• Satellite is any object
that orbits another
• It has wide range of
TYPES OF SATELLITE
• Astronomical satellite: used for observing
distant planet and galaxies
• Communication satellite: used for
telecommunication using radio at microwave
• Earth observation satellite: specially designed
for observing earth
• Weather satellite : monitor the weather and
climate of earth
TYPE OF ORBITS
• Geo stationary orbits: it
always positioned over
same spot on
• Asynchonoly orbit : they
pass at overhead at
different time of day (644
• Polar orbit : generally files
at low attitude and pass
over planet’s pole on each
• Rocket is a launching vehicle used to launch
satellite in to required orbit.
STRAP ON ROCKET
• 40 tones of hydraulic
• It burns before starting
the main engine.
TYPES OF ROCKET
• Expandable rocket : they destroyed while
completing their mission.
• Space shuttle: which is reusable
• It is a self propellant engine.
• It carry fuel as well as oxidizer.
• Efficiency is measured as
sp: impulse = thrust
produced /mass of propellant
burnt in a second.
MECHANISM OF ROCKET ENGINE
Basic working principle is newton's 3rd low of
TYPES OF PROPELLANTS
• Propellant is the chemical mixture burned to
produce thrust in rockets and consists of a fuel
and an oxidizer
• Solid propellant: gun powder
High energy composite propellants
• Liquid propellant: LH2
• Its travel 80 km
• The maximum thrust is 4700 kN
• Usually solid propellants are used
• Max thrust are produced this stage
• It split the 1st part of the rocket
• 125 tone of propellants are used, 3.2m dia &
25m length in the stage
• It travel 168 km
• Maximum thrust produced is 720 kN
• Usually liquid propellants are used N2O2
• 110 ton of fuels are used
In this stage satellites are get in to transfer orbit
73.5kN thrust are produced
Cryogenic engines are used
Fuels are LOH & LH2
25 tones fuels are used and 8.2m in length
When the rocket reaches T orbit, it must have
been attain the orbital velocity of earth other
vise it will return back to earth
APOGEE KICK MOTOR
Satellite are safely suited in this motor
Its also called the pay load firing
During the end of third stage the motor will
start firing and goes to required pallet
PROPULSION SUB SYSTEM
• The challenges are faced by rocket launching
• Thrust to weight ratio: it must be greater than
1 to take of the ground.
• Nozzle design: nozzle face varying expansion
condition from ground to space
THRUST TO WEIGHT RATIO
• To get a rocket off the ground, the total thrust
must be greater than the vehicles weight.
• The launch vehicle’s prolusion system must
produce a thrust to weight ratio greater than
COMMUNICATION & DATA HANDLING
Through out launch the vehicle must stay in
contact with a launch control center.
The flight controller continuously monitor
telemetry from the launch vehicle sub system to
ensure they’re working properly
The computer process sensor information and
compute commands for actuators, as well as
monitor other on board processes
Launch vehicle need only enough power to run the
communication & data handling subsystem as well
as sensor & actuators.
In space uses fuel cell powered by hydrogen and
In expandable launch vehicle simple batteries are
used for primary power.
In satellite also have a battery for their working and
its recharged by a solar power through solar panel.
With the help of satellite any information
sending instantly at any place. Various tasks
such as mapping, locating, environmental
situation, locating mineral deposits, finding crop
problems etc. are performed by a satellite easily
they are used in field of communication in
the are of TV, the internet, the phones,
observations, are of geology and navigation, in
the area of transportation etc..