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Pedagogy of the Oppressed Chapter 4


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Fourth and last chapter of Freire's iconic book. Key excerpts for discussion

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Pedagogy of the Oppressed Chapter 4

  1. 1. Pedagogy of the Oppressed: Excerpts for Designers Paulo Freire Chapter 4
  2. 2. “A person learns to swim in the water, not in a library”
  3. 3. “Scientific and humanist revolutionary leaders cannot believe in the myth of the ignorance of the people. They cannot believe that they, and only they, know anything. They cannot impose themselves and their knowledge on the people”
  4. 4. “The task of revolutionary leaders is to pose as problems all myths used by the oppressor elites”
  5. 5. “The oppressors develop a series of methods precluding any presentation of the world as a problem and showing it rather as a fixed entity, as something given”
  6. 6. “Myths: that the oppressive order is a ‘free society’, that all persons are free to work where they wish, that this order respects human rights, that anyone who is industrious can become an entrepreneur… the myth of the equality of all individuals”
  7. 7. “It is in the interest of the oppressor to weaken the oppressed, to isolate them, to create and deepen rifts among them”
  8. 8. “The oppressors do not favour promoting the community as a whole, but rather selected leaders”
  9. 9. “At a certain stage in their relationship, the oppressed are attracted by the oppressor”
  10. 10. “People are fulfilled to the extent that they create their world with their transforming labour”
  11. 11. “One of the methods of manipulation is to inoculate individuals with the bourgeois appetite for personal success”
  12. 12. “Cultural invasion… the invaders impose their own view of the world upon those they invade and inhibit their creativity by curbing their expression”
  13. 13. “The parent-child relationship in the home usually reflects the objective cultural conditions of the surrounding social structure”
  14. 14. “Well-intentioned professionals use ‘invasion’ not as a deliberate ideology but as the expression of their own upbringing. They (may) eventually feel the need to renounce invasion, but patterns of domination are so entrenched within them that this renunciation would become a threat to their own identities”
  15. 15. “As the revolution deepens conscientização in the creative praxis of the new society, people will begin to perceive why mythical remnants of the old society survive in the new”
  16. 16. “There is no freedom without authority, but there is also no authority without freedom. Authentic authority is not affirmed as such by a mere transfer of power, but through delegation or in sympathetic adherence”
  17. 17. “Organisation is a highly educational process in which leaders and people together experience true authority and freedom”
  18. 18. “Investigation –the first moment of action- establishes a climate of creativity. Such a climate does not exist in the cultural invasion, which through alienation kills the creative enthusiasm, leaving people hopeless and fearful of risking experimentation, without which there is no true creativity”
  19. 19. “In cultural synthesis it is possible to resolve the contradiction between the world view of the leaders and that of the people, to the enrichment of both. Cultural synthesis does not deny the differences, it is based on these differences, it affirms the undeniable support each gives to the other”
  20. 20. “Leaders who overrule popular aspirations [that are limited] and substitute something more far-reaching –something which has not yet come to the forefront of the people’s attention fall into cultural invasion. The solution lies in synthesis: the leaders must pose the meaning of that very demand as a problem”
  21. 21. “Only in the encounter of the people with the revolutionary leaders –in their communion, in their praxis- can a theory of liberating action be built”
  22. 22. Right to access Right to create Elitist Extractive by a minority by a majority for a minority for a majority
  23. 23. Right to access Right to create Elitist Extractive by a minority by a majority for a minority for a majority Co-Design