The only way to make progress is to compare your previous work to your current work. By comparing materials we can begin to understand what might cause the difference in results.
So, what we can take from these graphs are the following. The UTS alone tells us that one of these metals might be better suited for one purpose than another.
As mentioned before, aluminium took the least amount of force to deform plastically. This makes it ideal for low energy manufacture, rolling and pressing at lower temperatures than other metals.
Higher plastic limit means it still takes a smaller amount of energy to deform, whilst remaining malleable- can be worked into more elaborate shapes. This material is favoured in the music industry since the material can be worked into complex shapes and retain an attractive finish.
Higher UTS than aluminium
Stress strain analysis of metals using UTM.
TOPIC : COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF MECHANICAL
PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS
PROF. DEIVANATHAN R
SHUBHAM KUMAR 12BME0146
SANDEEP KUMAR 12BME0491
ABHISHEK CHANDRAKAR 12BME0444
ABHINAV PATHAK 12BME0514
GAURAV GOYAL 12BME0086
AMITESH GAVEL 12BME0081
To find and study the mechanical properties
of materials and compare them by plotting
Materials are -:
Tensile strength->it is the maximum stress that a material
can withstand while being stretched or pulled before failing
or breaking. Tensile strength is the opposite of compressive
Hardness ->it is a measure of how resistant solid matter is
to various kinds of permanent shape change when a force is
TYPES OF MECHANICAL
Ductility-> It is a solid material's ability to deform under
tensile stress; this is often characterized by the material's
ability to be streched.
Young's modulus-> It is defined as the ratio of the stress
along an axis over the strain along that axis in the range of
stress in which Hooke's law holds.
We will take these three materials, measure
their mechanical properties using respective
instrument as mentioned above.
We will plot the graph of properties these
materials and do their compare their strength.
We will study the importance of each material
and its importance in different fields
Force, F (N)
THE TENSILE TEST
Elongation, Dl (m)
In Pa or N.mm2
E= Young’s modulus
A measure of stiffness
Tension test is carried out; to obtain the stress-strain
diagram, to determine the tensile properties and
hence to get valuable information about the
mechanical behavior and the engineering
performance of the material. The major
that describe the stress-strain
Curve obtained during the tension test are the
I. Tensile strength (UTS)
II. Yield strength
III. Elastic modulus (E)
PROPERTIES OBTAINED FROM TENSILE TEST
Young's Modulus: This is the slope of the linear
portion of the stress-strain curve, it is usually
specific to each material; a constant, known value.
Ultimate Tensile Strength: This is the highest
value of stress on the stress-strain curve.
Ductility: It is the measure of the plastic
deformation that has been sustained at fracture
Chemical formula: Al
It is the second most malleable metal and sixth most
1000 series (Al, Si)
3000 series (Al, Mn, Cu, Mg, Si, Fe)
5000 series ( Al, Mg, Mn, Si, Fe, Zn)
8000 series (Al, Sn, Ni, Si, Fe)
Young’s modulus is the gradient of the
Modulus of Elasticity= 105.33 GPa
Yield Strength= 158 MPa
Ultimate Tensile Strength= 220MPa
*As per the Graphical Values
COMPOSITON AND PROPERTIES OF MILD
Also known as Low-Carbon Steel.
• Ferum: 99.70%wt - 99.98%wt
• Carbon: 0.02%wt – 0.25%wt
• Density: 7800 – 7900 kgm-3
Modulus of Elasticity 100 – 150 GPa
Yield Strength 130 – 200 MPa
Tensile Strength 345 – 580 MPa
Elongation 26% – 47%
Hardness 107.5 – 172.5 HV
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRESS AND
STRAIN FOR MILD STEEL
Modulus of Elasticity= 105.8 GPa
Yield Strength= 140 MPa
Ultimate Tensile Strength= 155 MPa
*As per the Graphical Values
7.1 WHY DO WE COMPARE?
•To develop a standard, with which to compare others.
•Allows trends to be identified and plotted.
•To determine how are results might effect real life
•It allows us to predict what might happen in later
experiments (e.g. What a combination of the materials
It is clear from the graph that....
The three metals behaved in very different
Aluminium was the softest, more ductile of the
Brass behaved in a less ductile manner.
Order of toughness as obtained from graph:
Mild Steel < Aluminium < Brass
The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) varied
greatly between metals. 30