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Unit 9 - Mesopotamia and Egypt - new

LOMCE CyL 2017 - Santillana book used.

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Unit 9 - Mesopotamia and Egypt - new

  1. 1. Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt Unit 9 - 1º ESO
  2. 2. Possible answers
  3. 3. Activity time ACTIVITY: In your notebooks: Make up a story containing at least 10 of these words: PYRAMID SLAVE PHARAOH RIVER DESERT COLD HOT Advice: try to make short and easy sentences but correct! CAMEL OASIS CHILD TO BUILD TO WORK STONE SAND TO CRY
  4. 4. The first great civilizations appeared around 5,000 years ago. They were in: -China -India -Mesopotamia -Egypt They were river civilizations so they had fertile land around. Their rivers were: -China: the Yellow and Blue rivers. -India: the Indus river. -Mesopotamia: the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. -Egypt: the Nile river. 1- River civilizations
  5. 5. The first civilizations
  6. 6. 1- River civilizations
  7. 7. 1- River civilizations THE INVENTION OF WRITING The invention of writing marks the beginning of History, so the end of Prehistory. Writing appeared in Mesopotamia over 5,000 years ago. Writing was a way of storing information about taxes, trade and population in the towns.
  8. 8. Writing Mesopotamian civilization was the first in using writing about 5,000 years ago. Cuneiform writing was essential. Writing made it possible to organize the state, for example, by recording how much grain there was. It was also used to record stories of important heroes or divinities, that’s the beginning of written literature.
  9. 9. Cuneiform writing
  10. 10. Characteristics of river civilizations: Political power: .Very powerful ruler (king, emperor, pharaoh). .He made laws. .He led the army. .He had religious functions. .He was served by civil servants or state officials. -SOCIETY: .It was hierarchical. .Privileged people owned most of the land and wealth. .Most of the population were poor. - There were large-scale building works, such as palaces, temples, tombs and canals.
  11. 11. Activities Exercises 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 on page 145.
  12. 12. 2- Mesopotamia: environment and history
  13. 13. Mesopotamia means between the rivers. It was the territory between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates.
  14. 14. Mesopotamian first cities The first urban civilization appeared in the low area of Mesopotamia. In Sumer, a fertile land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the first cities emerged (Ur, Uruk, Lagash and Eridu). They were independent cities. They were surrounded by walls. Outside the walls there were farmland crossed by irrigation canals. Most of the population were peasants. Agricultural prosperity made it possible for some inhabitants could work in other jobs, such as trade or craftsmanship. Traders began to use coins in their exchanges.
  15. 15. City-states and empires City-states in Mesopotamia were ruled by kings. Some kings expanded their territories through conquests and alliances until they became empires: After Sumer (3000 BC, Uruk, Ur), there were: the Akkadians (2300 BC), the Babylonians (after 1800 BC), the Assyrians (afteR 1350 BC), and finally the Neo-Babylonian Empire (late 7th c. BC). In the 6th c.BC the Persians conquered the region.
  16. 16. Activities Full sentences!!!! Exercises 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 on page 143.
  17. 17. 3- Society and Art in Mesopotamia Ancient Mesopotamia had a complex society. It was hierarchical. There were three social classes: nobility, free citizens, and slaves. The king was in the top. The nobility or aristocracy included priests, and priest-kings. The priest-kings were believed to be the representative of the city’s patron God or Goddess. They lived in temples and were the city's tax collectors. All people of the nobility class were in charge of maintenance, construction, and organization of the canals. It included also the family of the king. The free people class was a combination of a modern day middle and lower classes: merchants, craftsmen, and anyone who was involved in trade. They lived in the city. Farmers, fishermen, shepherds, and hunters made up the lower class. These people lived on the outskirts of the city and were responsible for the food supply. The slave class was the lowest class, made up of prisoners of war, and these slaves could be bought or sold. The slaves were allowed to marry and have a family if they wished.
  18. 18. Women in Mesopotamia. In ancient Mesopotamia, women were not considered equal to men. They had some rights but not all rights. Women could go out of their houses and go to the market. They were allowed to own their own property and even own businesses. They could become involved in court cases. If their parents were so inclined, they could learn to read and write and even get a paid job. But they were not allowed a vote in the assembly, so they had no voice in making laws.
  19. 19. Family life in Mesopotamia In ancient Mesopotamia families were very important. The family was the basic unit of society and there were certain things that could and couldn`t be done. For example, a woman living in Mesopotamia could do or go anywhere she wanted as long as she had her husband's permission. In the case of a divorce, both man and woman would pay a fine, and if there were no children, the divorce was easy. If the couple did have children, the woman faced severe penalties. The children in a family had to respect their parents because disrespecting parental figures was considered a grave sin. If the family was in an incredibly bad financial situation, then the children would be sold even though selling children was considered a bad omen. Males were the prefered gender in ancient Mesopotamia and the men in Mesopotamia were far more powerful than the women.
  20. 20. Activities Exercises 1 to 3 on page 144.
  21. 21. What was Mesopotamian culture like? Religion and Food Mesopotamian religion and food were closely connected. Food was often offered to the Gods as a sacrifice. The everyday food that people ate included beef, lamb, pork, goat, duck, and geese. Bread was also very popular. All Mesopotamians enjoyed eating, and the richer the family was, the more food they had. Religion in Mesopotamia was rather complex. They believed that the world was a flat disk that was surrounded by hollow space. They also believed that the ocean surrounded them. Ancient Mesopotamians were polytheistic and relied on spiritual remedies to stay healthy. Mesopotamians believed that the Gods must be treated with respect, because they were the providers for the Mesopotamian civilization. The Mesopotamian also built structures called ziggurats. Ziggurats were believed to be the stairways of the Gods.
  22. 22. Religion in Mesopotamia Ziggurats (temples) were placed in the city center. They were devoted to the city God or Goddess. Priests lived there. They controlled crops, trade and imposed taxes. the priest-king was the city leader, he had civil servants to help him.
  23. 23. The Code of Hammurabi Some examples of laws: - If a freeman brings false testimony in a case that carries the death sentence, he shall be put to death. - If a builder builds a house and does not make the construction firm and the house collapses and causes death of the owner, that builder shall be put to death. - If a trader borrows money from a merchant and then denies it, and the merchant can prove this loan was made, the trader shall pay the merchant three times the amount he borrowed.
  24. 24. Homework
  25. 25. Summary of the Mesopotamian civilization
  26. 26. 4- Egypt: environment and history.
  27. 27. Why was the Nile crucial to Ancient Egypt? - The Nile was essential for Ancient Egypt because: .Land fertility (black land) .Water was so important for human needs and agriculture .Communication system
  28. 28. Homework Exercises 1 and 3 on page 146-7.
  29. 29. The history of Egypt In the 4th millennium BC. independent kingdoms appeared in Lower Egypt (near the Nile delta) and Upper Egypt (south)
  30. 30. How did Ancient Egypt change? The chronology of the kingdoms There were three main periods: 1- Old Kingdom (3100 BC- 2200 BC): Capital city: Memphis. 2- Middle Kingdom (2200 BC- 1800 BC): Capital city: Thebes. 3- New Kingdom (1600 BC- 1100 BC): Capital city: Thebes.
  31. 31. How did Ancient Egypt change?
  32. 32. Foreign rule (1.100 BC- 31 BC) After the year 1.100 BC, Egypt was invaded by different foreign peoples: the Assyrians, the Persians, the Greeks, and the Romans.
  33. 33. Activities Exercises 4, 5 and 6 on page 147.
  34. 34. 5- Society in Ancient Egypt
  35. 35. The Egyptian state
  36. 36. Activities Exercises 1 and 2 page 148.
  37. 37. What was society like?
  38. 38. Women in Ancient Egypt
  39. 39. Thinking about...
  40. 40. 6- Religion and art in Egypt.
  41. 41. Main Egyptian Gods
  42. 42. Attitudes to death
  43. 43. Mummification process
  44. 44. Sarcophagus
  45. 45. Canopic jars Canopic jars were used by the Ancient Egyptians during the mummification process to store and preserve the viscera of their owner for the afterlife. They were commonly either carved from limestone or were made of pottery. These jars were used from the time of the Old Kingdom. The viscera were not kept in a single canopic jar: each jar was reserved for specific organs.
  46. 46. Egyptians tombs Pyramids and mastabas.
  47. 47. Egyptians tombs
  48. 48. Egyptians tombs, Valley of the Kings A hypogeum
  49. 49. Temples. Karnak.
  50. 50. Egyptian art
  51. 51. Activities Exercise 1 on page 151.
  52. 52. Writing in Egypt Make the exercise 16 on page 153 about hieroglyphs.
  53. 53. Activities Exercises 1, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11 and 12 on page 152-3.
  54. 54. The Standard of Ur, page 154
  55. 55. Royal Standard of Ur The Standard of Ur is a Sumerian artifact excavated from what had been the Royal Cemetery in the ancient city of Ur (located in modern- day Iraq). It is approximately 4,500 years old and it was probably constructed in the form of a hollow wooden box with scenes of war and peace represented on each side through elaborately mosaics. Although interpreted as a standard by its discoverer, its original purpose remains enigmatic. It was found in a royal tomb in Ur in the 1920s next to the skeleton of a ritually sacrificed man. It presents a series of scenes displayed in three registers, upper, middle and bottom. The two mosaics have been dubbed "War" and "Peace" for their subject matter, respectively a representation of a military campaign and scenes from a banquet.
  56. 56. Homework In your notebook, answer the following questions about the previous video (do not forget to use full sentences!): 1.What does the olive branch symbolized? 2.Which city-state does the standard come from? 3.What is the name of the archeologist who discovered the Standard? 4.What was the function of the Standard? 5.Can we know if there was a social organization in that time with the information represented in the Standard? 6.Is there anyone more important than the rest? why do you know it? 7.Is there any musician? What is he playing? 8.What do the scenes on the back of the Standard represent? 9.Does the king appeared in the back? Where? Why do you know it? 10.Express your opinion: Tell us what do you think now about this piece of art.