Presentation on the topic "Resurrection of Jesus" . Contains word study of the word "resurrection", harmonization of the Gospel accounts and historical evidence for the death, empty tomb and post-mortem appearances of Jesus.
• anastasis: a standing up, i.e. a resurrection, a raising up, rising
• Original Word: ἀνάστασις, εως, ἡ
• Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine
• Transliteration: anastasis
• Phonetic Spelling: (an-as'-tas-is)
• Short Definition: a rising again, resurrection
• Definition: a rising again, resurrection.
• Source: Strong’s concordance
RESURRECTION, RESUSCITATION AND
A brief comparision
• Came back from dead
• First fruit of the final resurrection
• Spiritual body
• Does not undergo aging
• Permanent and Immortal
• Glorious body
• Raised from the dead by Jesus
• Will again be resurrected on the
• Same natural physical body
• Undergoes aging
• Can be diseased
• Temporary and Mortal
• Christianity and Islam
• Linear timeline
• One time event
• Spiritual body
• Immortal i.e Victory over death
• In the ‘Age to come’
• After resurrection judgment unto final
destiny – Heaven(salvation) or Hell
• Based on faith in Christ
• Eternal Abundant life or Eternal
• Hinduism and Buddhism
• Cyclical timeline
• Millions of time
• Physical body
• Through many ‘aeons’
• After reincarnation as human or lower life
• Moksha / Nirvana – Escape reincarnation
and merge with the Ultimate
reality(Hinduism) or attain Sunyata
(Buddhism). Escaping Karmic
• Non existence
• Resurrection can be defined as the one time event of coming back to life
after death with an immortal spiritual body on the day that Christ returns.
• It is “life after ‘life after death’” which may be in heaven or hell.
• Immediately after death is ‘Life after death’.
• So after resurrection it is “Life after ‘Life after death’”.
Immortality , Eternal Life
IMPORTANCE OF RESURRECTION
• 17 And if Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile; you are still in your sins. 18
Then those also who have fallen asleep in Christ are lost. 19 If only for this life we
have hope in Christ, we are of all people most to be pitied. 1 Corinthians 15
• The Truth of Christianity
• Our Salvation
IN THE GOSPELS
A SHORT SURVEY FROM THE FOUR GOSPELS
FOUR DIFFERENT WITNESSES
• The resurrection account in all the four Gospels is that :
1. Jesus died on a roman cross because of pressure from Jewish religious authority.
2. Jesus was buried in the tomb
3. The tomb was found empty by women on Sunday
4. Jesus appeared to the many people both friends and foes, believers and
5. Four different witnesses say the same story from different perspectives and add or
leave out peripheral details
6. These differences in peripheral details are not considered as contradictions
7. The difference in these details actually attest to the truthfulness of the witnesses as
they rule out collusion
• No four witnesses (or news reporters), all of whom witness a series of events,
will write them up in exactly the same way, detail for detail. If they did, there
would be obvious collusion. -- Josh McDowell
• Collusion – They got together and made up the story.
• In these fundamental truths, there are absolutely no contradictions. The so-called
variations in the narratives are only the details which were most vividly
impressed on one mind or another of the witnesses of the Lord's resurrection,
or on the mind of the writers of these four respective Gospels. – Wilbur Smith
• The closest, most critical, examination of these narratives throughout the
ages never had destroyed and can never destroy their powerful testimony
to the truth that Christ did rise from the dead on the third day, and was seen
of many .(The Supernaturalness of Christ, W. A. Wilde Company, 1954, p.205).
THE MORNING OF THE
1And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James,
and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.
2And, behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of the Lord descended
from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat upon it.
3His countenance was like lightning, and his raiment white as snow:
4And for fear of him the keepers did shake, and became as dead men.
VISIT OF THE WOMEN TO THE SEPULCHRE
• Matthew 28:1In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of
the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.
• Mark 16:2-4 2And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came
unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun. 3And they said among themselves, Who
shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre? 4And when they looked,
they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great.
• Luke 24:1-3 1Now upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they
came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain
others with them. 2And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre. 3And
they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus.
• John 20:1-2 1The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was
yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre.
2Then she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple, whom
Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken away the LORD out of the
sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him.
MEETING ANGELS IN THE SEPULCHRE
• Matthew 28:5-7 5And the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear not ye: for I know that ye
seek Jesus, which was crucified. 6He is not here: for he is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where
the Lord lay. 7And go quickly, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead; and, behold, he
goeth before you into Galilee; there shall ye see him: lo, I have told you.
• Mark 16:5-7 5And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed
in a long white garment; and they were affrighted.6And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek
Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen. he is not here: behold the place where they laid
him. 7But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye
see him, as he said unto you.
• Luke 24:4-8 4And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood
by them in shining garments: 5And as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth, they
said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the dead? 6He is not here, but is risen: remember how
he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee, 7Saying, The Son of man must be delivered into the
hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again. 8And they remembered his words,
THE WOMEN RETURN TO THE CITY; JESUS MEETS THEM
• Matthew 28:8-10 8And they departed quickly from the sepulchre with fear and
great joy; and did run to bring his disciples word. 9And as they went to tell his
disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, All hail. And they came and held him
by the feet, and worshipped him. 10Then said Jesus unto them, Be not afraid: go
tell my brethren that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me.
• Mark 16:8 8And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they
trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they
• Luke 24:9-11 9And returned from the sepulchre, and told all these things unto
the eleven, and to all the rest. 10It was Mary Magdalene and Joanna, and Mary
the mother of James, and other women that were with them, which told these
things unto the apostles.11And their words seemed to them as idle tales, and
they believed them not.
PETER AND JOHN RUN TO THE SEPULCHRE
• Luke 24:12 12Then arose Peter, and ran unto the sepulchre; and stooping down,
he beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves, and departed, wondering in
himself at that which was come to pass.
• John 20:3-10 3Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to
the sepulchre. 4So they ran both together: and the other disciple did outrun
Peter, and came first to the sepulchre. 5And he stooping down, and looking in,
saw the linen clothes lying; yet went he not in. 6Then cometh Simon Peter
following him, and went into the sepulchre, and seeth the linen clothes lie, 7And
the napkin, that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but
wrapped together in a place by itself. 8Then went in also that other disciple,
which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed. 9For as yet they
knew not the scripture, that he must rise again from the dead.10Then the
disciples went away again unto their own home.
JESUS APPEARS TO MARY MAGDALENE
• Mark 16:9-11 9Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary
Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils. 10And she went and told them that had been with
him, as they mourned and wept. 11And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been
seen of her, believed not.
• John 20:11-18 11But Mary stood without at the sepulchre weeping: and as she wept, she stooped
down, and looked into the sepulchre,12And seeth two angels in white sitting, the one at the head, and
the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain. 13And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest
thou? She saith unto them, Because they have taken away my LORD, and I know not where they have
laid him.14And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not
that it was Jesus. 15Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou? She,
supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou have borne him hence, tell me where
thou hast laid him, and I will take him away.16Jesus saith unto her, Mary. She turned herself, and saith
unto him, Rabboni; which is to say, Master. 18Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she
had seen the LORD, and that he had spoken these things unto her.
REPORT OF THE GUARDS
• Matthew 28:11-15 11Now when they were going, behold, some of the watch came into the
city, and shewed unto the chief priests all the things that were done. 12And when they were
assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave large money unto the soldiers,
13Saying, Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole him away while we slept.14And if
this come to the governor's ears, we will persuade him, and secure you.15So they took the
money, and did as they were taught: and this saying is commonly reported among the Jews
until this day.
JESUS MEETS PETER AND DISCIPLES ON THE EMMAUS
• Luke24: 33 -34 33And they got up that very hour and returned to Jerusalem, and
found gathered together the eleven and those who were with them, 34saying, "The
Lord has really risen and has appeared to Simon."
• 1 Cor.15: 5 and that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve.
• Mark 16:12-13 12After that he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they
walked, and went into the country. 13And they went and told it unto the residue:
neither believed they them.
• Luke 24:13-1513And, behold, two of them went that same day to a village called
Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs.14And they talked
together of all these things which had happened.15And it came to pass, that, while
they communed together and reasoned, Jesus himself drew near, and went with
them.16But their eyes were holden that they should not know him……. 30And it
came to pass, as he sat at meat with them, he took bread, and blessed it, and
brake, and gave to them. 31And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and
he vanished out of their sight.
JESUS APPEARS TO APOSTLES EXCEPT THOMAS
• Mark 16:14-18 14Afterward he appeared unto the eleven as they sat at meat, and upbraided them with
their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they believed not them which had seen him after he was
• Luke 24:36-49 36And as they thus spake, Jesus himself stood in the midst of them, and saith unto
them, Peace be unto you. 37But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they had seen a
spirit. 38And he said unto them, Why are ye troubled? and why do thoughts arise in your hearts?
39Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and
bones, as ye see me have. 40And when he had thus spoken, he shewed them his hands and his feet.
41And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered, he said unto them, Have ye here any meat?
42And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb. 43And he took it, and did eat
• John 20:19-20 19Then the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were
shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and
saith unto them, Peace be unto you. 20And when he had so said, he shewed unto them his hands and
his side. Then were the disciples glad, when they saw the LORD.
JESUS APPEARS TO THOMAS
• John 20:24-29 24But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus
came.25The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the LORD. But he said unto them,
Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and
thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe. 26And after eight days again his disciples were within,
and Thomas with them: then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace
be unto you. 27Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach
hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side: and be not faithless, but believing.28And Thomas answered
and said unto him, My LORD and my God.
JESUS MEETS APOSTLES IN GALILEE
• Matthew 28:16 16Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee,
• John 21:1-24 1After these things Jesus shewed himself again to the disciples at the sea of
Tiberias; and on this wise shewed he himself.
• 1 Corinthians 15:6 He was seen of above five hundred brethren at once.
• See Matthew 26: 32.
“ At length the set time arrived; and the eleven disciples went away into the mountain
“where Jesus had appointed them.” It would seem most probable, that this time and place
had been appointed of our Lord for a solemn and more public interview, not only with the
eleven, whom he had already met, but with all his disciples in Galilee; and that therefore it
was on this same occasion, when, according to Paul, “He was seen of above five hundred
brethren at once.”* That the interview was not confined to the eleven alone, would seem
evident from the fact that “some doubted;” for this could hardly be supposed true of any of
the eleven, after what had already happened to them in Jerusalem and Galilee, and after
having been appointed to meet their risen Lord at this very time and place. The appearance
of the five hundred must at any rate be referred to Galilee; for even after our Lord's
ascension, the number of the names in Jerusalem were, together only about an hundred
and twenty. ** I do not hesitate, therefore, to hold with Flatt, Olshausen, Hengstenberg, and
others, that the appearances thus described by Matthew and Paul, were identical”
---- Simon Greenleaf
JESUS PREDICTS HIS DEATH
SOURCES: EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY IN GOSPELS
AND TRADITIONS/CREEDS RECORDED IN THE
LETTERS OF PAUL TO VARIOUS CHURCHES
TRACING THE EVIDENCE TO THE
• Granting the critics the benefit of the doubt
• Placing the gospels between 60 – 110 A.D . Mark earliest, John latest. These are nearer to original
events and historically sufficiently compared to other works of antiquity like Gallic wars of Julius
• Considering only what the critical scholars accept as genuine Pauline writings like Romans, 1
Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, 1 Thessalonians
• Pauline epistles takes us back to around 40 – 50 A.D
• In these there are pre-Pauline traditions which Paul communicates through the epistles to the
• 1 Corinthians 15: 3 – 7 is one such tradition/creed and it’s origin is accepted by even radical
scholars to be within 5 years of the resurrection.
1 CORINTHIANS 15: 3-7
• 3 For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received,
that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures,
• 4 and that He was buried, and that He was raised on the third day according
to the Scriptures,
• 5 and that He appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve.
• 6 After that He appeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time,
most of whom remain until now, but some have fallen asleep;
• 7 then He appeared to James, then to all the apostles;
• Do critical scholars agree on the date of this pre-Pauline creed? Even radical scholars like Gerd
Lüdemann think that “the elements in the tradition are to be dated to the first two years after the
crucifixion . . . no later than three years after the death of Jesus.” Similarly, Michael Goulder
contends that Paul’s testimony about the resurrection appearances “goes back at least to what Paul
was taught when he was converted, a couple of years after the crucifixion.” An increasing number of
exceptionally influential scholars have very recently concluded that at least the teaching of the
resurrection, and perhaps even the specific formulation of the pre-Pauline creedal tradition in 1
Corinthians 15:3-7, dates to AD 30! In other words, there never was a time when the message of
Jesus’ resurrection was not an integral part of the earliest apostolic proclamation. No less a scholar
than James D. G. Dunn even states regarding this crucial text: “This tradition, we can be entirely
confident, was formulated as tradition within months of Jesus’ death.”
— Gary Habermas, “Tracing Jesus’ Resurrection to Its Earliest Eyewitness Accounts,” God is Great,
God is Good (InterVarsity Press, 2009), 212.
WHY IS IT PRE-PAULINE?
• 1. Paul claims that he received it. Paul uses the language of “delivered” and “received.” This is
technical language that Pharisees used for transmitting sacred tradition. Paul was trained as a Pharisee
(Phil. 3:5), and so he uses the language of Pharisaic transmission (Gal. 1:14). Michael Licona writes,
“Mark and Josephus report that a zeal for tradition was standard for Pharisees, a group to which Paul
had belonged.” At the very least, Paul is claiming that he is passing on a message about Christ that
was not unique to him. Otherwise, he never would have written this.
• 2. Second, a number of expressions in this passage do not occur in Paul’s writing. The expression
“according to the Scriptures” does not occur anywhere else in Paul’s letters. Licona writes, The phrase
‘according to the Scriptures’ is absent elsewhere in the Pauline corpus and the New Testament, where
we read (“it is written”).With a lone exception in Galatians 1:4 (“for our sins”) is absent elsewhere in
Paul (and the rest of the New Testament), who prefers the singular ‘sin.’On the third day’ is only here
in Paul. In Paul, the term ‘appeared to’ or ‘was seen’ is found only in 1 Corinthians 15:5-8 and 1
Timothy 3:16. ‘The Twelve’ is only here in Paul. Elsewhere he uses ‘the apostles.’
• 3. Third, we see parallelism through this section. Paul repeats the expressions “and that…” and
“according to the Scriptures…” multiple times in this short section.
ESTABLISHING THE DEATH
THE CAUSE OF DEATH - EVIDENCES
DID JESUS REALLY DIE?
The Crucifixion of Jesus attested by both biblical and extra-biblical evidences
• Eye-witnesses record a. Sleepless night of trial in three places – a. High Priest to Pilate to Herod and
Back to Pilate b. Emotional Stress c. Physical Stress d. Physical torture – Flogging and Crucifixion.
• After being ordered to be executed Jesus was ‘flogger’ by Romans and exhausted by being sent to
• Carries the Cross to Golgatha – Unable - helped by Simon of Cyrene.
• Crucified between two criminals - Crucifixion – Difficulty to breathing – Break legs – Cannot breath
• Submits his Spirit to God – Breathes his last
• Centurion finds he is dead –No respiration - so does not break his bones –Spear thrust into the sides –
Water and blood gush out
• Pilate asks to check if he is dead before handing over to Joseph of Arimathea. Ref:Mark 15:45
• Death doubly confirmed in eye witness testimony in the Gospel narratives
EXTRA- BIBLICAL EVIDENCE
• “All human efforts . . . of the emperor, and the propitiations of the gods, did not banish the sinister
belief that the conflagration was the result of an order. Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero
fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations,
called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme
penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus , and a most
mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judea, the first
source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the
world find their center and become popular.” – Tacitus
• “after him whom they still worship—the man who was crucified in Palestine for introducing this new
cult into the world” - Lucian of Samosata
• “In the third book of his Histories, Thallus calls this darkness a solar eclipse. In my opinion, this is
nonsense because Jesus died at the time of a full moon, which necessitates a “wonderful sign,” or
miracle, instead.” – Julius Africanus .
“What advantage did the Jews gain by executing their wise King? It was just after that that
their kingdom was abolished” - Mara bar Serapon
“And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men among us, had condemned him to
the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him;” - Josephus, Jewish Historian
“On (Sabbath eve and) the eve of Passover Jesus the Nazarene was hanged. And a herald went
forth before him 40 days (heralding): Jesus the Nazarene is going forth to be stoned because he
practiced sorcery and instigated and seduced Israel (to idolatry). Whoever knows anything in
his defense, may come and state it. But since they did not find anything in his defense, they
hanged him on (Sabbath eve and) the eve of Passover.” – Babylonian Talmud
CAUSE OF DEATH
• Emotional Stress – Judas betrays him, Peter denies him, everybody desert him. He ill treated by
roman soldiers “insult him, spit on him, mock him”
• Blood loss – flogging (Scourging) with lichter’s whip -both internal and external bleeding
• Difficulty breathing – Crucifixion – difficult to breath normally
“The severe scourging, with its intense pain and appreciable blood loss, most probably left Jesus in a
pre-shock state. Moreover, hematidrosis had rendered his skin particularly tender. The physical and
mental abuse meted out by the Jews and the Romans, as well as the lack of food, water, and sleep, also
contributed to his generally weakened state. Therefore, even before the actual crucifixion, Jesus' physical
condition was at least serious and possibly critical.” - frugalsite.net
Sceptical Scholar John Dominic Crossan says that the death of Jesus
“is as sure as anything historical can
• Jesus of Nazareth underwent Jewish and Roman trials, was flogged, and was sentenced to
death by crucifixion. The scourging produced deep stripelike lacerations and appreciable
blood loss, and it probably set the stage for hypovolemic shock, as evidenced by the fact that
Jesus was too weakened to carry the crossbar (patibulum) to Golgotha. At the site of
crucifixion, his wrists were nailed to the patibulum and, after the patibulum was lifted onto
the upright post (stipes), his feet were nailed to the stipes. The major pathophysiologic effect
of crucifixion was an interference with normal respirations. Accordingly, death resulted
primarily from hypovolemic shock and exhaustion asphyxia. Jesus' death was ensured by the
thrust of a soldier's spear into his side. Modern medical interpretation of the historical
evidence indicates that Jesus was dead when taken down from the cross.
• (JAMA 1986;255:1455-1463)
EVIDENCE OF HIS BURIAL
IN THE FAMILY TOMB OF JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA
• Mark’s gospel – earliest gospel – Pre- Markan passion source
• Paul – 1 Corinthian 15 – Pre- Pauline Creed
• Acts of the Apostles 13 : 28 – 31 – Luke – the historian and physician records it
as part of sermon preached
• John’s Gospel
• Matthew and Luke – Used Mark and OTHER sources, which account for the
variations in eye- witness testimony
• 5 independent sources of Jesus’ burial
• Joseph of Arimathea, buried Jesus in his newly made
tomb. He gave him a proper burial by using a shroud as
• If Christians were making up the story they would not
use Joseph of Arimathea as the person who buried
Jesus, as he was
a. Part of the Jewish Sanhedrin (enemy)
b. Which sentenced Jesus as a blasphemer and sought
Pilate to crucify him (plot to murder)
• According to A.T Robinson of Cambridge University, The burial of Jesus in the
“one of the earliest and best attested
facts about Jesus”
EVIDENCE OF EMPTY
BODY MISSING FROM A GUARDED TOMB
SOURCES: INDEPENDENT LINES OF EVIDENCE
• Pre- markan passion source
• Pre- Pauline tradition 1 Corinthians 15
• Matthew – independent source as he mentions “guards” at the tomb which is not
in Mark – unique
• Luke another independent source as it mentions 2 disciples visiting the tomb
and verifying the claim made by the women. Also in John – independently
• John – another independent source – not part of synoptic gospels
• Acts – Record of early sermons by Apostles (Acts 2: 29 – 32 , 13: 36 – 37)
1. Criteria of Embarrassment
• Women as first reporters of the risen Lord
• Women’s witness not accepted
• Made up gospel account would have a male discover the empty tomb
2. Unembellished - Mark’s account.
• Resurrection not witnessed as it happened
• No theological descriptions
• No use of divine titles
• Not the sort expected if made up by Christians
• Plain account of what happened
HISTORICITY: TESTIMONY OF THE ADVERSARY
• Jewish Polemic establishes an empty tomb
• Jews could not produce the body of Jesus and disprove the
claims of Apostles
• They claimed it was stolen by the disciples
• Thus they too claimed the tomb was empty i.e. testimony of the
• “By far most exegetes hold firmy to the reliability of the
biblical statements about the empty tomb.” - Jacob Kraemer,
New Testament Critic
EVIDENCE OF HIS
JESUS MEETS FRIENDS AND FOLLOWERS, EVEN EATS WITH THEM
APPEARANCE TO MARY
• First to meet Jesus after Resurrection
• Testimony of Woman
• Not believed by Apostles
• Does not identify him because not expecting him
• Mark 16:9-11 9Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he
appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils. 10And she
went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept. 11And they,
when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not.
APPEARANCE TO PETER
• 1 Corinthians 15: 5 and that he appeared to Cephas.
• Galatians 1: 18 “Then after three years, I went up to Jerusalem to get
acquainted with Cephas and stayed with him fifteen days.”
• Incident not narrated in Gospels but recorded as a passing comment in Luke
24:34 “The Lord has risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon!”
• “Therefore all New Testament Scholars agree that, however you might care
to explain it , Peter did see a post – mortem appearance of Jesus.” – William
Lane Craig, Did Jesus Rise from the Dead?
APPEARANCES TO APOSTLES
• Luke 24: 36 – 42
• John 20: 19 – 20
• I Corinthians 5 – Earliest tradition
• Paul’s personal acquaintance with Apostles
• “There can be little doubt that such a resurrection appearance occurred, for it is
attested in the old Christian tradition, vouched for by Paul, and independently
described by both Luke and John.” –William Lane Craig, Did Jesus rise from
APPEARANCE TO FIVE HUNDRED
• “Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers at one time, most of
whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep.” 1 Corinthians 15: 6
• Paul is asking readers to verify the resurrection by meeting the eye-witnesses.
APPEARANCE TO OTHER APOSTLES
• Appears to “other Apostles”
• Acts 1: 21 -22
• “ Therefore it is necessary to choose one of the men who have
been with us the whole time the Lord Jesus was living among
us, beginning from John’s baptism to the time when Jesus was
taken up from us. For one of these must become a witness with
us of his resurrection.”
APPEARANCE TO JAMES
• James the half-brother of Jesus was not a believer or disciple when Jesus was alive
• “By the criterion of embarrassment, the fact of the unbelief of Jesus’ own family is
undoubtedly a historical fact.” –William Lane Craig, Did Jesus Rise from the dead?
• He became a believer after the death and resurrection of Jesus.
• Bible : James seen in Upper room(Acts1:14), mentioned as one of the three ‘pillars’ of
the Church (Gal 2:9), Heads the first Church Council at Jerusalem (Acts 21:18)
• Extra- Biblical Evidence: Antiquities 20. 200 , Josephus the Jewish Historian records
that James was stoned to death by the Sanhedrin.
• “Even the New Testament Critic Hans Grass acknowledges that James’ conversion is
one of the most surest proofs of the resurrection of Jesus”-William Lane Craig, Did
Jesus Rise from the dead?
APPEARANCE TO SAUL OF TARSUS
• Pharisaic Jew
• Personal Experience
• Jew to Christian
• Jewish Persecutor to Persecuted Apostle
• Like Osama becoming Christian Evangelist and Apostle
EMERGENCE OF THE
THE CHURCH STARTS AND GROWS – JESUS’ PREDICTED COMES TRUE
NECESSITY OF PROCLAMATION
• “For the members of the first Christian community in Jerusalem, the
Resurrection of Christ was above all an event in the life of their Master, and
then also in their own lives. After meeting Christ following His Resurrection,
they could have said with Saint Paul that necessity was laid upon them to
preach the gospel of Resurrection [1 Corinthians 9:16]. Christianity spread
throughout the Greco-Roman world with the proclamation that Jesus who
died on the cross was raised to a new life by God. The message of
Christianity is without parallel in religious history in its content and in its
demand” [page 15] – Prof. Veselin Kesich
• “Something has to account for the evident transformation of Christ’s disciples. They are portrayed in
the Gospels in a painfully unflattering manner, based not only on their obtuseness during the ministry
of Christ, but also on their cowardly failing to remain with Him in the hour of His suffering and
death. They literally abandoned their Master, and Peter openly denied even knowing Him. But in a
very short span of time, those very disciples were transformed into apostles who would carry the
Gospel to the “ends of the earth.” At the very heart of that Gospel was that Jesus had overcome death
itself by His Resurrection, thus inaugurating a new creation and the promise of eternal life with God:
“But God raised Him up, having loosed the pangs of death, because it was not possible for Him to be
held by it” [Acts 2:24].The disciples were crushed by the brutal and “cursed” death of their Master,
and together with Him of their hope that Jesus was the Messiah. They were found to be hiding behind
closed doors for “fear of the Jews” [John 20:19]. For them, the messianic movement centered in
Jesus was as dead as He apparently was lying in the tomb. A crucified, dead and buried Messiah was
not only meaningless, but completely incoherent from the Jewish perspective. Something of great
significance must have happened to make any sense of the disciples’ newfound faith, boldness and,
finally, willingness to give their own lives for what they would proclaim to the world.” – Fr. Steven
• The emergence, growth of the Church and spread of the Gospel are
evidence for the resurrection, without which it cannot be explained.
Resurrection and Pentecost were the igniters for the emergence of the
Church. Resurrection gave proof that Jesus was indeed the Messiah and
Pentecost gave the power and guidance for Church growth.
How was it twisted?
Gnosticism, Docetism, Hymenaus and Philatus
THE CROSS FALSIFIES ISLAM
• CONSPIRACY HYPOTHESIS : Stole Body – Made up story . But Women’s witness as first
defeats it – guard set on satuday(late)- appearances only to disciples – weak in explaining disciple’s
belief in resurrection and the proclamation of the resurrection from the very beginning. A dying and
rising Jewish messiah itself was not expected in Judaism at that time.
• “As N. T. Wright says, in no case across the first century before Jesus or the first century after Jesus
do we have any of the followers of these failed Messianic movements claiming that their would-be
king really was the Messiah after all or that he had been raised from the dead. He says when your
favorite Messiah got himself killed, you basically had two choices: either you went home or you got
yourself a new Messiah!”
---- Read more: http://www.reasonablefaith.org/defenders-2-podcast/transcript/s6-
APPARENT DEATH HYPOTHESIS
• Jesus did not really die – he revived in the tomb – escaped somehow – convinced
disciples he is risen
• Lacks explanatory power to explain the death of Christ by crucifixion which is one of
the established fact of ancient history.
• Jesus severly injured – could not open the tomb – over even out of the cloth. Could
not have overcome the guards and then escaped. These are naturally impossible.
• It does not explain the resurrection appearances and the belief of the disciples in
• Highly implausible since Romans were expert executioners who knew who is dead
who is not. More over it was double checked by Pilate before handing over body
• No one defends in nowdays among scholars
DISPLACED BODY HYPOTHESIS
• Joseph Klausener
• Temporarily in Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea – moved to common graveyard for
criminals. Unaware the disiciples claim that the tomb is empty and thus the
• Does not explain post-mortem appearances, belief of disicples resurrection and the
emergence of the Church
• Joseph of Arimathea – could have corrected the disciples
• Jews would not have claimed the body was stolen. They would have claimed this
with Joseph of Arimathea as the witness.
• Criminal cemetery was nearer
• Jewish law forbade moving body later unless it was a family tomb.
• David Frederich Strauss
• Defended by Gerd Ludemann
• Does not explain the empty tomb or the origin of belief in Jesus’ disciples
• Visions of dead ones (still dead) vs resurrection appearance (alive)
• Hallucinations don’t occur to groups, certainly not to groups of different
people in different locations, not certainly to 500 people at once.
• What about enemies ? James, the skeptic and Paul the persecuter
• Psycho-analysing Peter and Paul ? You need them to be here to do it.
WHY THESE THEORIES?
• Philosophical Bias
• Naturalist do not believe in God and miracles. So they don’t accept resurrection as
a consequence of their philosophical bias
• We need to challenge them with proofs for God rather than evidences for
resurrection. Unless they believe in a God, it is unlikely they believe in resurrection.
• Natural laws cannot be broken. Miracles are seen as breaking natural law. Therefore
Miracles do not occur.
• But this assumes there is no supernatural – No God.
• Natural laws can be overcome by other natural laws or by Supernatural agency
• Miracles are an act of supernatural agency God. If God exists, miracles are possible.
God exists.( Philosophical and Scientific Evidence). Therefore miracles do occur,
WILLIAM LANE CRAIG