused since it passes through the glass or plastic. Diffused lighting is also glare- free and produces a flat appearance.
  11. 11. SEMI-INDIRECT LIGHTING It is possible to have some light passing through a diffusing bowl and some reflecting off the ceiling where the fixture is open on top.
  13. 13. GENERAL OR AREA LIGHTING This illuminates the room more or less uniformly. It brings the design and colours of the whole space to equal attention. It minimizes the bulkiness of furniture, the darkness of shadows, and harsh contrasts.
  14. 14. LOCAL OR SPECIFIC LIGHTING Specific activities at specific locations need specific lighting. Local lighting can be provided by lamps at strategic points. This lighting may be either by way of task lighting or accent lighting.
  15. 15. SAFETY LIGHTING As the name suggests this type of bright lighting is used for safety reasons in areas such as stairways, along corridors swimming pools and by way of emergency lighting
  16. 16. METHODS OF LIGHTING ARCHITECTURAL AND BUILT-IN LIGHTING • Valance Lighting • Cornice Lighting • Cove Lighting • Track Lighting • Soffit Lighting NON-ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING • Ceiling Fixtures • Wall Fixtures • Portable Lamps
  18. 18. VALANCE LIGHTING A horizontal fluorescent tube is placed behind a valance boards, casting light upward so that it reflects off the ceiling and also downwards to shine on the drapery, thus producing both direct and indirect lighting.
  19. 19. CORNICE LIGHTING A cornice is installed under the ceiling, with a fixture hidden beneath so as to direct light downwards only. This can give a dramatic effect on drapery, pictures and wall coverings.
  20. 20. COVE LIGHTING This consists of placing continuous series of fluorescent tubes in a groove along one or more walls of a room, about 12 inches from the ceiling. The light reflects off the ceiling and bathes the room in indirect light.
  21. 21. TRACK LIGHTING Track lighting consists of lamps fixed to the ceiling or wall in an array to offer great variety. One strip often holds spot light, floodlights, and even hanging fixtures that may be turned around to follow furniture placement. The tracks can themselves be movable as well, for still more flexible arrangements.
  22. 22. SOFFIT LIGHTING This refers to built in light source under a panel. It may be fixed to a ceiling or under a cabinet. Soffit lighting is often used over a sink or other work areas.
  24. 24. CEILING FIXTURE These are recessed into the ceiling or set flush with it. They may soften light of diffuse. Some may be in form of soft luminous panels that illuminates large areas evenly.
  25. 25. WALL FIXTURE These remain out of the way and free table and desk surfaces for other things. At the same time, they give direct light where it is needed.
  26. 26. PORTABLE LAMPS Floor and table lamps can be moved when and where needed. They also act as decorative accessories.
  27. 27. CONSIDERATIONS FOR GOOD LIGHTING • Utilize potential day light when available • Energy efficient • Good design and durability • Ease of replacement of fixture and bulb • Easy to maintain • Proportionate area-light ratio
  28. 28. LUX Lux is a standardized unit of measurement of the light intensity (which can also be called “illuminance” or “illumination”)
  29. 29. LUMEN The lumen is a standardized unit of measurement of the total amount of light that is produced by a light source, such as a bulb or tube.
  30. 30. LUMEN & LUX
  31. 31. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LUX & LUMEN One Lux is defined as being equivalent to one lumen spread over an area of one square metre, or to put it another way – a measurement of lux (light intensity) tells you how many lumens (total light output) you need given the area you are trying to illuminate.
  32. 32. ASSIGNMENT  LIGHTING PLAN • Entrance Areas and Lobbies • Restaurants and Public Areas • Guest Room and Corridors