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Determinants of facilities
Factors involved in facilities
Types of production system
Intermittent production system
Continuous production system
Toyota production system
Production Facilities and Systems are the important
aspects of the production management.
Production Facilities allows the smooth
transformation of the inputs into the outputs i.e.
manufacturing process with all the required
machinery tools manpower etc.
While Production Systems ensures that there is the
proper methods, arrangements, procedure is adopted
to produce different types of goods or services.
Before starting of any
production process the
organisation has to decide
about the facilities to
produce the same.
Facilities has to be
installed on the basis of
the requirement and the
availability of the resources
to the organisation.
Production facilities required by the organisation is
decided by the following :
Types of product
Competitors for the product
DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTION
Machines and equipments
FACTORS INVOLVED IN FACILITIES
The main aim of any business(manufacturing or services) is to
maximize the profits and to minimize the cost(efficiency).
In this the plant location play the Important role. The location
selected should be such that it enables the business to
achieve its objectives efficiently.
Nearness to the raw material
Land and labour cost
Nearness to related and
ancillary industries etc.
Layout means arrangement of facilities in a particular unit to
ensure the smooth and proper flow of production
Plant layout refers to the arrangement of machines, handling
equipments, storerooms and tool-racks required for the
process of production in the plant or factory(manufacturing
Purchase and inventory policy
Safety and personnel policies etc.
Production system can be
defined as “The
methods, procedure or
includes all functions
inputs, process or
reprocess the inputs and
delivers the marketable
TYPES OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM
Intermittent means something that starts (initiates) and stops
(halts) at irregular (unfixed) intervals (time gaps).
In the intermittent production system, goods are produced
based on customer's orders. These goods are produced on a
small scale. The flow of production is intermittent (irregular).
TYPES OF INTERMITTENT
Here, in project production flows, company accepts a
single, complex order or contract. The order must be
completed within a given period of time and at an estimated
Requirement of resources varies
Many agencies are involved
Delays takes place
Scheduling takes time
Here, in jobbing production flows, company accepts a contract
to produce either one or few units of a product strictly as per
specifications given by the customer. The product is produced
within a given period and at a fixed cost. This cost is fixed at
the time of signing the contract.
Production in small lots
Production according to customer specification
Disproportionate manufacturing cycle time
(B)JOB SHOP PRODUCTION
In batch production flows, the production schedule is decided
according to specific orders or are based on the demand
Here, the production of items takes place in lots or batches.
A product is divided into different jobs.
Made and stocked until demand
General purpose machines
Needs production planning and control
Possibility of large work-in-progress
(C)BATCH PRODUCTION SYSTEM
Continuous means something that operates constantly
without any irregularities or frequent halts.
In the continuous production system, goods are produced
constantly as per demand forecast. Goods are produced on a
large scale for stocking and selling. They are not produced on
TYPES OF CONTINUOUS
Here, company produces different types of products on a
large-scale and stock them in warehouses until they are
demanded in the market.
The goods are produced either with the help of a single
operation or uses a series of operations.
Continuous production on market demand
Supervision is easy
No manual material handling
Continuous flow of material
Here, a single product is produced and stocked in warehouses
until it is demanded in the market. The flexibility of these
plants is almost zero because only one product can be
High mechanised system
Production planning and scheduling pre-decided
Whole system for one item
The Toyota Production System (TPS) is an integrated socio-
technical system, developed by Toyota, that comprises its
management philosophy and practices. The system was
developed between 1948 and 1975. The techniques that were
introduced in Toyota production system are:-
TOYOTA PRODUCTION SYSTEM
right parts needed in the
assembly line reaches the
assembly at the right time
and right amount.
Just in time (JIT) is a
production strategy that
strives to improve a
business return on
investment by reducing in-
process inventory and
associated carrying costs.
JUST IN TIME
Productivity and flexibility
BENEFITS OF JIT