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Resurrection of Jesus

Presentation on the topic "Resurrection of Jesus" . Contains word study of the word "resurrection", harmonization of the Gospel accounts and historical evidence for the death, empty tomb and post-mortem appearances of Jesus.

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Resurrection of Jesus

  1. 1. RESURRECTION OF JESUS
  2. 2. WORD STUDY • anastasis: a standing up, i.e. a resurrection, a raising up, rising • Original Word: ἀνάστασις, εως, ἡ • Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine • Transliteration: anastasis • Phonetic Spelling: (an-as'-tas-is) • Short Definition: a rising again, resurrection • Definition: a rising again, resurrection. • Source: Strong’s concordance
  3. 3. WORD USAGE • 386 anástasis (from 303 /aná, "up, again" and 2476 /hístēmi, "to stand") – literally, "stand up" (or "stand again"), referring to physical resurrection (of the body). • Christ's physical resurrection is the foundation of Christianity, which also guarantees the future resurrection of all believers (see Jn 6:39,40,44). • [386 /anástasis ("resurrection") refers to the physical, bodily resurrection of Christ – and people (both of the redeemed and the unredeemed).] • copyright © 1987, 2011 by Helps Ministries, Inc. • For complete text and additional resources visit: HelpsBible.com
  4. 4. RESURRECTION, RESUSCITATION AND REINCARNATION A brief comparision
  5. 5. RESURRECTION RESUSCITATION • Jesus • Came back from dead • First fruit of the final resurrection • Spiritual body • Does not undergo aging • Perfect • Permanent and Immortal • Glorious body • Powerful • Lazarus • Raised from the dead by Jesus • Will again be resurrected on the final day • Same natural physical body • Undergoes aging • Can be diseased • Temporary and Mortal • weak
  6. 6. RESURRECTION REINCARNATION • Christianity and Islam • Linear timeline • One time event • Spiritual body • Immortal i.e Victory over death • Perfect • In the ‘Age to come’ • After resurrection judgment unto final destiny – Heaven(salvation) or Hell (damnation) • Based on faith in Christ • Eternal Abundant life or Eternal punishment. • Hinduism and Buddhism • Cyclical timeline • Millions of time • Physical body • Mortal • Imperfect • Through many ‘aeons’ • After reincarnation as human or lower life form • Moksha / Nirvana – Escape reincarnation and merge with the Ultimate reality(Hinduism) or attain Sunyata (Buddhism). Escaping Karmic consequences. • Non existence
  7. 7. RESURRECTION • Resurrection can be defined as the one time event of coming back to life after death with an immortal spiritual body on the day that Christ returns. • It is “life after ‘life after death’” which may be in heaven or hell. • Immediately after death is ‘Life after death’. • So after resurrection it is “Life after ‘Life after death’”.
  8. 8. IMPORTANCE OF RESURRECTION Immortality , Eternal Life
  9. 9. IMPORTANCE OF RESURRECTION • 17 And if Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile; you are still in your sins. 18 Then those also who have fallen asleep in Christ are lost. 19 If only for this life we have hope in Christ, we are of all people most to be pitied. 1 Corinthians 15 • The Truth of Christianity • Our Salvation
  10. 10. HARMONY OF RESURRECTION NARRATIVES IN THE GOSPELS A SHORT SURVEY FROM THE FOUR GOSPELS
  11. 11. FOUR DIFFERENT WITNESSES • The resurrection account in all the four Gospels is that : 1. Jesus died on a roman cross because of pressure from Jewish religious authority. 2. Jesus was buried in the tomb 3. The tomb was found empty by women on Sunday 4. Jesus appeared to the many people both friends and foes, believers and unbelievers 5. Four different witnesses say the same story from different perspectives and add or leave out peripheral details 6. These differences in peripheral details are not considered as contradictions 7. The difference in these details actually attest to the truthfulness of the witnesses as they rule out collusion
  12. 12. VARIATIONS NOT CONTRADICTIONS • No four witnesses (or news reporters), all of whom witness a series of events, will write them up in exactly the same way, detail for detail. If they did, there would be obvious collusion. -- Josh McDowell • Collusion – They got together and made up the story. • In these fundamental truths, there are absolutely no contradictions. The so-called variations in the narratives are only the details which were most vividly impressed on one mind or another of the witnesses of the Lord's resurrection, or on the mind of the writers of these four respective Gospels. – Wilbur Smith • The closest, most critical, examination of these narratives throughout the ages never had destroyed and can never destroy their powerful testimony to the truth that Christ did rise from the dead on the third day, and was seen of many .(The Supernaturalness of Christ, W. A. Wilde Company, 1954, p.205).
  13. 13. THE MORNING OF THE RESURRECTION Mark 16:1 1And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him. Matthew 28:2-4 2And, behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat upon it. 3His countenance was like lightning, and his raiment white as snow: 4And for fear of him the keepers did shake, and became as dead men.
  14. 14. VISIT OF THE WOMEN TO THE SEPULCHRE • Matthew 28:1In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre. • Mark 16:2-4 2And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun. 3And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre? 4And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great. • Luke 24:1-3 1Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them. 2And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre. 3And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus. • John 20:1-2 1The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre. 2Then she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken away the LORD out of the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him.
  15. 15. MEETING ANGELS IN THE SEPULCHRE • Matthew 28:5-7 5And the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified. 6He is not here: for he is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay. 7And go quickly, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead; and, behold, he goeth before you into Galilee; there shall ye see him: lo, I have told you. • Mark 16:5-7 5And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted.6And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen. he is not here: behold the place where they laid him. 7But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you. • Luke 24:4-8 4And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood by them in shining garments: 5And as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the dead? 6He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee, 7Saying, The Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again. 8And they remembered his words,
  16. 16. THE WOMEN RETURN TO THE CITY; JESUS MEETS THEM • Matthew 28:8-10 8And they departed quickly from the sepulchre with fear and great joy; and did run to bring his disciples word. 9And as they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, All hail. And they came and held him by the feet, and worshipped him. 10Then said Jesus unto them, Be not afraid: go tell my brethren that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me. • Mark 16:8 8And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid. • Luke 24:9-11 9And returned from the sepulchre, and told all these things unto the eleven, and to all the rest. 10It was Mary Magdalene and Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, and other women that were with them, which told these things unto the apostles.11And their words seemed to them as idle tales, and they believed them not.
  17. 17. PETER AND JOHN RUN TO THE SEPULCHRE • Luke 24:12 12Then arose Peter, and ran unto the sepulchre; and stooping down, he beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves, and departed, wondering in himself at that which was come to pass. • John 20:3-10 3Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to the sepulchre. 4So they ran both together: and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre. 5And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying; yet went he not in. 6Then cometh Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulchre, and seeth the linen clothes lie, 7And the napkin, that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself. 8Then went in also that other disciple, which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed. 9For as yet they knew not the scripture, that he must rise again from the dead.10Then the disciples went away again unto their own home.
  18. 18. JESUS APPEARS TO MARY MAGDALENE • Mark 16:9-11 9Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils. 10And she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept. 11And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not. • John 20:11-18 11But Mary stood without at the sepulchre weeping: and as she wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre,12And seeth two angels in white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain. 13And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? She saith unto them, Because they have taken away my LORD, and I know not where they have laid him.14And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus. 15Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou? She, supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou have borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away.16Jesus saith unto her, Mary. She turned herself, and saith unto him, Rabboni; which is to say, Master. 18Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the LORD, and that he had spoken these things unto her.
  19. 19. REPORT OF THE GUARDS • Matthew 28:11-15 11Now when they were going, behold, some of the watch came into the city, and shewed unto the chief priests all the things that were done. 12And when they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave large money unto the soldiers, 13Saying, Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole him away while we slept.14And if this come to the governor's ears, we will persuade him, and secure you.15So they took the money, and did as they were taught: and this saying is commonly reported among the Jews until this day.
  20. 20. JESUS MEETS PETER AND DISCIPLES ON THE EMMAUS ROAD • Luke24: 33 -34 33And they got up that very hour and returned to Jerusalem, and found gathered together the eleven and those who were with them, 34saying, "The Lord has really risen and has appeared to Simon." • 1 Cor.15: 5 and that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve. • Mark 16:12-13 12After that he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country. 13And they went and told it unto the residue: neither believed they them. • Luke 24:13-1513And, behold, two of them went that same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs.14And they talked together of all these things which had happened.15And it came to pass, that, while they communed together and reasoned, Jesus himself drew near, and went with them.16But their eyes were holden that they should not know him……. 30And it came to pass, as he sat at meat with them, he took bread, and blessed it, and brake, and gave to them. 31And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he vanished out of their sight.
  21. 21. JESUS APPEARS TO APOSTLES EXCEPT THOMAS • Mark 16:14-18 14Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was risen. • Luke 24:36-49 36And as they thus spake, Jesus himself stood in the midst of them, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you. 37But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they had seen a spirit. 38And he said unto them, Why are ye troubled? and why do thoughts arise in your hearts? 39Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have. 40And when he had thus spoken, he shewed them his hands and his feet. 41And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered, he said unto them, Have ye here any meat? 42And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb. 43And he took it, and did eat before them. • John 20:19-20 19Then the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you. 20And when he had so said, he shewed unto them his hands and his side. Then were the disciples glad, when they saw the LORD.
  22. 22. JESUS APPEARS TO THOMAS • John 20:24-29 24But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.25The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the LORD. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe. 26And after eight days again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them: then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto you. 27Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side: and be not faithless, but believing.28And Thomas answered and said unto him, My LORD and my God.
  23. 23. JESUS MEETS APOSTLES IN GALILEE • Matthew 28:16 16Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, • John 21:1-24 1After these things Jesus shewed himself again to the disciples at the sea of Tiberias; and on this wise shewed he himself. • 1 Corinthians 15:6 He was seen of above five hundred brethren at once. • See Matthew 26: 32. “ At length the set time arrived; and the eleven disciples went away into the mountain “where Jesus had appointed them.” It would seem most probable, that this time and place had been appointed of our Lord for a solemn and more public interview, not only with the eleven, whom he had already met, but with all his disciples in Galilee; and that therefore it was on this same occasion, when, according to Paul, “He was seen of above five hundred brethren at once.”* That the interview was not confined to the eleven alone, would seem evident from the fact that “some doubted;” for this could hardly be supposed true of any of the eleven, after what had already happened to them in Jerusalem and Galilee, and after having been appointed to meet their risen Lord at this very time and place. The appearance of the five hundred must at any rate be referred to Galilee; for even after our Lord's ascension, the number of the names in Jerusalem were, together only about an hundred and twenty. ** I do not hesitate, therefore, to hold with Flatt, Olshausen, Hengstenberg, and others, that the appearances thus described by Matthew and Paul, were identical” ---- Simon Greenleaf
  24. 24. JESUS PREDICTS HIS DEATH AND RESURRECTION SCRIPTURE
  25. 25. STUDY METHOD : HISTORICAL
  26. 26. SOURCES: EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY IN GOSPELS AND TRADITIONS/CREEDS RECORDED IN THE LETTERS OF PAUL TO VARIOUS CHURCHES
  27. 27. TRACING THE EVIDENCE TO THE SOURCE • Granting the critics the benefit of the doubt • Placing the gospels between 60 – 110 A.D . Mark earliest, John latest. These are nearer to original events and historically sufficiently compared to other works of antiquity like Gallic wars of Julius Ceasar • Considering only what the critical scholars accept as genuine Pauline writings like Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, 1 Thessalonians • Pauline epistles takes us back to around 40 – 50 A.D • In these there are pre-Pauline traditions which Paul communicates through the epistles to the Churches. • 1 Corinthians 15: 3 – 7 is one such tradition/creed and it’s origin is accepted by even radical scholars to be within 5 years of the resurrection.
  28. 28. 1 CORINTHIANS 15: 3-7 • 3 For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, • 4 and that He was buried, and that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, • 5 and that He appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. • 6 After that He appeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time, most of whom remain until now, but some have fallen asleep; • 7 then He appeared to James, then to all the apostles;
  29. 29. SCHLOLARLY QUOTES • Do critical scholars agree on the date of this pre-Pauline creed? Even radical scholars like Gerd Lüdemann think that “the elements in the tradition are to be dated to the first two years after the crucifixion . . . no later than three years after the death of Jesus.” Similarly, Michael Goulder contends that Paul’s testimony about the resurrection appearances “goes back at least to what Paul was taught when he was converted, a couple of years after the crucifixion.” An increasing number of exceptionally influential scholars have very recently concluded that at least the teaching of the resurrection, and perhaps even the specific formulation of the pre-Pauline creedal tradition in 1 Corinthians 15:3-7, dates to AD 30! In other words, there never was a time when the message of Jesus’ resurrection was not an integral part of the earliest apostolic proclamation. No less a scholar than James D. G. Dunn even states regarding this crucial text: “This tradition, we can be entirely confident, was formulated as tradition within months of Jesus’ death.” — Gary Habermas, “Tracing Jesus’ Resurrection to Its Earliest Eyewitness Accounts,” God is Great, God is Good (InterVarsity Press, 2009), 212.
  30. 30. WHY IS IT PRE-PAULINE? • 1. Paul claims that he received it. Paul uses the language of “delivered” and “received.” This is technical language that Pharisees used for transmitting sacred tradition. Paul was trained as a Pharisee (Phil. 3:5), and so he uses the language of Pharisaic transmission (Gal. 1:14). Michael Licona writes, “Mark and Josephus report that a zeal for tradition was standard for Pharisees, a group to which Paul had belonged.”[1] At the very least, Paul is claiming that he is passing on a message about Christ that was not unique to him. Otherwise, he never would have written this. • 2. Second, a number of expressions in this passage do not occur in Paul’s writing. The expression “according to the Scriptures” does not occur anywhere else in Paul’s letters. Licona writes, The phrase ‘according to the Scriptures’ is absent elsewhere in the Pauline corpus and the New Testament, where we read (“it is written”).With a lone exception in Galatians 1:4 (“for our sins”) is absent elsewhere in Paul (and the rest of the New Testament), who prefers the singular ‘sin.’On the third day’ is only here in Paul. In Paul, the term ‘appeared to’ or ‘was seen’ is found only in 1 Corinthians 15:5-8 and 1 Timothy 3:16. ‘The Twelve’ is only here in Paul. Elsewhere he uses ‘the apostles.’ • 3. Third, we see parallelism through this section. Paul repeats the expressions “and that…” and “according to the Scriptures…” multiple times in this short section. • unseenevidence.com
  31. 31. ESTABLISHING THE DEATH OF CHRIST THE CAUSE OF DEATH - EVIDENCES
  32. 32. DID JESUS REALLY DIE? The Crucifixion of Jesus attested by both biblical and extra-biblical evidences • Eye-witnesses record a. Sleepless night of trial in three places – a. High Priest to Pilate to Herod and Back to Pilate b. Emotional Stress c. Physical Stress d. Physical torture – Flogging and Crucifixion. • After being ordered to be executed Jesus was ‘flogger’ by Romans and exhausted by being sent to various places. • Carries the Cross to Golgatha – Unable - helped by Simon of Cyrene. • Crucified between two criminals - Crucifixion – Difficulty to breathing – Break legs – Cannot breath • Submits his Spirit to God – Breathes his last • Centurion finds he is dead –No respiration - so does not break his bones –Spear thrust into the sides – Water and blood gush out • Pilate asks to check if he is dead before handing over to Joseph of Arimathea. Ref:Mark 15:45 • Death doubly confirmed in eye witness testimony in the Gospel narratives
  33. 33. EXTRA- BIBLICAL EVIDENCE • “All human efforts . . . of the emperor, and the propitiations of the gods, did not banish the sinister belief that the conflagration was the result of an order. Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus , and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judea, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their center and become popular.” – Tacitus • “after him whom they still worship—the man who was crucified in Palestine for introducing this new cult into the world” - Lucian of Samosata • “In the third book of his Histories, Thallus calls this darkness a solar eclipse. In my opinion, this is nonsense because Jesus died at the time of a full moon, which necessitates a “wonderful sign,” or miracle, instead.” – Julius Africanus .
  34. 34. EXTRA-BIBLICAL EVIDENCE “What advantage did the Jews gain by executing their wise King? It was just after that that their kingdom was abolished” - Mara bar Serapon “And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him;” - Josephus, Jewish Historian “On (Sabbath eve and) the eve of Passover Jesus the Nazarene was hanged. And a herald went forth before him 40 days (heralding): Jesus the Nazarene is going forth to be stoned because he practiced sorcery and instigated and seduced Israel (to idolatry). Whoever knows anything in his defense, may come and state it. But since they did not find anything in his defense, they hanged him on (Sabbath eve and) the eve of Passover.” – Babylonian Talmud
  35. 35. CAUSE OF DEATH • Emotional Stress – Judas betrays him, Peter denies him, everybody desert him. He ill treated by roman soldiers “insult him, spit on him, mock him” • Blood loss – flogging (Scourging) with lichter’s whip -both internal and external bleeding • Difficulty breathing – Crucifixion – difficult to breath normally “The severe scourging, with its intense pain and appreciable blood loss, most probably left Jesus in a pre-shock state. Moreover, hematidrosis had rendered his skin particularly tender. The physical and mental abuse meted out by the Jews and the Romans, as well as the lack of food, water, and sleep, also contributed to his generally weakened state. Therefore, even before the actual crucifixion, Jesus' physical condition was at least serious and possibly critical.” - frugalsite.net Sceptical Scholar John Dominic Crossan says that the death of Jesus “is as sure as anything historical can ever be.”
  36. 36. SCIENTIFIC PROOF • Jesus of Nazareth underwent Jewish and Roman trials, was flogged, and was sentenced to death by crucifixion. The scourging produced deep stripelike lacerations and appreciable blood loss, and it probably set the stage for hypovolemic shock, as evidenced by the fact that Jesus was too weakened to carry the crossbar (patibulum) to Golgotha. At the site of crucifixion, his wrists were nailed to the patibulum and, after the patibulum was lifted onto the upright post (stipes), his feet were nailed to the stipes. The major pathophysiologic effect of crucifixion was an interference with normal respirations. Accordingly, death resulted primarily from hypovolemic shock and exhaustion asphyxia. Jesus' death was ensured by the thrust of a soldier's spear into his side. Modern medical interpretation of the historical evidence indicates that Jesus was dead when taken down from the cross. • (JAMA 1986;255:1455-1463)
  37. 37. EVIDENCE OF HIS BURIAL IN THE FAMILY TOMB OF JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA
  38. 38. SOURCE • Mark’s gospel – earliest gospel – Pre- Markan passion source • Paul – 1 Corinthian 15 – Pre- Pauline Creed • Acts of the Apostles 13 : 28 – 31 – Luke – the historian and physician records it as part of sermon preached • John’s Gospel • Matthew and Luke – Used Mark and OTHER sources, which account for the variations in eye- witness testimony • 5 independent sources of Jesus’ burial
  39. 39. HISTORICITY • Joseph of Arimathea, buried Jesus in his newly made tomb. He gave him a proper burial by using a shroud as burial cloth. • If Christians were making up the story they would not use Joseph of Arimathea as the person who buried Jesus, as he was a. Part of the Jewish Sanhedrin (enemy) b. Which sentenced Jesus as a blasphemer and sought Pilate to crucify him (plot to murder)
  40. 40. SCHOLAR QUOTE • According to A.T Robinson of Cambridge University, The burial of Jesus in the tomb is “one of the earliest and best attested facts about Jesus”
  41. 41. EVIDENCE OF EMPTY TOMB BODY MISSING FROM A GUARDED TOMB
  42. 42. SOURCES: INDEPENDENT LINES OF EVIDENCE • Pre- markan passion source • Pre- Pauline tradition 1 Corinthians 15 • Matthew – independent source as he mentions “guards” at the tomb which is not in Mark – unique • Luke another independent source as it mentions 2 disciples visiting the tomb and verifying the claim made by the women. Also in John – independently attested • John – another independent source – not part of synoptic gospels • Acts – Record of early sermons by Apostles (Acts 2: 29 – 32 , 13: 36 – 37)
  43. 43. HISTORICITY 1. Criteria of Embarrassment • Women as first reporters of the risen Lord • Women’s witness not accepted • Made up gospel account would have a male discover the empty tomb 2. Unembellished - Mark’s account. • Resurrection not witnessed as it happened • No theological descriptions • No use of divine titles • Not the sort expected if made up by Christians • Plain account of what happened
  44. 44. HISTORICITY: TESTIMONY OF THE ADVERSARY • Jewish Polemic establishes an empty tomb • Jews could not produce the body of Jesus and disprove the claims of Apostles • They claimed it was stolen by the disciples • Thus they too claimed the tomb was empty i.e. testimony of the opposition. • “By far most exegetes hold firmy to the reliability of the biblical statements about the empty tomb.” - Jacob Kraemer, New Testament Critic
  45. 45. EVIDENCE OF HIS APPEARANCES JESUS MEETS FRIENDS AND FOLLOWERS, EVEN EATS WITH THEM
  46. 46. APPEARANCE TO MARY MAGDALENE • First to meet Jesus after Resurrection • Testimony of Woman • Not believed by Apostles • Does not identify him because not expecting him • Mark 16:9-11 9Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils. 10And she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept. 11And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not.
  47. 47. APPEARANCE TO PETER • 1 Corinthians 15: 5 and that he appeared to Cephas. • Galatians 1: 18 “Then after three years, I went up to Jerusalem to get acquainted with Cephas and stayed with him fifteen days.” • Incident not narrated in Gospels but recorded as a passing comment in Luke 24:34 “The Lord has risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon!” • “Therefore all New Testament Scholars agree that, however you might care to explain it , Peter did see a post – mortem appearance of Jesus.” – William Lane Craig, Did Jesus Rise from the Dead?
  48. 48. APPEARANCES TO APOSTLES • Luke 24: 36 – 42 • John 20: 19 – 20 • I Corinthians 5 – Earliest tradition • Paul’s personal acquaintance with Apostles • “There can be little doubt that such a resurrection appearance occurred, for it is attested in the old Christian tradition, vouched for by Paul, and independently described by both Luke and John.” –William Lane Craig, Did Jesus rise from the dead?
  49. 49. APPEARANCE TO FIVE HUNDRED • “Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep.” 1 Corinthians 15: 6 • Paul is asking readers to verify the resurrection by meeting the eye-witnesses.
  50. 50. APPEARANCE TO OTHER APOSTLES • Appears to “other Apostles” • Acts 1: 21 -22 • “ Therefore it is necessary to choose one of the men who have been with us the whole time the Lord Jesus was living among us, beginning from John’s baptism to the time when Jesus was taken up from us. For one of these must become a witness with us of his resurrection.”
  51. 51. ENEMIES TESTIFY PAUL’S CONVERSION JAMES’S CONVERSION
  52. 52. APPEARANCE TO JAMES • James the half-brother of Jesus was not a believer or disciple when Jesus was alive • “By the criterion of embarrassment, the fact of the unbelief of Jesus’ own family is undoubtedly a historical fact.” –William Lane Craig, Did Jesus Rise from the dead? • He became a believer after the death and resurrection of Jesus. • Bible : James seen in Upper room(Acts1:14), mentioned as one of the three ‘pillars’ of the Church (Gal 2:9), Heads the first Church Council at Jerusalem (Acts 21:18) • Extra- Biblical Evidence: Antiquities 20. 200 , Josephus the Jewish Historian records that James was stoned to death by the Sanhedrin. • “Even the New Testament Critic Hans Grass acknowledges that James’ conversion is one of the most surest proofs of the resurrection of Jesus”-William Lane Craig, Did Jesus Rise from the dead?
  53. 53. APPEARANCE TO SAUL OF TARSUS • Pharisaic Jew • Persecutor • Personal Experience • Jew to Christian • Jewish Persecutor to Persecuted Apostle • Like Osama becoming Christian Evangelist and Apostle
  54. 54. EMERGENCE OF THE CHURCH THE CHURCH STARTS AND GROWS – JESUS’ PREDICTED COMES TRUE
  55. 55. NECESSITY OF PROCLAMATION • “For the members of the first Christian community in Jerusalem, the Resurrection of Christ was above all an event in the life of their Master, and then also in their own lives. After meeting Christ following His Resurrection, they could have said with Saint Paul that necessity was laid upon them to preach the gospel of Resurrection [1 Corinthians 9:16]. Christianity spread throughout the Greco-Roman world with the proclamation that Jesus who died on the cross was raised to a new life by God. The message of Christianity is without parallel in religious history in its content and in its demand” [page 15] – Prof. Veselin Kesich
  56. 56. TRANSFORMED DISCIPLES • “Something has to account for the evident transformation of Christ’s disciples. They are portrayed in the Gospels in a painfully unflattering manner, based not only on their obtuseness during the ministry of Christ, but also on their cowardly failing to remain with Him in the hour of His suffering and death. They literally abandoned their Master, and Peter openly denied even knowing Him. But in a very short span of time, those very disciples were transformed into apostles who would carry the Gospel to the “ends of the earth.” At the very heart of that Gospel was that Jesus had overcome death itself by His Resurrection, thus inaugurating a new creation and the promise of eternal life with God: “But God raised Him up, having loosed the pangs of death, because it was not possible for Him to be held by it” [Acts 2:24].The disciples were crushed by the brutal and “cursed” death of their Master, and together with Him of their hope that Jesus was the Messiah. They were found to be hiding behind closed doors for “fear of the Jews” [John 20:19]. For them, the messianic movement centered in Jesus was as dead as He apparently was lying in the tomb. A crucified, dead and buried Messiah was not only meaningless, but completely incoherent from the Jewish perspective. Something of great significance must have happened to make any sense of the disciples’ newfound faith, boldness and, finally, willingness to give their own lives for what they would proclaim to the world.” – Fr. Steven Kostoff.
  57. 57. BEST EXPLANATION • The emergence, growth of the Church and spread of the Gospel are evidence for the resurrection, without which it cannot be explained. Resurrection and Pentecost were the igniters for the emergence of the Church. Resurrection gave proof that Jesus was indeed the Messiah and Pentecost gave the power and guidance for Church growth.
  58. 58. HERESIES How was it twisted? Gnosticism, Docetism, Hymenaus and Philatus
  59. 59. ANSWERING MUSLIMS ON RESURRECTION THE CROSS FALSIFIES ISLAM
  60. 60. ANSWERING JEWS ON RESURRECTION Critique
  61. 61. CONSPIRACY HYPOTHESIS • CONSPIRACY HYPOTHESIS : Stole Body – Made up story . But Women’s witness as first defeats it – guard set on satuday(late)- appearances only to disciples – weak in explaining disciple’s belief in resurrection and the proclamation of the resurrection from the very beginning. A dying and rising Jewish messiah itself was not expected in Judaism at that time. • “As N. T. Wright says, in no case across the first century before Jesus or the first century after Jesus do we have any of the followers of these failed Messianic movements claiming that their would-be king really was the Messiah after all or that he had been raised from the dead. He says when your favorite Messiah got himself killed, you basically had two choices: either you went home or you got yourself a new Messiah!” ---- Read more: http://www.reasonablefaith.org/defenders-2-podcast/transcript/s6- 21#ixzz3HqOUXBpU
  62. 62. NATURALISTIC HYPOTHESIS
  63. 63. APPARENT DEATH HYPOTHESIS • Jesus did not really die – he revived in the tomb – escaped somehow – convinced disciples he is risen • Lacks explanatory power to explain the death of Christ by crucifixion which is one of the established fact of ancient history. • Jesus severly injured – could not open the tomb – over even out of the cloth. Could not have overcome the guards and then escaped. These are naturally impossible. • It does not explain the resurrection appearances and the belief of the disciples in Jesus’ resurrection • Highly implausible since Romans were expert executioners who knew who is dead who is not. More over it was double checked by Pilate before handing over body • No one defends in nowdays among scholars
  64. 64. DISPLACED BODY HYPOTHESIS • Joseph Klausener • Temporarily in Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea – moved to common graveyard for criminals. Unaware the disiciples claim that the tomb is empty and thus the resurrection. • Does not explain post-mortem appearances, belief of disicples resurrection and the emergence of the Church • Joseph of Arimathea – could have corrected the disciples • Jews would not have claimed the body was stolen. They would have claimed this with Joseph of Arimathea as the witness. • Criminal cemetery was nearer • Jewish law forbade moving body later unless it was a family tomb.
  65. 65. HALLUCINATION HYPOTHESIS • David Frederich Strauss • Defended by Gerd Ludemann • Does not explain the empty tomb or the origin of belief in Jesus’ disciples • Visions of dead ones (still dead) vs resurrection appearance (alive) • Hallucinations don’t occur to groups, certainly not to groups of different people in different locations, not certainly to 500 people at once. • What about enemies ? James, the skeptic and Paul the persecuter • Psycho-analysing Peter and Paul ? You need them to be here to do it.
  66. 66. WHY THESE THEORIES? • Philosophical Bias • Naturalist do not believe in God and miracles. So they don’t accept resurrection as a consequence of their philosophical bias • We need to challenge them with proofs for God rather than evidences for resurrection. Unless they believe in a God, it is unlikely they believe in resurrection. • Natural laws cannot be broken. Miracles are seen as breaking natural law. Therefore Miracles do not occur. • But this assumes there is no supernatural – No God. • Natural laws can be overcome by other natural laws or by Supernatural agency • Miracles are an act of supernatural agency God. If God exists, miracles are possible. God exists.( Philosophical and Scientific Evidence). Therefore miracles do occur, including resurrection.
  67. 67. RESEARCH ON RESURRECTION Works of GARY HABERMAS WILLIAM LANE CRAIG MIKE LICONA N.T WRIGHT JOSH MCDOWELL
  68. 68. SPIRITUAL IMPLICATIONS OF RESURRECTION New life Immortality Hope
  69. 69. THANK YOU

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