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Unit 8 prehistory

Class Presetation about Prehistory for 1º ESO bil using Santillana book...

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Unit 8 prehistory

  2. 2. Possible answers
  3. 3. Atapuerca
  4. 4. Archeological site
  5. 5. Excalibur and Elvis
  6. 6. Prehistory is the period of time before the invention of writing systems. Prehistory refers to the period of human existence before the availability of those written records with which recorded history begins. 1- What is Prehistory?
  7. 7. Archaeology (from the greek ἀρχαίος «old» or «ancient», and λόγος «study») is the science that studies human beings through their material remains. It is one of the few disciplines that collects information about societies that did not know how to write. Archaeology
  8. 8. New vocabulary
  9. 9. Prehistory comprises all events which took place before the creation of written records. The timeline of prehistory lists events from the evolution of the universe and the Earth to the origin of life and human evolution, up to the invention of writing in approximately 3000 BC. Note that many of these dates are speculative or very rough estimates (approximations). Timeline of prehistory
  10. 10. What is a timeline?
  11. 11. 1- The Stone Age ends with evidence of the earliest known metal implements. It is divided into: • Palaeolithic Age (2.5 million to 15,000 years ago - a time period that spans 95% of human history). • Mesolithic Age (15,000 to 11,000 years ago). • Neolithic Age (11,000 to 6,000-4,000 years ago). 2- The Metal Ages begin when human beings learn to use metals to make objects (about 7,000 years ago). It is divided into: • Copper Age • Bronze Age. • Iron Age. Prehistoric ages
  12. 12. Exercises 1 , 2 and 3 on page 128. Activities
  13. 13. VIDEO - VOCABULARY: -Ancestor: antepasado -1 million years ago: hace un millón de años -Chimps: chimpancé -Brain: cerebro -upright walking: caminar erguido -to coexist: convivir, coexistir -skull: calavera -skeleton: esqueleto -bones: huesos -To look like: parecerse -to bury: enterrar -Tools (herramientas: .spear head: punta de lanza .scraper: raspador .handaxes: bifaz What were early human beings like?
  14. 14. Evolution
  15. 15. It is the evolutionary process that results in the present human being. It was a very long process. Hominization
  16. 16. What were hominids?
  17. 17. Australopithecus, and Homo habilis
  18. 18. It was anatomically a combination of human-like and ape-like features. It had a rounder cranium housing a large brain and small teeth, but it also had some ape-like features including relatively long arms and a strongly sloping face that juts out from underneath the braincase with a pronounced jaw. Australopithecus
  19. 19. Homo habilis
  20. 20. This species, one of the earliest members of the genus Homo, has a slightly larger braincase and smaller face and teeth than in Australopithecus. But it still retains some ape-like features, including long arms and a moderately-prognathic face. Its name, which means ‘handy man’, was given in 1964 because this species was thought to represent the first stone-tool maker. Currently, the oldest stone tools are dated slightly older than the oldest evidence of the genus Homo. Homo habilis
  21. 21. Homo erectus
  22. 22. Early African Homo erectus fossils are the oldest known early humans to have possessed modern human-like body proportions with relatively elongated legs and shorter arms compared to the size of the torso. These features are considered adaptations to a life lived on the ground, indicating the loss of earlier tree-climbing adaptations, with the ability to walk and possibly run long distances. Compared with earlier fossil humans, note the expanded braincase relative to the size of the face. The appearance of Homo erectus in the fossil record is often associated with the earliest handaxes, the first major innovation in stone tool technology. Generally considered to have been the first species to have expanded beyond Africa, Homo erectus is considered a highly variable species, spread over two continents (it's not certain whether it reached Europe) and possibly the longest lived early human species - about nine times as long as our own species, Homo sapiens, has been around! Homo erectus
  23. 23. Homo erectus
  24. 24. Neanderthals are our closest extinct human relative. Some defining features of their skulls include the large middle part of the face, angled cheek bones, and a huge nose for humidifying and warming cold, dry air. Their bodies were shorter and stockier than ours, another adaptation to living in cold environments. But their brains were just as large as ours and often larger - proportional to their brawnier bodies. Neanderthals made and used a diverse set of sophisticated tools, controlled fire, lived in shelters, made and wore clothing, were skilled hunters of large animals and also ate plant foods, and occasionally made symbolic or ornamental objects. There is evidence that Neanderthals deliberately buried their dead and occasionally even marked their graves with offerings, such as flowers. No other primates, and no earlier human species, had ever practiced this sophisticated and symbolic behavior. DNA has been recovered from more than a dozen Neanderthal fossils, all from Europe. Neanderthal man
  25. 25. Homo sapiens
  26. 26. The species that you and all other living human beings on this planet belong to is Homo sapiens. During a time of dramatic climate change 200,000 years ago, Homo sapiens (modern humans) evolved in Africa. Like other early humans that were living at this time, they gathered and hunted food, and evolved behaviors that helped them respond to the challenges of survival in unstable environments. Anatomically, modern humans can generally be characterized by the lighter build of their skeletons compared to earlier humans. Modern humans have very large brains, which vary in size from population to population and between males and females. Housing this big brain involved the reorganization of the skull into what is thought of as "modern" -- a thin-walled, high vaulted skull with a flat and near vertical forehead. Modern human faces also show much less (if any) of the heavy brow ridges and prognathism of other early humans. Our jaws are also less heavily developed, with smaller teeth. Scientists sometimes use the term “anatomically modern Homo sapiens” to refer to members of our own species who lived during prehistoric times. Homo sapiens
  27. 27. Exercise 4 on page 129. Activities
  28. 28. 2- Life in the Paleolithic Age
  29. 29. -People lived from hunting, gathering and fishing. -People were nomadic. - People lived outdoors, in caves or in wood huts. - They were organised in tribes. - They made tools and objects of stone. - They discovered fire. 2- Life in the Paleolithic Age
  30. 30. Exercises 1 and 3 on page 130. Homework
  31. 31. 3- Paleolithic beliefs and art
  32. 32. CAVE ART. What was Paleolithic art like?
  33. 33. Altamira
  34. 34. Altamira cave
  35. 35. Exercises 1 and 2 on pages 132-133. Activity
  36. 36. Neolithic revolution: -New stone instruments. -They learned how to cultivate plants and domesticate animals: .Agriculture was discovered and cereals (wheat, corn and rice) were cultivated. .Animals, such as goats, sheep, oxen or horses were domesticated. -People started to store food. -People settled in a fixed place, they became sedentary and built villages. 4- The Neolithic Revolution
  37. 37. -Most villages were built next to rivers. -Most villages were encircled by a fence for protection. -They had animal pens and storehouses. -They started using polished stone. -They started making textiles. -They invented pottery. -Work became specialised. A social revolution. Life in the Neolithic Age.
  38. 38. Some neolithic sites in the Iberian Peninsula
  39. 39. Exercise 1 on page 134 in class (speaking practice), and exercises 2-3 on page 134 homework in your notebook. Activities
  40. 40. Reminder - Prehistory timeline
  41. 41. INVENTIONS People began to make metal objects about 7000 years ago. The first metal they used was copper (but it was weak), then they used bronze and iron. They made tools, weapons and jewellery. There were three important inventions: -The wheel. -The sail. -The plough. 5- The Metal Age
  42. 42. INVENTIONS
  43. 43. -The search for metals to make tools created new trade routes. -Trade produced wealth. -New professions appeared. -As wealth was divided unequally, social divisions appeared. -Villages became cities, protected by walls, and with new buildings. Social change
  44. 44. A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. The word "megalithic" describes structures made of such large stones, utilizing an interlocking system without the use of mortar or cement. What were megalithic monuments?
  45. 45. A menhir (French, from Middle Breton: men, "stone" and hir, "long"), standing stone, orthostat, or lith is a large upright standing stone. Menhirs may be found singly as monoliths, or as part of a group of similar stones. Their size can vary considerably, but their shape is generally uneven and squared, often tapering towards the top. Menhirs are widely distributed across Europe, Africa and Asia, but are most numerous in Western Europe; in particular in Ireland, Great Britain and Brittany. There are about 50,000 megaliths in these areas Menhir
  46. 46. A dolmen, also known as a portal tomb, is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more upright stones supporting a large flat horizontal capstone, although there are also more complex variants. Most date from the early Neolithic period (4000 to 3000 BC). Dolmens were typically covered with earth or smaller stones to form a barrow. It remains unclear when, why, and by whom the earliest dolmens were made. The oldest known dolmens are in Western Europe, where they were set in place around 7000 years ago. Archaeologists still do not know who erected these dolmens, which makes it difficult to know why they did it. Dolmen
  47. 47. A stone circle is a monument of standing stones arranged in a circle. Such monuments have been constructed in many parts of the world throughout history for many different reasons. The best known tradition of stone circle construction occurred across the British Isles and Brittany in the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age, with over 1000 examples still surviving to this day, including famous examples like Stonehenge. Another prehistoric stone circle tradition occurred in southern Scandinavia during the Iron Age, where they were built to be mortuary monuments to the dead. The size and number of the stones varies from example to example, and the circle shape can be an Stone circle
  48. 48. DÓLMENES DE ANTEQUERA (MÁLAGA) Megalithic monuments in Spain
  49. 49. Guía de monumentos megalíticos en España In this link you can find all the megalithic monuments in Spain by provinces. Megalithic monuments in Spain
  50. 50. Exercise 5 on page 137. Exercises 7 and 12 on pages 138-9
  51. 51. Complete exercises 1 and 5 in your book. Then, make exercises 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11 in your notebook. ACTIVITY ROUND-UP. Pages 138-9