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How to use "research outputs"

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A.K.A. How to read academic papers

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How to use "research outputs"

  1. 1. How to use Research Outputs (ROs) A hands-on guide to help you define, identify, filter, read, and cite journal articles, conference proceedings, and Non-Traditional ROs Ricardo Sosa, PhD @designcomputing
  2. 2. WhatareResearchOutputs(ROs)? ROs include traditional academic publications: journal articles, books and book chapters, conference proceedings, etc. It also includes non-traditional outputs (NTROs) such as visual essays, exegesis, ‘expositions’, insight papers, reflective papers, perspectives, essays, etc.
  3. 3. Map:HowtouseROs cite define identify skim ignore keep read delete references take notes get citation redefine
  4. 4. http://www.sankeymatic.com/build/ Database A [1000] Hits Database B [300] Hits Database C [1400] Hits Database D [200] Hits Hits [200] Select Hits [2700] Ignore Select [100] Skim Select [50] Read Select [50] Keep Skim [30] Redefine Skim [60] Delete Skim [10] References Read [10] Redefine Read [30] Delete Read [9] References Read [1] Cite ' After your Flows are entered, use the ' controls below to customize your ' diagram's appearance. ' For even finer control over presentation, ' see the Manual (linked above).
  5. 5. Step0:TypeofRO
  6. 6. Step0:TypeofRO
  7. 7. Step0:TypeofRO
  8. 8. Step0:TypeofRO
  9. 9. Step0:TypeofRO
  10. 10. Step0:TypeofRO
  11. 11. Clue 0: Your results are heavily shaped by where you search Learn the (very) different catalogues that index Creative Technologies research
  12. 12. “pain” = 483,291 hits (JSTOR) “pain” = 1.3M (ScienceDirect) “pain” = 4M (Google Scholar)
  13. 13. Step1:Title pain
  14. 14. Step1:Title pain
  15. 15. Step1:Title “meaning” “measurement” “design and evaluation” “scales” pain
  16. 16. Step1:Title
  17. 17. Clue 01: The title can indicate the onto-epistemology and methodology of the work Learn to identify terms and words that give away key information. You can use such terms to define/redefine/refine your search
  18. 18. “meaning of pain” = 5,980 hits “measurement of pain” = 25,400 hits
  19. 19. allintitle: pain experience allintitle: pain measurement
  20. 20. Step2:Author(s) Four authors, all from same department (Engineering) and two from industry One author, from Design department Two authors, from Education and from Psychology departments One author from Computer Science
  21. 21. Step2:Author(s)
  22. 22. Step2:Author(s)
  23. 23. Step2:Author(s)
  24. 24. Step2:Author(s)
  25. 25. Clue 02: The authors suggest the onto-epistemology and methodology of the work Learn to identify how authors’ affiliations give away key information
  26. 26. Step3:Abstract
  27. 27. Step3:Abstract
  28. 28. Step3:Abstract
  29. 29. Step3:Abstract
  30. 30. Step3:Abstract
  31. 31. Clue 03: A good abstract introduces the topic, justifies the study, hints at the methods, and shows the results and contribution Good abstracts are hard to find. Some ROs don’t have abstracts, the first paragraph should meet this function
  32. 32. Step4:Keywords Mobile Internet use Privacy Social Computing Domestic abuse Communities Digital dating abuse Intimate partner violence Technological intimate partner violence Technology Technological disinhibition
  33. 33. Step4:Keywords
  34. 34. Clue 04: Identify good keywords to (re)define search terms. Always keep an eye on keywords Learn to identify good keywords and new keywords that you may have missed before. Keep a list at hand
  35. 35. Step5:Keysection(s) cite define identify skim ignore keep read delete references take notes get citation redefine read introduction references background methods claims
  36. 36. Step5:Keysection(s) Pacanowsky, M. (1995). Team tools for wicked problems. Organizational Dynamics, 23(3), 36-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(95)90024-1 Similar papers? What would you look at to decide if you should read it?
  37. 37. Step5:Keysection(s)
  38. 38. Step5:Keysection(s)
  39. 39. Step5:Keysection(s) Read #1 if you need an overall idea of the field and this work Read #2 when you need to scope the background or check your familiarity Read #3 to understand what and how this person did in detail Read #4 to see the results and #5 for claims and implications Read #6 for open questions and References to scope the background
  40. 40. Clue 05: What should you read first? Learn to decide how you should skim/read an RO depending on what you are looking for. Only very few papers you need to read entirely from beginning to end
  41. 41. Step6:References Sources: • Conferences: CoDesigning, CHI, INTERACT, Journals: • Design Studies, Product Innovation Management, Consumer Research, Design Issues Book publishers: • New Riders, Penguin, Routledge, Van Nostrand R, Methuen, Carcanet, Basic Books Years: • 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s
  42. 42. Step6:References
  43. 43. Step6:References
  44. 44. Step6:References
  45. 45. Step6:References
  46. 46. Clue 06: References help readers ‘locate’ the work Learn that ROs across disciplines follow *very* different conventions. Scan the references, notes, or bibliography to get a better idea of the background and related works
  47. 47. Step7:StudyorMethods
  48. 48. Step7:StudyorMethods
  49. 49. Step7:StudyorMethods
  50. 50. Step7:StudyorMethods
  51. 51. Step7:StudyorMethods
  52. 52. Step7:StudyorMethods
  53. 53. Step7:StudyorMethods
  54. 54. Step7:StudyorMethods
  55. 55. Clue 07: The methods or study design section (usually the third) should explicitly say how the work was carried out Learn to identify the *very* different ways in which authors describe what and how they did
  56. 56. Step8:Resultsandclaims
  57. 57. Step8:Resultsandclaims
  58. 58. Step8:Resultsandclaims
  59. 59. Step8:Resultsandclaims
  60. 60. Clue 08: The results and claims section (usually second-last) is where the contribution of this work is made: findings, analysis, implications, demonstrations Learn to quickly locate the ‘substance’ of an RO and to assess it based on all the other sections. Watch out for unsubstantiated claims and flaws
  61. 61. Step9:Discussion
  62. 62. Step9:Discussion
  63. 63. Step9:Discussion
  64. 64. Step9:Discussion
  65. 65. Clue 09: The last section usually summarises the work (so it’s good to read it first), takes a broad view of the results, and frames new questions Learn when to start reading an RO from the end as a way to assess whether you should bother reading the rest
  66. 66. Step10:Whattoreadnext?
  67. 67. Step10:Whattoreadnext? https://www.connectedpapers.com/
  68. 68. Clue 10: Use the RO to keep navigating the field. Locate the key references and ROs that cite this work Learn to identify a few (key) references to check next, look at ‘Cited by’ works, set up alerts, look for the author/journal/conference for further related ROs
  69. 69. https://greatdesignresearchpapers.blogspot.com/

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