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- 1. • Types LATERAL CEPHALOGRAM FRONTAL CEPHALOGRAM • USES Helps in orthodontic diagnosis. Helps in classification of skeletal and dental abnormalities. Helps in planning treatment of an individual. Helps in evaluation of treatment results. Helps in predicting growth related changes.
- 2. LANDMARKS
- 3. Horizontal Planes in Cephalometry
- 4. Cephalometric Analysis • Downs Analysis • Steiner Analysis • Tweed Analysis • Wits Appraisal
- 5. Downs Analysis • It is one of the most frequently used cephalometric analysis. • Downs analysis consists of ten parameters of which five are skeletal and five are dental.
- 6. Skeletal Parameters FACIAL ANGLE • It is the inside inferior angle formed by intersection of nasion - pogonion line and F.H. plane. • Average value- 87.8’ ( 82 – 95’) • Significance - Indicates antero - posterior positioning of mandible in relation to upper face. Angle is increased in skeletal class III with
- 7. ANGLE OF CONVEXITY • Angle formed at the inersection nasion-point A to point A – pogonion. • Average value; 0’ ( -8.5 to 10’). • Significance- A positive angle suggest a prominent maxillary denture base in relation to mandible. • Negative angle is indicative of prognathic profile.
- 8. A-B PLANE ANGLE • Angle formed at the intersection of point A – point B line to nasion – pogonion line. • Average value- -4.6’ ( -9 to 0’) • Significance- indicative of maxillo mandibular relationship in relation to facial plane. • Negative since point B is positioned behind point A. • Positive in class III
- 9. MANDIBULAR PLANE ANGLE • Angle formed at the intersection of mandibular plane with F.H. Plane. • Average value- 21.9’ ( 17 to 28’)
- 10. Y-AXIS • Angle formed b/w sella gnathion to F.H. plane. • Average value; 59’ ( 53’ to 66’) • Angle is larger in class II facial patterns. Indicates growth pattern of a individual.
- 11. CANT OF OCCLUSAL PLANE • Angle formed b/w occlusal plane to F.H. Plane • Average value- 9.3 ( 1.5 to 14’) • Gives a measure of slope of occlusal plane relative to F.H. Plane.
- 12. INTER INCISAL ANGLE • Angle between long axes of upper and lower incisors. • Average value: 135.4’ ( 130 to 150.5’) • Decreased in case of bidental protrusion
- 13. INCISOR OCCLUSAL PLANE ANGLE • This is the inside inferior angle formed by the intersection between the long axis of lover central incisor and the occlusal plane and is read as a plus or minus deviation from a right angle • Average value: 14.5” ( 3.5 to 20’) • An increase in this angle is suggestive of increased lower incisor proclination.
- 14. INCISOR MANDIBULAR PLANE ANGLE • This angel is formed by intersection of the long axis of the lower incisor and the mandibular plane. • Average value: 1.4’(-8.2 to 7’) • An increase in this angle is suggestive of increased lower incisor proclination.
- 15. UPPER INCISOR TO A-POG • This is a linear measurement between the incisal edge of the maxillary central incisor and the line joining point A to pogonion. This distance is on an average 4mm mm(rang-1 to 5 mm) • The measurement is more in patients presenting with upper incisor proclination.
- 16. STEINER ANALYSIS • SKELETAL PARAMETERS SNA ANGLE SNB ANGLE ANB ANGLE MANDIBULAR PLANE ANGLE OCCLUSAL PLANE ANGLE • DENTAL PARAMETERS UPPER INCISOR TO N-A ANGLE UPPER INCISOR TO N-A LINEAR LOWER INCISOR TO N-B ANGLE LOWER INCISOR TO N-B LINEAR INTER INCISOR ANGLE • SOFT TISSUE ANALYSIS S LINE
- 17. SNA (Maxillary position) 82.0 SNB (Mandibular position) 80 ANB (Maxillary/Mandibular relation) 2 lncisor to NA (Upper incisors to NA mm) 4mm lncisor to NA (Upper incisors to NA degree) 22 lncisor to NB (Lower incisors to NB mm) 4mm lncisor to NB (Lower incisors to NB degree) 25 lnter-incisal angle 131 Mandibular plane angle 32 SN to occlusal plane 14
- 18. TWEED ANALYSIS Makes use of three planes 1. Frankfort horizontal plane 2. Mandibular plane 3. Long axis of lower incisors
- 19. FMA (Frankfurt plane to mandibular plane) 16-35 FMIA (Frankfurt plane to lower incisor angulation) 85-95 IMPA (Lower incisor to mandibular plane) 60-75
- 20. WITS APPRAISAL • Measures the relationship of maxilla and mandible to each other and to the sagital plane • Used where ANB are not realiable • Perpendicular are drawn from point A and point B to the functional occlusal plane to form AO and BO

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