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ျမတ္ဗုဒၶ ေဒသနာ (ေဒါက္တာ၀ါလ္ပိုလာ)

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ျမတ္ဗုဒၶ ေဒသနာ (ေဒါက္တာ၀ါလ္ပိုလာ)

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ျမတ္ဗုဒၶ ေဒသနာ (ေဒါက္တာ၀ါလ္ပိုလာ)

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  9. 9. pvHk;rSm oD[dkVfom; Ak'<bmom0ifrsm; r[kwf=uacs? ESpfOD;pvHk; bmomuJGjym;aom EdkifiHjcm;om; jzpfaomf vnf; acwfynmwwfvdkonfqdkaom Ak'<bmom oD[dkVf&[ef;i,ftm; pdwfjzLpifpGmjzifh ulnDtm;ay;cJh=u avonf? Todk@acwfynmudk tvGwfoif=um;,laepOfwGifyif ausmif;wdkufrsm; twGif;Y udef;atmif;aeawmf rl=ujyD;/ &yf&Gmta&;/ wdkif;jynfta&;rsm;udk vpfvsLjyKaeawmfrl=uaom oD[dkVfAk'<bmom &[ef;oHCmawmf wdk@tm; Edk;=um;vm=uap&ef Ed_;aqmfwyfvSef@I wkdufwGef;awmfrlonf? a[majymyJGrsm;usif;yonf? aqG;aEG;yJG rsm; jyKvkyfonf? pm&Gufpmwrf; &dkufEdSyfa0iSonf? ‘A[kZem [dwm,/ A[kZem okcg,’ vltrsm;. aumif;usdK;csrf;omtwGuf ausmif;wdkufrsm;twGif; cdkatmif;raebJ bk&m;. tvdkqENawmftwdkif; wdkif;jynfwGif;Y vSnfhvnfI ynmay;yg/ oif=um;jyoyg/ vrf;n$efay;awmfrl=uyg [k txl; vH_@aqmf ay;cJhonf? t&Sif&m[kvmonf xdkacwf xdktcsdefu EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGifvnf; yg0ifaqmif&GufcJhojzifh jAdwdo# tpdk;&. zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifjcif; cH&zl;onf? udkvHbdk &Jpcef;tcsKyfcef;wGif (3)&uf pHjref;awmfrlcJhzl;onf? 1936 ckESpfwGif 10 wef;pmar;yJG tvGwf ajzqdkatmifjrifjyD;aemuf xdktcsdefu vef'efwuUodkvf. vufatmufcH oD[dkVf,leDAmpDwDaumvdyfwGif ausmif;om;tjzpf pm&if;oGif;vdkufonf? oD[dkVfordkif;wGif acwfwuUodkvf ausmif;om;tjzpf yxrOD;pGm ay:xGufvmaom Ak'<bmom bkef;awmf}uD;wpfyg;[k wpfEdkifiHvHk; [dk;[dk;ausmfoGm;cJhonf? q&mawmf a[majymvkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk rESpfjrdK@onfh todkif;t0dkif;rS a&S;t,ltq rpGef@v$wfEdkifolrsm;onf q&mawmfudk ykwfcwfajymqdk a0zefr_rsm; wdk;Iwdk;IjyKvkyfvmae =uacsonf? TwGif wpfzufY acwfwuUodkvfrS pmayynm&yfrsm;udk qnf;yl;oif=um;aeqJrSmyif wpfbufrS wdkufcdkufxdk;ESufvmaom a0zefcsufrsm;udk wGef;vSefajz&Sif; z,f&Sm;cJh&onfrSm ae@pOfESifhtr#jzpfayonf? xdka0zefr_rsm;udk jyefvnfwdkufcdkufajz&Sif;cJhaom pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;udk oD[dkVfbmomjzifh &[ef;i,frsm;. vufpJGtjzpfjzifh vnf;aumif;/ vlr_0efxrf;vli,frsm;twGuf vlr_0efxrf;vkyfief;vrf;n$ef enf;jycsufrsm; tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ pmtkyfwpftkyftjzpf yHkEdSyfxkwfa0cJhayonf? ,if;pmtkyfudk t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh The Heritage of the Bhikkhu (&[ef;. tarG) [k ,cktcsdeftxd yHkESdyfxkwfa0v#uf &dSayonf? Todk@ wuUodkvfausmif;om;tjzpf acwfynmrsm;udk tcsdefjynfh oif=um;,lcJhjyD;aemuf 1941 ckESpfwGif vef'efwuUodkvf. bDat*k%fxl;bJG@udk (tif'dktm&,ef) bmom&yfwGif qGwfcl;EdkifcJhayonf? xdk@aemuf umvuwWm; wuUodkvfwGif wdAufbmom/ w&kwfbmompum;rsm;udk oif,l&if;/ r[m,me Ak'<bmomta=umif;udk avhvmqnf;yl;cJhavonf? jrefrmjynfodk@ *syef0ifa&mufvmaomtcg t&Sif &m[kvmonf oD[dkVfEdkifiHodk@jyefoGm;I emrnf}uD;ygarmuQ a'gufwm rmvmaq;u& xHwGif okawoe jyKvkyf&if; “ oD[dkVfomoem0if” usrf;udkjyKI a'gufwm(yg&*l)bJG@udk qGwfcl;awmfrlcJhonf? 1947 ckESpfwGif q&mawmfonf aemufqHk;EdkifiHa&;vkyfaqmifcsuftjzpf e,l;a'vDwGif *s0g[vm ae&l;u usif;yjyKvkyfaom “tm&Swdkufom;csif; ESD;aESmzvS,fyJG” (Asians Relations Conference) udk oD[dkVf udk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;tjzpf wufa&mufcJhayonf? ,if;EDS;aESmzvS,fyJGodk@ rvGwfvyfao;aom ta&S@ awmiftm&SrS wdkif;jynfrsm;jzpfonfh tif'dkcsdKif;em; (AD,uferf/ uarŠm'D;,m;/ avm)/ rav;&Sm;/ tif'dkeD;&Sm;/ jrefrm/ tdEdN,/ oD[dkVfedkiffiHwdk@rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk zdwf=um;I vHk;0vGwfvyfa&; rnfodk@&atmif aqmif&Guf =urnf/ vGwfvyfa&;&jyD;aemuf tm&Swdkufom; tcsif;csif; rnfodk@qufoG,f=urnf/ qufqH=urnf paom EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ ynma&;/ vlr_a&; ESifh qdkif&mqdkif&m ,Ofaus;r_zvS,fa&;udpPrsm; tygt0if bufpHk aqG;aEG;=u&aom ta&;ygt&ma&mufonfh uGefz&ifh tpnf;ta0;}uD;jzpfygonf? xdktpnf;ta0;}uD;Y tdEdN,EdkifiHrS xdyfoD;acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;jzpf=uonfh yef'pf*s0g[mvmae&l;/ &m*sif'&my&mq'f (tdEdN,EdkifiH. yxrqHk;orRw)/ a'gufwm &m'gu&pf&Sem/ y&muwf*sfe&def;/ a'gufwm trfbuf'fum;(Zmwfedrfh[dENLwdk@.acgif;aqmif) ponfwdk@udk,fwdkifyg0if aqG;aEG;cJh=uayonf? acgif;aqmif }uD; r[wWr*EDN udk,fwdkifvnf; tpnf;ta0;yJG nDvmcH}uD;odk@ ºua&mufcsD;jrSifhcJhayonf? wdkufwdkufqdkifqdkif T 1947 ck/ e,l;a'vDY usif;yaom tm&SEdkifiHrsm;ESD;aESmzvS,fyJG}uD;udk Tbmomjyefoludk,fwdkifvnf; jrefrmEdkifiHrS udk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;tjzpf wufa&mufcJh&ayonf? jrefrm udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG@udk 0wfvHkawmf&OD;ausmfjrifhu acgif;aqmifI tzJG@0ifrsm;tjzpf EdkifiHa&;e,fy,fESifh 9
  10. 10. wuUodkvfe,fy,frS ynm&Sifrsm;yg0ifcJh&m rSwfrdoa&G@ jrefatmifOD;wif/ trf/at &m&Spf/ q&m}uD; OD;b/ jrdK@r ausmif;q&m}uD; OD;bvGif/ OD;odef;[ef/ OD;0ef/ trdsK;orD;rsm;rS a':cifrdsK;cspf ESifh aemfavmfz&ifhawm wdk@ yg0ifcJh ayonf? nDvmcH}uD;rSm tvGef}uD;us,fcrf;em;vSI aqG;aEG;EDS;aESm=uaom bmom&yfaygif;vnf; rsm;jym; vGef;vSojzifh rdrdwdk@toD;oD; wm0efcJGa0owfrSwfI tpnf;ta0;wufcJh=u&onf? xdkpOftcgu oD[dkVf udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG@wGif &[ef;awmfwpfyg; yg0ifonfudk owdjyKrdcJhaomfvnf; q&mawmf&m[kvm [k rod&dScJhay? xdkq&mawmfonf ,Ofaus;r_ESifh vlr_qufqHa&;bmom&yfrsm; u¾wGifyg0ifI pma&;olrSm ody`H ESifh pufr_vufr_u¾wGif aqmif&GufcJh=uojzifh wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD;awG@qHkEdkifcGifh rñuHcJh&yg? tjcm;wdkufqdkifcsufwpfckrSm 1947 ckESpfwGif ,if;nDvmcHrS jyefvmjyD;uwnf;u pma&;olonf EdkifiHa&; v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufr_rsm;wGif yg0ifjcif;rjyKawmhyg? q&m}uD;OD;&mZwf. wm0efay;csuft& rEWav; wuUodkvf jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf ynma&;udkom aZmufcs aqmif&GufcJhayonf? xdkenf;wlpGm q&mawmf &m[kvm t&Sifonfvnf; xdktcsdefrSpI ynma&;ESifhbmoma&;oufoufudkom OD;wnfaqmif&GufawmfrlcJh I EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_tm;vHk; pGef@ypfvdkufcJhayonf? a'vDnDvmcHrS jyefvmjyD;aemuf q&mawmfonf xdktcsdefwGif pwifwnfaxmifvdkufonfh bkef;awmf}uD;wuUodkvf 0dZ…mvuFm&y&da0ewGif taxGaxGtwGif;a&;r_;csKyf (armfuGef;xdef;) tjzpf aqmif&GufawmfrlcJhayonf? xdk@aemuf 1950 jynfhESpfwGif jyifopftpdk;&u csD;jr‡ifhaom paumvm;&Spfqkjzifh yg&DjrdK@ aqmfAGefwuUodkvfwGif ynmqufvuf oif=um;awmfrlonf? aqmfAGefwuUodkvfonf ouUÉbmom oif=um;ay;jcif;/ r[m,meAk'<bmomudk avhvmokawoejyKvkyfjcif;rsm;wGif emrnf}uD;vSayonf? ,if;wuUodkvfwGif 8 ESpfr#ynmoif=um;&if; jyifopfbmompum;udk aumif;pGm wwfajrmufvmonfh tavsmuf to*F. eufeJcufcJvSonfh tbd"rRmorkpP, usrf;}uD;udk jyifopfbmom jyefqdkjyKpkEdkifcJh ayonf? ,if;usrf;}uD;udk jyKpkjcif;jzifh aqmfAGefwuUodkvfrS a'gufwmbJG@udk qGwfcl;EdkifcJhjyefayonf? 1964 ckESpfwGif tar&duef/ tDvDEdGKufjynfe,f/ taemufajrmufwuUodkvfwGif bmoma&;pmay qdkif&m ygarmuQtjzpf cef@tyfjcif;cH&onf? taemufEdkifiHwuUodkvfrsm;wGif a&S;OD;ygarmuQtjzpf cef@tyfjcif; cH&aom Ak'<bmom bkef;awmf}uD;jzpfavonf? 1965 ckESpfwGif q&mawmf. *dk%f;jzpfaom oD&duvsm%D or*D~oHCmhoAŠ u q&mawmftm; ynm t&mwGif tjrifhqHk;bJG@xl;jzpfaom “wdydÉu 0*FoGm&mp&d,” bJG@udk ay;tyfonf? oD&dvuFmEdkfifiHwGif T bJG@xl;aqmif q&mawmfrsm;rSm ,ckwdkif ESpfyg;/ oHk;yg;r#om &dSonf[k od&onf? 1966 ckESpfwGif oD&dvuFmEdkifiHY topfzGifhvSpfvdkufaom 0daZ…m', wuUodkvfwGif 'k-t"dywdtjzpf 10 oD[dkVftpdk;&u cef@tyfcJhonf? 1977 ckESpfwGif tar&duef yifq,fvfaA;eD;,m;jynfe,f/ qGqfrdk;wuUodkvfYvnf;aumif;/ 1978 ck ESifh 1979 ckESpfrsm;wGif umvDzdk;eD;,m;jynfe,f wuUodkvfESifh ta&S@wdkif;ynm&yf wuUodkvfrsm;wGif vnf;aumif; {nfhygarmuQtjzpf Ak'<bmompmayrsm;udk ydk@cs oif=um;ay;awmfrlcJhonf? 1978 ckESpfwGif oD&dvuFmwuUodkvfrS *k%fxl;aqmif a'gufwmbJG@jzifhvnf;aumif;/ urBmay:wGif a&S;tusqHk;wuUodkvfwpfckjzpfonfh emvENwuUodkvfrS (0dZ…m 0&d'd<)/ /'DvpfbJG@xl;jzifhvnf;aumif; csD;jr‡ifhjcif; cH&onf? 1979 ckESpfwGif umvDzdk;eD;,m;wuUodkvfrS *k%fxl;aqmif a'gufwmbJG@jzifh csD;jr‡ifhjcif;cH&jyefonf? 1980 ckESpfwGif oD[dkVf auved,wuUodkvfrS *k%fxl;aqmif a'gufwmbJG@jzifh csD;jr‡ifhjcif;cH&onf? 1974 ckESpfrSpI q&mawmf. wljzpfol wpfOD;. zdwf=um;jcif;ESifh t*FvefygVdawmf toif;}uD;. twGif;a&;r_; rpPpf a[mfem;(uG,fvGef) . yifhav#mufawmif;yefjcif;rsm;a=umifh q&mawmfonf vef'efjrdK@ wGif tajcpdkuf oDwif;oHk;I aexdkifawmfrlcJhayonf? t*FvefygVdawmf toif;wGif tr_aqmifwpfOD;tjzpf yg0ifI bmomjyef vkyfief;rsm; vkyfudkif&if;/ bmoma&;pmtkyftrdsK;rdsK; a&;om;jyKpkawmfrlv#uf &dSonf? Todk@ vef'efwGif oDwif;oHk;awmfrlv#uf&dSaomfvnf; tar&duef/ Oa&myESifh *syefwuUodkvfrsm;odk@ c&D;vSnfh vnfI pmayydk@csv#ufyif &dSavonf? txl;tm;jzifh rdrd. EdkifiH&if;jzpfaom oD&dvuFmwGif auved,wuUodkvf. 'k-t"dywdtjzpf vnf;aumif;/ y&r"rRAk'<wuUodkvf. t}uD;tuJtjzpfjzifh vnf;aumif;/ aqmif&Gufawmfrlv#uf &dSygonf?
  11. 11. ,if;wuUodkvfonf oD&dvuFmEdkifiH orRw}uD;ESifh 0ef}uD;csKyfwdk@. awmif;yefcsuft& q&mawmfu 1982 ckESpfwGif wnfaxmifzGifhvSpfay;vdkufaom wuUodkvfopfwpfck jzpfayonf? ,if;wuUodkvfwGif vlrdsK;ra&G;/ bmomra&G;/ ygVdpmayESifh Ak'<pmaywdk@udk tqifhjrifhjrifh oif=um;ay;v#uf&dS&m T tjynfjynfqdkif&m Ak'< wuUodkvfrdsK; urBmwGif Twpfckom &dSao;a=umif; od&dS&ayonf? 11
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  15. 15. 15 TpmrsufESmwGif -- Dr WALPOLA RAHULA t&Sifjrwf. ykHudk azmfjyxm;ygonf? "gwfykHrsm;udk usGefawmf scan rul;awmhyg? TyHkrsm;udk cJ jzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ a&aq;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif; usGefawmfa&;qJGjyD;rS ydk@vdkufygrnf?
  16. 16. 16 TpmrsufESmwGif -- OD;udkav;twGufxkwfay;xm;aom Dr Walpola Rahula .bmomjyefqdkcGifh authorization letter udk azmfjyxm;ygonf?
  17. 17. 17 ((((rrrr%%%%dd)) ooooddkk@@ddkk@@ ooooAAAAŠŠ''ŠŠ''ggggeeeeHH HH """"rrrrRR''RR''ggggeeeeHH HH ZZZZddeeddeemmmmwwwwdd??dd?? Ak'<&Sifawmfjrwf rdsK;EG,ftrnf a*gwr/ udk,fydkiftrnf od'<wˆ[kac:wGifaom Ak'<bk&m;&Sifawmfjrwfonf bDpD 6 &mpkESpftwGif;wGif tdEdN,ajrmufydkif;Y oufawmfxif&Sm;aexdkifawmfrlcJhayonf? ‚.bcrnf;awmf oka'<g'eonf ousrif;wdk@. wdkif;EdkifiH (,ckeDaygjynf)wGif bk&ifrif;jrwfjzpfayonf? r,fawmfrSm rm,m rdzk&m;}uD;jzpfygonf? xdkacwftcgu "avhxHk;pHtwdkif; od'<wˆrif;om;onf toufi,f&G,fpOf (16) ESpfom;Y acsmarm ajyjypfI opPmwnfwHhaom rif;orD;ydsK ,aomf",mESifh xdrf;jrm;vufxyfcJhavonf? od'<wˆrif;om;uav; onf vdkw&Edkifaom pnf;pdrfcsrf;omjzifh ‚.eef;awmfxufwGif aexdkifawmfrlcJh&.? odk@&mwGif b0. oabmtppftrSefESifh vl@avmu. 'kuQqif;&Jjcif;rsm;udk awG@jrifod&dSvdkufonfESifh wjydKifeuf wpfavmuvHk; &dS owW0gwdk@. 0Éfqif;&JrS vGwfajrmufa&;enf;vrf;udk &SmazG&ef &kwfw&uf csufjcif; pdwfjyÏmef;csuf csrSwfcJh onf? wpfOD;wnf;aom om;awmf&m[kvmudk arG;zGm;jyD;I rsm;r=umrD oufawmf ESpfq,fhudk;ESpft&G,fwGif od'<wˆonf xD;eef;udk pGef@ypfcJhI 0Éfqif;&JrS vGwfajrmufa&;enf;vrf; &SmazG&ef awmxGufawmfrlcJhavonf? awmxGufvmaom a*gwronf **Fgjrpf0Srf;wGif vSnfhvnfI emrnfausmf=um;aom bmoma&; w&m;a[mq&mrsm;ESifhawG@qHkum ‚wdk@. enf;emed,rsm;udk avhvmoHk;oyfv#uf udk,fawmfwdkif jyif;jyif;xefxef txl;ðcd;jcHpGm (6)ESpfwdkifwdkif usifhawmfrlcJhavonf? TuJhodk@vGefrif;pGm usifh=uHjcif;jzifh ‚. vdktifqENrSm jynfh0jcif;r&dScJhay? xdk@a=umifh tpOftvmtm;jzifh qif;oufvmcJhaom orm;&dk;us bmom 0g'rsm;ESifh usifh=uHenf;rsm;udk pGef@y,fawmfrlI udk,fawmfwdkif w&m;vrf;udk &SmazGcJhavonf? odk@ESifh nae csrf;wpfcsdef0,f ae&Í,mjrpfurf;yg; Ak'<*,m (,ckbD[me,f-*,mðrd@teD;) Y opfyifwpfyif (TumvrSpI xdkopfyiftm; aAm"danmifyif/ anmifAk'<a[yif [kac:wGifonf) atmufwGif xuf0,fzJG@acG xdkifaeawmfrlpOf oufawmf (35) ESpf&G,f&dS a*gwr&Sifawmfjrwfonf oAŠnKw^m%fawmfudk&I bk&m;tjzpfodk@ a&mufawmfrl onf? xdkrSpI oAŠnKw^m%fawmf&Sif Ak'<&Sifawmfjrwf[lI bJG@awmfukd cH,lawmfrlayonf? oAŠnKw a&$^m%fawmf&jyD;aemuf Ak'<a*gwronf Am&m%oDteD; Áodywe (,ck- qm&feof) &dS orifwdk@. O,sOfwGif;Y a&S;tcgu w&m;usifhazmfusifhzuf jzpfcJhzl;aom yÌ0*~D t&Sifwdk@tm; w&m;OD;udk a[mawmfrlavonf? xdkae@rSpI (45)ESpfywfvHk; bk&ifESifhaus;awmom;/ ykÀm;ESifh,mpum/ abm*0gESifh olawmif;pm;/ cdk;om;ESifhvlolawmf[lI jrLwpfpdwfr# cJGjcm;r_rxm;bJ a,musfm;rdef;r r[l tm;vHk;aom vltrsdK;tpm;wdk@tm; w&m;a&at;udk wdkufausG;awmf rlcJhavonf? &Sifawmfjrwfonf trdsK;Zmwd/ &mxl; *k%fodef tqifhtwef; cJGjcm;r_rsm;udk vufcHawmfrrlbJ ‚. r*~ifw&m;udk od&dSem;vnfap&ef qEN&dSI vdkufemusifh=uHvdkol a,musfm;rdef;r tm;vHk;wdk@tm; a[m=um;awmfrlavonf? toufawmf(80)wGif ukodEMm&Hk (,ck Owmy&ma'h&fS) Y Ak'<&Sifawmfjrwfonf y&dedAŠmefjyKawmfrlavonf? ,cktcgwGif Ak'<0g'udk oD[dkVf/ jrefrmjynf/ ,dk;',m;/ uarŠm'D;,m;/ avmjynf/ AD,uferf/ wdAuf/ w&kwf/ *syef/ rGef*dkvD,m;/ udk;&D;,m;/ azmfrdkqmESifh tdENd,jynf tcdsK@tydkif;/ ygupPwef/ eDaygESifh qdkAD,uf ,leD,HwGif awG@&dS&ayonf? Ak'<bmom udk;uG,fol vlOD;a&aygif;rSm urBmay:wGif oef;aygif; (500) ausmf &dSayonf?
  18. 18. 18 ttttcccceeeeff;;ff;;((((1111)))) Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm; vltrsm; rSwf,lem;vnfaeonfh t"dy`g,ftwdkfif; udk;uG,fonhfbmomw&m;wpfckudk ðypk wnfaxmifolwpfOD;[k Ak'<tm;ac:qdkEdkifcGifh&dSygu urBmay:&dSbmomw&m;trsdK;rdsK;udk wnfaxmifcJh=uaom q&m}uD;rsm;wGif Ak'<wpfyg;omv#kif rdrdudk,fudk rEkvlom;pifppf &Sif;&Sif;omv#ifjzpfonf[k tcdkiftrm qdkcJhayonf? tjcm;q&m}uD;rsm;rSmrl a*gh'f [laom bk&m;ocif/ odk@r[kwf bk&m;ocif. &kyfo¿mef vuQ%m yHkyef;trdsK;rdsK;udk cH,lol/ odk@r[kwf a*gh'fu tm;ay;wdkufwGef;vdkufolrsm; jzpf=uayonf? Ak'<onf rEkvlom;wpfOD;om jzpf&Hkr[kwfao;/ rnfonfhewfbk&m;/ tjcm;jyify wefcdk;&Sifwdk@xHrS tm;ay;ulnD wdkufwGef;Ed_;aqmfjcif;udk wpfqifhcH,lr_r&dSay (olr[kwfay)? vlom;wdk@. vHk@v/ 0D&d,/ vlom;wdk@. yËdoaE< ^m%fjzifhom Ak'<onf ‚&nfrSef;aom yef;wdkifodk@a&muf&dSI vdktyfaomqkvmbfrsm; (oAŠnKw a&$^m%f awmf) udk rkcsatmifjrifcHpm;cJh&jcif;jzpfonf[k ta=umif;jyayonf? rEka,musfm; vlom;omv#if bk&m; tjzpfodk@a&muf&dSEdkifavonf? vlwdkif;vlwdkif;wGif wu,fomvdktifqEN&dSI vHk@vjyKygu Ak'<bk&m;jzpfEdkif aom pGrf;yum;owdW &dS=uonfomjzpfavonf? Ak'<jrwfbk&m;udk xl;uJaumif;rGefvSaom a,musfm;jrwf (0g) OwWryk&do [k ac:qdkEdkifayonf? Ak'<onf rEkvlom;yDo&mwGif csGwf,Gif;r_r&dS/ tjypftemtqm uif;&Sif;pGm aphijynfhpHkvSojzifh umva&G@avsmvmaomtcg trsm;em;vnfaom bmoma&;udpP&yfrsm;Y vlxufvGefuJI vlwdk@"rRwmw&m;udk vGefajrmufaom yk*d~Kvf[k xifrSwfjcif;udk cH,lvm&ayawmhonf? Ak'<bmomw&m;awmft& vl@b0onf trGefjrwfqHk;jzpfayonf? vlonf rdrdudk,fydkif t&Sifocif jzpfI ol.b0jzpfpOfudk pD&ifqHk;jzwf&ef rnfonfhwefcdk;tm%m&Sif odk@r[kwf txufyk*d~Kvfr# &dSonf r[kwfay? “rdrdonfomv#if rdrd. udk;uG,f&mjzpf.? rdrdrSwpfyg; tv,folonf (rdrd.) udk;uG,f&m jzpfEdkifygtHhenf;” 1 [k Ak'<jrwfbk&m;u rdef@cJhavjyD? ‚. wynfh&[ef;wdk@tm; “rdrdudk,fomtm;udk;=uav? tjcm;wpfyg;Y udk;uG,f&m r&SmavESifh” 2 [lIvnf; =o0g' ay;cJhao;.? vlowW0gonf udk,fydkifóu;pm;r_ESifh yifudk,f^m%ftm;jzifh taESmiftzJG@tm;vHk;wdk@rS vGwfajrmufEdkif pGrf;&dS&um; Ak'<jrwfpGmonf yk*d~Kvfwdkif;tm; rdrd. wdkd;wufa&;ESifh vGwfajrmufa&;udk rdrdudk,fwdkif óu;yrf;,l &ef tm;ay;vH_@aqmfoGefoif qHk;ray;awmfrlcJhayonf? “oifwdk@udk,fwdkif tm;xkwf=u&ukefrnf? bk&m;&Sif (wxm*w) 3 wdk@onf vrf;udkom n¸efjy=uukef.?” 4 [k Ak'<&Sifawmfjrwfu ¹ruf=um;awmfrl.? Ak'< jrwfbk&m;tm; u,fwif&Sif[k ac:wGif&rnfqdkygv#if vGwfajrmufa&;pcef;jzpfaom edAŠmefodk@oGm;&m c&D;vrf; a=umif;udk &SmazGawG@olESifh vrf;n¸efjyol tjzpfjzifhom ac:qdk=u&rnf jzpfayonf? edAŠmefodk@qdkufa&muf&ef rSmrl Tc&D;vrf;a=umif;twdkif; usGEfkyfwdk@udk,fwdkif av#mufoGm;=u&ayrnf? TuJhodk@ wpfOD;wpfa,mufpDudk,fwdkif wm0efcH,ljcif;[laom usifhpOfrlt& Ak'<u wynfh&[ef;wdk@ tm; vGwfvGwfvyfvyfaexdkifcGifhudk ay;awmfrljcif; jzpfavonf? r[my&dedAŠmeokwfawmfwGif jrwfpGmbk&m; u oHCm5 tm; csKyfcs,fxm;&ef pdwfrul;cJha=umif;/ oHCmuvnf; bk&m;tay:wGif rDScdkraeapvdka=umif; wdk@udk a[m=um;awmf rlcJhavonf? __--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1? "rRy'/ 12-4/ 'k 94-379? 2? 'DCedum,f 2 (udkvHbdk/1929) pmrsufESm 62/ r[my&dedAŠmeokwf? 3? wxm*w ] trSefodk@a&muf&dSol/ trSefw&m;udk&SmazGawG@&dSol/ Ak'<udk,fawmfjrwfonf rdrdudk,fawmfwdkif odk@r[kwf Ak'<bk&m;trsm;ESifhywfoufu Ttac:ta0:udk toHk;jyKonf? 4? "rRy'/ 20-4? 5? oHC]vltaygif;/ y&dowftaygif;? odk@&mwGif Ak'<bmomwGif oHC onf &[ef;taygif; odk@r[kwf &[ef;tzJG@tpnf;[k n$efjyayonf? Ak'</ "rR(w&m;)/ oHC(oHCmawmftzJG@tpnf;) wdk@udk udk;uG,fqnf;uyf&moHk;yg; odk@r[kwf &wemoHk;yg; (}wd&we) [kac:wGifonf?
  19. 19. 19 Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm; ‚.w&m;awmfwGif xdefcsefzHk;tkyfxm;onfh tcsuf[lIr&dS? tmp&d,rkÏdac: q&mhvufqkyf vufudkifjzpfI wynfhwdk@tm; roif=um; rjyobJ uG,f0Sufxm;onf[lIr&dS? wpfenf;qdkaomf q&mpm; csefxm;aom ta=umif;rsm;r&dS[k Ak'<u ¹rufqdkcJhavonf? 1 Ak'<ucGifhjyKawmfrlaom vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:r_udk tjcm;bmoma&;&mordkif;rsm;wGif =um;r#yifr=um; &bl;acs? TvGwfvyfr_rSm ta&;w}uD;vdktyfvSayonf? ta=umif;rl Ak'<.tqdkt& vl.vGwfajrmufa&; onf opPmw&m;udk udk,fwdkif &SmazG&,lEdkifjcif;tay:wGifom wnf&dSonf? rnfonfhewfbk&m; wefcdk;&Sifwdk@ urS olwdk@. =oZmcHI aumif;rGefpGmusifh=uHonfhtwGuf qkvmbftjzpfjzifh csD;jr‡ifhEdkifaom t&m r[kwfay? tcgwpfyg;Y Ak'<onf aumovjynf auoykwWjrdK@i,f wpfckodk@ a&muf&dSvmcJhonf? Tòr@aevl taygif;udk umvmr trdsK;tEG,frsm;[k ac:wGif=uavonf? ‚wdk@òr@odk@ Ak'<a&muf&dSvma=umif; =um;aom tcg umvmrtrdsK;om;wdk@onf Ak'<xHodk@ qnf;uyfI Todk@ av#mufxm;=uukef.? “t&Sifbk&m;/ auoykwWodk@ &aohykÀm;tcsK@dwdk@ a&muf&dSvm=uygonf? olwdk@onf olwdk@. t,l0g'rsm;udkom &Sif;vif;jy=uI xif&Sm;apukef=uygonf? olwpfyg;.t,l0g'rsm;udk rxDav;pm; jyK=u ygonf? &_wfcs=uygonf? ypfy,f=uygonf? xdk@aemuftjcm;u &aohykÀm;wdk@ a&mufvm=ujyefygonf? olwdk@uvnf; olwdk@. t,l0g'rsm;udkom &Sif;vif;jy=uI xif&Sm;apukef=uygonf? tjcm;olrsm;. t,l0g' rsm;udk rxDav;pm;jyK=uygonf? &_wfcs=uygonf? ypfy,f=uygonf? bk&m;wynfhawmfwdk@rSm =unfndK av;jrwfzG,faom T&aohykÀm;rsm;wGif rnfolu trSefpum;ajymI rnfolu rrSefw&m; a[moGm;=u onfudk ra0cJGEdkifatmif tpOfpdwf&_yfayGum oHo,jzifh awGa0v#uf &dS=u&ygonf bk&m; ” xdktcg Ak'<&Sifawmfbk&m;u bmoma&;qdkif&m ordkif;wpfav#mufwGif xl;xl;jcm;jcm; òyifbufuif; onfh T=o0g'pum;udk ¹ruf=um;awmf rlvdkufayonf? “[kwfayonf umvmrtrdsK;om;wdk@/ ,HkrSm;zG,f&mudpPwGif oHo,jzpfay:vmaoma=umifh oifwdk@ onf ,HkrSm;oHo, &dSoifh=uayonf? pdwf&_yfayGjcif; jzpfoifh=uayonf? ,ck &_=uayavmh umvmr trdsK;om;wdk@ - owif;pum;udk =um;&Hkr#jzifh em;ra,mifESifh? tpOftvmjzpfayonf [lIvnf; vufrcHESifh? vlajym olajym wpfqifhpum;udkvnf; r,HkavESifh? bmoma&;usrf;}uD;rsm;udk udk;um;ajymIvnf; rSefvSjyD rxifav ESifh? wuUenf;ESifh qifjcif=uHq ,l&Hkr#udkvnf; em;ra,mifavESifh? yHkyef;tjrif o¿mef=unfhIvnf; rqHk;jzwfESifh? a&mf&rf;rSef;q,l&aomoabm xifjrifcsufudkvnf; trSef[k rrSwf,lESifh? jzpfEdkifaumif;.[k xifjrif&&Hkjzifhvnf; r,Hk=unfygavESifh? toifwdk@ udk;uG,fqnf;uyf&m q&morm;jzpfayonf[laom oabma=umifhvnf; rSefvSjyD[k wxpfcs rrSwf=uukef&m? tdk-umvmrEG,fzGm; trdsK;om;wdk@/ tcdsK@aomta=umif;w&m;onf tukodkvfjzpfonf/ rrSefuef/ raumif;udsK;udkjzpfaponf[k oifwdk@udk,fwdkifudk,fus od&dS.? xdkta=umif;w&m;rsm;udk pGef@y,f=uukef avmh? tcdsK@ta=umif;w&m;rsm;rSmrl ukodkvfjzpfonf/ aumif;udsK;udkjzpfaponf[k toifwdk@ udk,fwdkif udk,fusod.? xdkta=umif;w&m;rsm;udk ESpfoufpGmvufcHI vdkufem usifh=uH=uayawmh? ” 2 Ak'<u TxufyifvGefuJI qdkayao;onf-wpfpHkwpfa, muftm; rdrdq&mtjzpf vufcHvdkufemrnfqdkv#if wxm*wudkyifaomfvnf; trdsK;ppf tzdk;wef rSefrrSef xif&Sm;odjrifEdkif&ef aocsmpGm ppfaq;prf;oyf avhvmoifhonf? -- [k ‚. &[ef;wdk@tm; rdfef@¹rufcJhavonf? 3 Ak'<. a[majymcsuft& ,HkrSm;oHo,&dSjcif; (0dpdudp>m) onf trSefw&m;udk rsuf0g;xifxif od&dS em;vnf&efvnf;aumif;/ bmoma&;vkyfief; wdk;wufr_&&ef (odk@r[kwf rnfonfh wdk;wufr_twGuf) aomf --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1? 'DCedum,f 2/ (udkvHbdk/ 1929) pmrsufESm 62? 2? t*FkwW&edum,-y/(udkvHbdk/1929) pmrsufESm 115? 3? 0DrHouokwW/ trSwf 47? rZdÆredum,?
  20. 20. 20 Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm; vnf;aumif;/ ydwfyifwm;qD;aponfh (eD0&%w&m;)1 ig;yg;teuf wpfyg;jzpfavonf? odk@&mwGif Ak'<0g'Y ‘,Hk=unfvufcH&rnfh ynwfcsufrsm;’ [lI r&dS&um; ,HkrSm;oHo,&dSjcif; 0dpdudp>m onf 'kp&dkuf tjypfwpfck r[kwfacs? trSefrSm Ak'<0g'wGif tjcm;bmom0g'rsm;u em;vnf,lqaom sin qif; ac: 'kp&dkuftjypf [lI r&dSay? raumif;r_tm;vHk;wdk@. tajctjrpfonf tod^m%fuif;rJhjcif; (t0dZ…m) ESifh azmufjyefaomtjrif a=umifh rSm;aomt,ludk&dSjcif; (rdp>m'dÏd) omv#ifjzpfayonf? ,HkrSm;oHo, &dSjcif;/ awGa0&_wfaxG;jcif;/ pdwfr wnfrus vGifhyg;jcif;wdk@ &dSaeor# rnfonfhwdk;wufr_udkr# &&dSEdkifrnfr[kwfonfrSm jiif;qdkEkdifaom tcsuf r[kwfay? xdk@twl ta=umif;w&m;wpf&yfudk aumif;pGmem;rvnfor#/ xifvif;pGm odjrifr_ r&dSor# ,HkrSm; oHo, 0ifaernfudkvnf; jiif;qdkEdkifrnf r[kwfay? xdk@a=umifh a&S@odk@qufvufwdk;wufEdkifapjcif;iSm ,HkrSm;awG;awmr_udk okwfoify,fazsmuf&ef vHk;0 vdktyfayonf? wzef ,HkrSm;awG;awmr_udk okwfoify,fazsmufypf&ef &Sif;vif;pGm odjrif&ayvdrfhrnf? ,HkrSm;awG;awmr_ r&dSoifhbl;/ ,Hk=unfr_ xm;&rnf[k wdkufwGef;jcif;rSm vdk&if;odk@ ra&mufEkdifay? “usGEfkyf,Hk=unfygonf” [k ajymumr#jzifh wu,fem;vnfI wu,fodjrifr_&dSonf[k r,lqEdkifay? pmoif om;wpfOD;onf ocsFmwpfyk'fudk wGufcsuf&mwGif a&S@odk@qufvufI rwGufEdkifaomtqifhodk@ a&mufvm aomtcg pdwf&_yfayGjcif;/ odk@avmodk@avmawG;awmjcif; ponfwdk@0ifa&mufvmavonf? TuJhodk@awG;awm r_ &dSaeor# ‚onf a&S@odk@wdk;wufEkdifrnf r[kwfay? T,HkrSm;awG;awmr_udk y,fazsmuf&ef enf;vrf;rsm; &dSayonf? “usGEfkyf,Hk=unfygonf/ usGEfkyfY ,HkrSm;oHo,rsm;r&dSyg” [kqdkumr#jzifhrl jyemudk ajz&Sif;Ekdifrnf r[kwfacs? rdrdudk,frdrd ZGwftwif; ,Hk=unfr_&dSapI rodem;rvnfbJESifh vufcHjcif;onf EdkifiHa&;qefqef aqmif&Gufjcif;omjzpfI bmoma&;&maqmif&Gufjcif;/ tod^m%fjzifh aqmif&Gufjcif;[k rqdkdkEdkifay? Ak'<onf ,HkrSm;oHo,&dSr_udk y,fazsmufay;&ef tpOf tmoDoxm;awmfrlayonf? y&dedAŠmef jyKawmfrrlcif rdepfydkif;uav;tvdkrSmyif wynfh&[ef;rsm;tm; ‚. a[majymcsufrsm;wGif ,HkrSm;oHo, &dSygu ar;jref;=u/ aemifwGif ToHo,udpPrsm;udk r&Sif;vif;vdkuf&bd[k aemifw&um 0rf;enf;ylyefqif;&J rjzpf=uapvifh[k Ak'<u t}udrf}udrfwdkufwGef; ajym=um;cJhayonf? odk@&mwGif rax&frsm;onf qdwfqdwfaecJh=uay.? xdktcg Ak'<u “a[m=um;vdkufaom pum;vHk; rsm;onf ESpfvdk=unf!dkbG,f&m jzpfygbd.? q&morm;jzpfvdk@ &dkaoor_a=umifh (tm;emr_zufI ar;vdkv#uf ESifh) rar;bJawmh raeESifh/ &[ef;azmfwpfOD;tm; ta=umif;=um;ygav (&[ef;wpfOD;tm; ol@udk,fpm; wpfqifh ar;ay;Edkif&ef ajymyg?)” 2 vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac: =uHqr_t&mwGifomr[kwfao;? vGwfvyfpGm udk;uG,fqnf;uyfr_wGifvnf; Ak'< u onf;cHcGifhðyawmfrljcif;rSm bmoma&;&mordkif;pOfudk avhvmaom ynm&Sifrsm;tm; tHh=oapaom ta=umif;wpf&yf jzpfaponf? wpf&Ha&mtcg jrwfpGmbk&m;onf emvENY oDwif;oHk;aeawmfrlpOf Oygvd trnf&dSaom xifay: ausmf=um;aom olaX;}uD;wpfOD;onf jrwfpGmbk&m;xHawmfarSmufodk@ a&muf&dSvmavonf? Oygvdonf ed*¿emËykwW (*sdef;r[m0D&) . ausmf=um;xif&Sm;aom wynfh}uD;jzpfI r[m0D&udk,fwdkifu Ak'<ESifhawG@qHk &ef Oygvdtm; apv$wfvdkufjcif;jzpfayonf? uH uH. ta=umif;tudsK;w&m;ESifh ywfoufI Ak'<. t,ltq ESifh r[m0D&. xifjrifcsufwdk@rSm rwdkufqdkif/ uJGjym;jcm;em;v#uf &dS&um; Ak'<udk TudpPwGif pum;ppfxdk; tEdkif,l&ef Oygvdtm; apv$wfvdkufjcif; jzpfayonf? 3 odk@&mwGif xifjrif ar#mfvifhonfhtwdkif;jzpfrvmacs? w&m;aqG;aEG;yJG tjyD;wGif Ak'<. t,ltqrsm; onfrSefuefI ‚.q&m ed*¿. ,lqcsufwdk@rSm vJGrSm;aea=umif; Oygvdonf aumif;pGm oabmouf0if --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1? eD0&%w&m;ig;yg;rSm - (u) umrp>ENeD0&% ] umr*k%fYtvdk&dSjcif;? (c) Asmyg'eD0&% ] raumif;=uHjcif;? (*) xderd'< eD0&% ] pdwfa&mudk,fyg xdkif;rd_if;jcif;/xHkjcif;/nd_;EGrf;jcif;? (C) O'pP ukuUKpP eD0&% ] pdwfrjidrfouf ysH@vGifhjcif;/ pdk;&drfylyef jcif;? (i) 0dpdudp>m eD0&% ] ,HkrSm;awG;awmjcif; 2? 'DCedum,f 2/ (udkvHbdk 1929) pmrsufESm 95? t*FkwˆdKvf (udkvHbdk 1929) pmrsufESm 239? 3? r[m0D&onf *dsef;bmomudk wDxGifoljzpfI Ak'<ESifhacwfjydKifjzpfonf? Ak'<xuf touftenf;i,f }uD;[ef&dSonf?
  21. 21. 21 Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm; ,Hk=unfoGm;avawmhonf? odk@,Hk=unfonfhtwdkif; ‚udk wynfhOyoumwpfOD;tjzpfjzifh oGwfoGif;csD;jr‡ifh &ef Ak'<tm; Oygvdu yef=um;avawmhonf? odk@&mwGif Ak'<u Oygvdtm; jyefvnfpOf;pm;&efESifh “toif uJhodk@ xif&Sm;I vlodrsm;aom yk*d~KvftwGuf aocsmpGm pOf;pm;&efaumif;a=umif;/ tvsOfpvdk rðyvkyfoifh a=umif;” wdk@udk ajym=um;avonf? Oygvdu Ak'<tm;xyfrHI yef=um;jyefaomtcg ‚. bmoma&; q&m a[mif;rsm;tm; a&S;,cifuuJhodk@yif &dkaoor_ 0wf}uD;0wfi,f qufvufðypkjrJ ðypk&ef Ak'<u arwWm&yfcH ayonf? 1 Ak'<. TrGefjrwfvSaom pdwfxm;}uD;r_/ pmemr_rsm;udk pHerlemðyI bDpD 3 &mpkESpftwGif;wGif Ak'< bmom0ifjzpfaom taomu {u&mZfrif;jrwf}uD;onf ‚. us,fjyef@aom tifydkif,mEdkifiHawmf}uD; twGif;&dS tjcm;aom bmom0iftm;vHk;wdk@tm; av;pm;csD;jr‡ifh axmufyHhjcif; ðycJhayonf? ,ae@wdkif zwf&_ Edkifaom ausmufpmtjzpf xkxGif;xm;cJhonfh ‚.trdef@awmf &mZoHwpfckwGif {u&mZfbk&if}uD;u a=unmcJhonfrSm-rdrdudk; uG,fonfh bmomudkom csD;jr‡ifhajr‡mufpm;I tjcm;bmomrsm;udk zdEdSyf&_wfcsjcif;udk rðyvkyf&Hk omr[kwfao;? Tta=umif; xdkta=umif;rsm;a=umifh tjcm;bmom 0g'rsm;udk av;pm; csDjr‡ifh=u&ayrnf? TuJhodk@ðyvkyfjcif;jzifh rdrd.bmomudk }uD;yGm;wdk;wufapjyD;v#if tjcm;bmom wdk@tm;vnf; ulnDaxmufyHh avonf? TuJhodk@rvkyfrl rdrdbmom. ocõsKif;udk rdrdwl;&ma&mufI tjcm;bmomrsm;udkvnf; tEW&m,f jyK&ma&mufayonf? rdrdudk;uG,fonfhbmomudkom csD;jr‡ifh ajr‡mufpm;I tjcm;bmomrsm;udk zdEdSyf&_wfcsolrsm;onf rdrdbmomudk =unf!dkpdwfjzifh “ighbmom *k%fodef xGef;awmufaprnf” [k awG;awm,lqjyD; ðyvkyf=ujcif; trSefjzpfayonf? odk@&mwGif T uJhodk@ ðyrlaqmif&Gufjcif;a=umifh ‚. bmomudk ydkrdkav;eufpGm tudsK;,kwfysufjym;apygonf? xdk@a=umifh om,mnDnGwfjcif;onf rGefjrwfayonf? vltaygif;wdk@ rSwfom;vdkufem =uavmh? tjcm;olrsm;. bmom0g'rsm;ukd av;pm;=um;em=uukefavmh? 2 TuJhodk@ =uifemiJh!Sm udk,fcsif;pmaom oabmw&m;rsm;udk bmom0g'a&;&mrsm;wGifom r[kwf/ tjcm;ta=umif; udpPrsm;wGifvnf; toHk;ðyusifhaqmifoifha=umif; usGEfkyfwdk@u xyfavmif;I azmfjy&ayrnf? TuJhodk@ =uifemiJh!Sm udk,fcsif;w&m;onf tpueOD;uyif Ak'<0g'qdkif&m ,Ofaus;r_udpPrsm;wGif txGwf tjrwfxm;jcif; cH&onfh w&m;rGwfwpfyg;jzpfcJhayonf? xdk@a=umifhyif vltaygif;wkd@tm; Ak'<0g'odk@ ouf0if ul;ajymif;ap&mwGifvnf;aumif;/ ESpfaygif; (2500) twGif; Ak'<omoemjyKvkyfief;rsm; vkyfaqmifcJh=u&mwGif vnf;aumif; wpfpHkwpfa,mufudkr# !SOf;yef;EdSyfpufcJhjcif;/ aoG;wpfayguf usqHk;apcJh&jcif; vHk;0r&dScJhay? Ak'<0g'onf tm&SwdkufwpfckvHk;wGif jidrf;csrf;om,mpGm ysH@ESH@cJh&m ,cktcg Ak'<bmom0ifaygif; oef;aygif; (500) ausmf &dSayjyD? rnfonfhta=umif; y&d,m,fESifhr# rnfonfht=urf;zufr_rdsK;udkr# rðyvkyf&ef Ak'<u vHk;0wm;jrpfawmfrlonf? Ak'<0g'onf udk;uG,fonhf bmomw&m;avm/ zDavmfaqmfzDac: 'eduaA'/ ememe, usdK;a=umif;jy ynm&yfwpfckayavm[k r=umc% ppfa=umar;jref;=uayonf? rnfodk@yifac:ac: ta&;r}uD; vSyg? rnfonfhtrnfemray;ay;/ Ak'<0g'onf Ak'<0g'yif jzpfaeayrnf? trSwfwHqdyfonf t&m0ifaom ta=umif;r[kwf? ta&;r}uD;yg? Ak'<a[m=um;awmfrlcJhaom w&m;a'oemrsm;udk ‘Ak'<0g'’ [k ay;tyfxm; onfh trSwfwHqdyfonfyif a&;}uD;cGifus,f r[kwfvSyg? ac:a0:onfh trnfemronf r&dSrjzpfonhf ta=umif;wpf&yf r[kwfygacs? a&$ESif;qD b,frnfay;/ ar$;rysuf &dSrnfom? rnfemrm vdk&ma&G;/ a&; r}uD;yg? --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1? OygvdokwW/ trSwf 56/ rZdÆredum,f? 2? taomu ausmufpm 12?
  22. 22. 22 Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm; xdk@twl opPmw&m;onf trnfwHqdyfrvdkyg? opPmonf Ak'<bmomydkifvnf; r[kwf/ c&pf,ef/ [dENL/ rGwfqvif ydkifvnf;r[kwf/ rnfol wpfOD;wpfa,mufydkifr# r[kwfay? *dk%f;trnf wHqdyfrsm;onf opPmw&m;udk vGwfvyfpGm em;vnfoabmayguf&ef [ef@wm;ydwfyifaponf? xdk@jyif vlrsm;.pdwfwGif tudsK;,kwfaponfh txiftjrifvJGr_ rsm;udkvnf; jzpfay:apwwfayonf? A[kokw todynmESifh bmoma&;&m udpPrsm;omr[kwfao;? vlr_a&;&m udpPrsm;wGifvnf; TuJhodk@yifjzpfwwfayonf? Oyrm-usGEfkyfwdk@ onf vlwpfa,mufudk qHkpnf;rd&mwGif ‚tm; vl;om;wpfOD;[k rrSwf,lbJ t*FvdyfyJ/ jyifopfyJ/ *smref/ tar&duef/ a&0wDyJ paom trnfwHqdyfudk cwfEdSyfvdkuf=uayonf? xdk@aemuf usGEfkyfwdk@pdwfY ‚trnfwHqdyfESifhyl;wJG pJGuyfv#uf&dSaom vJGrSm;onfh ,lqcsufrsm;jzifh xdkvltm; =unfh&_ayawmhonf? wpfzufom; ol@crsmrSmrl usGEfkyfwdk@pJGvrf;xifrSm;aeaom ta=umif;jcif;&mrsm; vHk;0uif;&Sif;aumif; uif;&Sif; aeayvdrfhrnf? vltaygif;wdk@onf cJGjcm;cJGjcm;jzpfaponfh trSwfwHqdyfrsm;udk cHkrifvS=u&um; vltm;vHk;wdk@wGif awG@&dSEdkifonfh *k%ft&nftcsif;ESifh pdwfv_yf&Sm;r_t&mrsm;udkyif vdkufvHtrSwfwHqdyfrsm; qJGuyfvdkuf=uay onf? tvSL'geðyjcif;udk Ak'<bmomtvSL/ c&pf,eftvSL[k wHqdyfcJGjcm;wyfqifv#uf wHqdyfrwlaom tvSL udk txiftjrif ao;avh&dS=uayonf? odk@&mwGif 'ger_udk *dk%f;/ bmomcJGI r&paumif;ay? 'ger_onf c&pf,efvnf;r[kwf/ Ak'<bmom/ [dENL/ rGwfqvifvnf; r[kwfay? rdrd&ifaoG;tm; cspfjrwfEdk;aom rdcif. cspfpdwfonf Ak'<bmomvnf;r[kwf/ c&pf,efvnf;r[kwf/ rdcifarwWmomv#if jzpfayonf? vlom;wdk@vuQ%mt&nftcsif;ESifh pdwfv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;qdkif&m cspfarwWm/ tvSL'ge/ oem;jcif;/ onf;cHjcif;/ cGifhv$wfjcif;/ rdwfusGrf;0ifjcif;/ tvdkqENjzpfjcif;/ rkef;wD;jcif;/ &efjidK;xm;jcif;/ rdkufrJjcif;(ynmuif;rJhjcif;) ESifh rmeaxmifv$m;jcif; ponfwdk@onf *dk%f;jcm;aom trSwfwHqdyfrsm; rvdkay? ‚wdk@udk rnfonfhbmomESifhom oufqdkifonf[k r,lqEdkifay? trSefw&m;udk &SmazGaeoltm; oabmw&m;wpfckudk rnfonfhae&mrSyif&onfjzpfap/ ae&monf ta&;r}uD;yg? ‚oabmw&m;onf rnfonfhtajcrS jzpfay:cJhonf? rnfuJhodk@ wdk;wufjyef@yGm;vmcJhayonf ponfwdk@rSm ynm&Sifwdk@ aqG;aEG;&efom jzpfavonf? trSefpifppf opPmw&m;udk em;vnfbdk@&eftwGuf Ak'< udk,fawmf a[m=um;aomw&m;avavm/ tjcm;wpfpHkwpfa,mufu a[m=um;xm;avoavm[k od&dS ae&efyif rvdkay? opPmw&m;udk wu,fodjrifI oabmaygufem;vnf&efom t"du jzpfayonf? rZdÆr edum,f/ okwWHtrSwf 140 wGif Ttcsufudk xif&Sm;apaom ta&;}uD;onfh yHk0wˆKwpfyk'fyg&dSavonf? tcgwpfyg;wGif Ak'<onf tdk;xdef;onfwpfOD;. wif;ukyfY1 wpfnOfhtdyfem;ae.? xdkwif;ukyfrSmyif tvsifa&muf&dSESifhaeaom awmaysmf (awmxGuf) &aohwpfOD; &dSaeayonf? wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; odusGrf;=uonf r[kwfacs? Ak'<onf xdk&aohudkjrifI “T&aohi,f. trlt&mrsm;onf ESpfvdkzG,f &dSvS.? ol@ta=umif;udk pHkprf;&ygrl aumif;avpG” [k atmufarhjyD;v#if ³³³³³ “tdk bduQL2 --oifrnfol@udk&nfrSef;I awmxGufcJhayoenf;/ oifhq&mum; rnfolayenf;/ rnfol@ t,l0g'udk oifESpfðcdufayoenf;” [k ar;jref;avonf? “tdk igh&Sif/ousrif;rdsK;wdk@udkpGef@v$wfI awmxGufoGm;cJhaom ousomuD0if a*gwrqdkol awmxGuf --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1? tdEdN,jynfwGif tdk;xdef;onfwif;ukyfwdk@onf us,fus,f0ef;0ef;ESifh wdwfwdwfqdwfqdwf&dS=uonf? ygVdawmfrsm;Y Ak'<udk,f awmfwdkifESifh &aohwyoD a,m*Dyk*~dKvfwdk@ a'opm&DvSnfhvnf oGm;vm=u&mwGif tdk;xdef;onf wif;ukyfrsm;wGif nOfhtdyf nOfhae wnf;cdk=ua=umif; azmfjy=uonf? 2? Ak'<bmom&[ef;awmfrsm;udkom ac:qdkonfh bduQK[laomtmvkyfjzifh T&aohtm; Ak'<u ac:qdkonfrSm pdwf0ifpm;zG,f jzpfayonf? aemufydkif;wGif T&aohonf bduQKr[kwfa=umif;/ oHCmawmf*dk%f;0ifyif r[kwfa=umif; Ak'<xH&[ef;jyKcGifh awmif;cHjcif;jzifh od&onf? Ak'<vufxufu bduQKtoHk;tEH_;rSm tjcm;bmom0ifrsm;udkvnf; rcJGjcm;bJ oHk;cJhoavm/ Ak'< udk,fawmfwdkifu TtoHk;tEH_;udk wdwdusus toHk;rðyIayavm? bduQKt"dy`g,frSm‘bkef;awmif;,mpum’awmif;cHpm; aomufol [lI&dS&um; Tae&mwGif pum;vHk;.rl&if;pmayt"dy`g,ftwdkif; toHk;ðyxm;[ef&dSayonf? odk@aomf ,ck acwf oHk;t"dy`g,frSm bduQKonf Ak'<bmom &[ef;awmf[k qdkvdkI txl;ojzifh ax&0g'xGef;um;&m oD[dkVf/ jrefrm/ xdkif;/ uarBmZESifh ppfwaumif;a'owdk@wGif txl;toHk;rsm;onf?
  23. 23. 23 Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm; &[ef;wpfyg;&dSygonf? olonf&[EWmjzpfjyD/ orRmorŠK'<bk&m;jzpfjyD [k ausmf=um;v#uf &dSygonf? Tbk&m; a*gwrudk wdkifwnfI usGEfkyfawmxGufcJhygonf/ Ak'<onf usGEfkyfq&mjzpfI ‚.0g'udk ESpfðcdufygonf” [k- &aohi,fu jyefvnf ajz=um;ayonf? “T orRmorŠK'< bk&m;&[EWmonf ,ckb,frSm oDwif;oHk;aexdkifawmfrlygoenf;”? “igh&Sif/ TrS ajrmuft&yfa'owGif om0wdˆjynf}uD;&dSayonf? tJ'D om0wdˆjynfwGif xdk orRmorŠK'< bk&m;&[EWm ,ck oDwif;oHk; aexdkifawmfrlygonf”? “xdkjrwfpGmbk&m;udk toifzl;ajrmfzl;ygoavm/ jrifawG@&v#if jrwfpGmbk&m;[k od&dSrSwfrdygrnfavm” “rzl;ajrmfbl;yg/ jrifv#ifvnf; odrnfr[kwfyg”? T trnfrod&ao;aom vli,fonf rdrdtm; tm&HkðyI awmxGufjyD; &aohvkyfvma=umif; Ak'< onf &dyfpm;rdvmonf? udk,fawmfwdkif rnfoljzpfa=umif; xkwfazmfI rajymjyao;bJ- “tdk bduQL/usGEfkyfw&m;a[mjyrnf?*&kwpdkufem=um;avmh/a[mjyrnf” [k Ak'<u¹ruf=um;avonf? “aumif;vSygjyD igh&Sif” [k &aohi,fu oabmwlavonf? xdktcgwGif Ak'<u &aohi,ftm; opPm w&m;ta=umif;udk xl;uJpGm &Sif;vif;a[mjyawmfrlavonf? (tusOf;csKyfudk aemufwGif azmfjyxm;onf) 1? a'oemjyD;qHk;rSyif ykuUKomwdtrnf&dSaom T&aohi,fonf w&m;"rRjzifh ‚tm; csD;jr‡ifhaeolrSm Ak'<udk,fawmfwdkifyifjzpfa=umif; od&Smayonf? xdk@a=umifh ae&mrSxI Ak'<a&S@awmfarSmufodk@oGm;a&muf ajcawmf&if;Y 0yfwGm;jyD;v#if Ak'<tm; rod rSm;,Gif;I “igh&Sif”2 [k ac:a0:rdonfudk &dScdk;awmif;yefavonf? xdk@aemuf &[ef;tjzpf csD;jr‡ifh&ef cGifhawmif;cH avonf? Ak'<u ‚tm; oydwfESifh ouFef;rsm; toifh&dSr&dS ar;jref;avonf? (bduQKwpfyg;wGif ouFef; oHk;xnfESifh qGrf;cH&efoydwf &dS&jrJjzpfonf?) ykuUKomwdu r&dSa=umif;ajymaomtcg Ak'<u wxm*w rnfonf oydwfESifh ouFef;r&dSbJ &[ef;ðyay;&dk;r[kwf[k ¹ruf=um;awmf rlavonf? xdk@a=umifh ykuUKomwd onf oydwfESifh ouFef;&SmazG&ef xGufcGmoGm;cJh&m uHraumif;ta=umif;rvSI EGm;rwpfaumif3 ta0S@cH&jyD; v#if toufqHk;& &Smavonf? aemufwGif T0rf;enf;zG,f owif;udk Ak'<=um;&aomtcg ykuUKomwdonf tusGwfw&m; &oGm;jyD jzpfa=umif;/ edAŠmefwHcg;0ta&muf aygufa&mufoGm;cJha=umif;/ ,cka&mufoGm;onfhb0wGif &[EWm4 jzpfjyD; aemuf oHo&mrS xGufajrmufoGm;awmhrnf jzpfa=umif; a[m=um;awmfrlavonf? 5 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1? wwd,ajrmuf opPmta=umif; tcef;wGif azmfjyxm;onf? 2? toHk;jyKaompum;vHk;rSm ‘tm0kaom’jzpfI ‘igh&Sif’odk@r[kwf ‘rdwfaqG’[k t"dy`g,f &onf? wef;wljcif; &dkaoor_ ac:a0: jcif;jzpfonf? wynfh&[ef;wdk@u Ak'<tm; T ‘tm0kaom-ihg&Sif’qdkaom toHk;tEH_;jzifh av#mufxm;avhr&Sdyg? ‚tpm; ‘baEW’ [kom oHk;jrJjzpfI t&Sifbk&m;/ t&Sifjrwfbk&m; [k t"dy`g,f&avonf? Ak'<vufxufawmfu &[ef;awmfrsm;onf wpfyg;ESifh wpfyg;tm; ‘tm0kaom’[k ac:a0:cJh=uonf? odk@&mwGif y&edA‡ŠmefpHvGefawmfrrlrD Ak'<u &[ef;i,frsm;tm; rax&f }uD;wdk@udk baEW t&Sifbk&m; odk@r[kwf tm,oRm =unfndKzG,f(touf&Snfaom) t&Sif[k av#mufxm;=u&ef ynwfawmf rlcJhavonf? rax&f}uD;rsm;u &[ef;i,frsm;tm; trnfjzifhvnf;aumif;/ ‘tm0kaom’[kvnf;aumif; ac:=u&onf? T tavhtusifhonf Ak'<bmom oHCmawmfrsm;wGif ,ckwdkif wnfjrJv#uf &dSaeayao;onf? 3? tdEdN,wGif EGm;rrsm; vrf;r}uD;rsm;ay: usufpm;=ua=umif;udk vlodrsm;=uayonf? T0wˆKt& Ttavhtusifhonf a&S; ya0%Duyif &dScJha=umif; od&ayonf? odk@&mwGif trsm;tm;jzifh EGm;rrsm;onf ,Ofyg;aeI a0S@wwfjcif;/ tEW&m,fðywwf jcif; r&dS=uay? 4? &[EWmqdkonfrSm avmb/a'go/arm[/ tbdZÆm/ rmefrmepaom udavom tnpfta=u;rsm;rS uif;pifjyD;aom yk*~dKvfjzpf avonf? edAŠmefodk@a&muf&dS&ef tqifhrsm;wGif pwkwˆ odk@r[kwf aemufqHk;tqifhodk@a&muf&dSjyD;jzpfI ^m%fynm/ u&k%m paom t&d,mwdk@. t&nftcsif;rsm;ESifh jynfhpHkjyD; jzpfayonf? xdkpOfu ykuUKomwdrSm tem*grd(umrbHkodk@ rvmvwWH@aom yk*d~Kvf) ac:wGifaom wwd,tqifhodk@om a&muf&dSoGm;onf? 'kwd,tqifhudk ou'g*grd(umrbHkodk@ wpf=udrfomvmrnfh yk*d~Kvf) [k ac:wGifI yxrtqifhrSm aomwmyef(r*fa&tvsOfodk@a&mufol) jzpfonf? 5? um;vf*sDvm&yfa&;aom bk&m;zl;c&D;onf uredw ac:pmtkyfonf T ykuUKomwd 0wˆKudk rDS;I a&;om;xm;[ef wlonf?
  24. 24. 24 Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm; ykuUKomwdonf Ak'<w&m;udkem,lI oabmaygufem;vnfpOfu rnfolu w&m;a[maerSef;/ rnfol. bmom0g'jzpfrSef;roda=umif; T0wˆKrSm xif&Sm;ayonf? ykuUKomwdonf trSefw&m;udk od&dS em;vnfoGm;ayonf? aq;pGrf;u a&m*gaysmufuif;ayrnf? xdkaq;udk rnfolazmfpyfonf/ b,fu&&dSonf [k odae&ef rvdkawmhay? bmom0g'wdkif;vdkyif ,Hk=unfr_(rsufpdrdSwf,Hk=unfr_) ay:wGif tajcwnf=uavonf? Ak'<0g'rSmrl ouf0if,Hk=unfr_ay:wGif tajcrjyKbJ jrifr_/ odr_/ em;vnfr_ay:wGifom tajccHavonf? Ak'<0g'pmayrsm; wGifawG@&dSaom o'<g [laom pum;vHk;udk trsm;tm;jzifh ‘ouf0ifr_/ ,Hk=unfr_’ [k bmomjyefavh &dS=u onf? odk@&mwGif ‘o'<g’ qdkonfrSm ‘,Hk=unfr_’ rnfumrwWr[kwf? udk,fwdkif ausauseyfeyf &Sif;&Sif; vif;vif; od&dSem;vnfI jzpfay:vmaom ‘pdwfcs,Hk=unfr_’ rdsK;jzpfayonf? trsm;em;vnfaom Ak'<0g' ESifh usrf;pmrsm;wGif omrefa&;om; oHk;pJG&mY o'<gqdkonfrSm bk&m;/ w&m;/ oHCmwdk@tm; ‘udk;uG,f,Hk=unf onf’ qdkaom t"dy`g,frdsK;&dSonfudkrl 0efcH&ayrnf? at'D 4 &mpkESpfqDu xif&Sm;cJhaom Ak'<tbd"rRmq&m}uD; to*F. tvdkt& o'<gwGif atmufyg vuQ%moHk;rdsK;&dSayonf? 1? ta=umif;t&mwpfckonf t[kwftrSef&dSonf jzpfonf[k jynfhpHkcdkifcHhpGm od&dSem;vnfjcif;/ 2? aumif;aomt&nftcsif;rsm;wGif yDwd&dSjcif;/ 3? &nfrSef;csufudk atmifjrif&&dSvdkaom qEN? 1 tjcm;bmom0ifwdk@ em;vnf=uaom ‘ouf0ifr_’ odk@r[kwf ‘,Hk=unfr_’ ponfwdk@onf Ak'<0g'ESifh ywfoufjcif; r&dSay? ,Hk=unfjcif; [laom udpPonf odjrifr_(tjynfhtpHkod&dSem;vnfr_) r&dSrSjzpfay:ayonf? odjrifem;vnfonfESifhwpfðydifeuf ,Hk=unfjcif;[laom jyemr&dSEdkifawmhacs? vufxJwGif ausmufrsuf&JG wpfvHk;udk qkyf0Sufxm;ygonf[k ajymygrl udk,fwdkifrsufpdjzifh rjrif&I ,Hk=unf&aom udpPr#om jzpfayonf? vuf0g;udkjzef@I ausmufrsuf&JGudk xkwfjyygv#if rsufpdjzifh udk,fwdkifjrif&jyDjzpfI ,Hk=unf&HkudpPr[kwfawmhay? Tonfudk&nfI a&S;usaom Ak'<usrf;pmrsm;wGif ‘ausmufrsuf&JG/ odk@r[kwf (zefcg;oD;)udk vuf0g;jyifwGif jrif&ouJhodk@ oabmaygufem;vnfonf’ [laom toHk;tEH_;rsm;udk azmfjyavh&dSonf? Ak'<. wynfhwyef; &[ef;wpfyg;jzpfaom rkoDv u tjcm; &[ef;wpfyg;tm; atmufygtwdkif; rdef@=um;zl;avonf- “igh&Sifo0dÏ/ udk;uG,fouf0if ,Hk=unfr_a=umifhr[kwfbJ =unf!dkjcif;/ udkif;&d_if;jcif;a=umifhr[kwfbJ wpfqifhpum; olrsm; ajym=um;Ivnf; r[kwfbJ/ rd&dk;zvm,Hk=unfr_a=umifhvnf; r[kwfbJ/ [kwfrSefavmuf ayonf [k }uHpnfpOf;pm;Ivnf; r[kwfbJ/ t,ltq trdsK;rdsK;udk awG;awm}uHq oabmusIvnf; r[kwfbJ b0.csKyfqHk;&monf edAŠmefjzpfonf[k usGEfkyfudk,fwdkif odjrifayonf?” 2 Ak'<&Sifawmfjrwfuvnf; “&[ef;wdk@/ udavom tnpfta=u;wdk@udk csGwfaq;ypfjcif;onf odaom/ jrifaom yk*d~KvftwGufomjzpfI rodaom/ rjrifaom yk*d~KvftwGuf r[kwfay” [k rdef@¹rufawmf rlcJhavonf? 3 odjcif;jrifjcif;onfomv#if y"mejzpfI ,Hk=unfjcif;rSm t&mr[kwfygacs? Ak'<. a'oemrsm;wGif “{[dydu” [kyg&dS&m vmI &_vSnfhavmh [kom zdwfac:ayonf? “vmI ,Hk=unfvufcHyg” [k rqdkay? tusGwfw&m;aygufa&mufjyD;aom yk*d~Kvfwdk@. ta=umif;udk azmfjy&mwGif Ak'<usrf;pmwdk@Y “jrLr_ef tnpfta=u;uif;aom opPmrsufpd("rRpuQK) yGifhcJhjyD?” “opPmw&m;udk rsufjrifjzpfayjyD/ opPmw&m;udk qGwfcl;rdayjyD”? “opPmw&m; udk od&dSayjyD/ opPme,fwGif;odk@ azmufxGif; 0ifa&mufrdacsjyD/ ,HkrSm;oHo, --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1? tbd"rRm orkpP,/ to*F (oHwdedauwH 1950/ pmrsufESm 6)? 2? oH,kwWedum, 2/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 117? 3? ‚ - 3/ pmrsufESm 152?
  25. 25. 25 Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm; e,fudk ausmfvGefoGm;cJhjyD/ ,drf;,dkifawGa0r_rS uif;vGwfayjyD/ ,xmblwuspGm tod^m%fjzifh trSefudk jrifayjyD” ponfjzifh a&;om;xm;ayonf? 1 udk,fawmfwdkif orRmorŠK'< oAŠ!kw a&$^m%fawmfudk &&dSonfh ta=umif;ESifh ywfoufI puQHKO'yg'd/ ^m%HO'yg'd/ ynmO'yg'd/ 0dZ…mO'yg'd/ tmavmaum O'yg'd ] ^m%f rsufpd xif&Sm; jzpfay:vm.? tod^m%f xif&Sm; jzpfay:vm.? ^m%fynm xif&Sm; jzpfay:vm.? 0dZ…m"gwf xif&Sm; jzpfay:vm.? tvif;a&mif xif&Sm; jzpfay:vm. - [k a[m=um;awmf rlcJhavonf? 2 tod^m%f odk@r[kwf ^m%fynmjzifh xdk;xGif;odjrifrSom (^m%'e) tusGwfw&m; &=uonfjzpfI ,Hk=unfouf0ifr_ oufoufjzifh usGwfwrf; 0ifEdkif=uonfr[kwfay? jAm[R%0g'wGif t,lonf;olwdk@u ‚wdk@rd&dk;zvm t,l0g'udk ouf0if,Hk=unfapI ‚0g'onf om trSefw&m;ppfppfjzpfonf[k t&rf;vufcHap&ef wdkufwGef;aecsdefwGif TAk'<. ^m%'evrf;pOfudk vlóuufrsm;vmavonf? wpfcsdefwGif xif&Sm;aom ya&m[dwfwpfpkonf Ak'<xHyg;odk@a&mufvmI Ak'<ESifh tcsdef=umjrifhpGm w&m;aqG;aEG;=uavonf? ‚wdk@txJwGif txl;^m%fynmpGrf;&nf xufjrufvSonf[k todtrSwfjyKjcif; cH&aom touf (16)ESpf&G,f umyËdutrnf&dS ykÀm;vli,fwpfOD;u Ak'<tm; tar;ykp>m ðyvkyfavonf? 3 “t&Sifa*gwr/ tpOftqufrjywf E_wfwdkuf&G&G &GwfzwfI qifhuJqifhuJ usufrSwfcJh&aom rd&dk; zvm a&S;a[mif;jAm[R%usrf;}uD;rsm; &dSygonf? Tusrf;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI jAm[R% vlrdsK;wdk@u “ 'grS trSefw&m;jzpfonf/ tjcm; b,f[mrSrrSef” [k wpfxpfcs ,Hk=unfqHk;jzwf=uygonf? t&Sifa*gwr/ tJ'D ta=umif;t&mESifh ywfoufI bmrsm;ajymvdkygovJ?” “jAm[R%vlrdsK;rsm;wGif ‘'grS trSefw&m;jzpfonf/ tjcm;b,f[mrSrrSef’ qdkwmudk udk,fwdkif jrifonf/ odonf[k ajymzl;ol wpfpHkwpfa,muf &dSygovm;” [k Ak'<u ar;jref;avonf? ykp>m&Sif ykÀm;av;u &dk;om;rSefuefpGmyif “r&dSygbk&m;” [kajz=um;avonf? “'gjzifh,if q&mwpfa,mufwavr#/ 'grSr[kwf aqGpOf 7 qufqif;oufcJhwJh q&mhq&mawGxJrS/ 'grSr[kwf 'Dusrf;}uD;awGudk a&;om;cJh=uwJh usrf;ðyyk*d~KvfawGxJu “'grS trSefw&m;jzpfonf/ tjcm; b,f[mrS rrSef” qdkwmudk jrifonf/ odonf[kajymzl;ol wpfa,mufwavrsm; &dScJhovm;”? “r&dScJhyg” “'gjzifh,if rsufrjrifawG wpfa,mufESifhwpfa,muf vufqifhurf; &yfae=uovdkaygh? yxrvlu rsufrjrif/ tv,fvluvJ rsufrjrif/ aemufqHk;vluvJ puQKtvif;r&dS? 'gha=umifh jA[R%vlrdsK;wdk@ jzpfaeyHk u rsufrjrifawG pDwef;ae=uovdkyJ vdk@ oabm&w,f?” xdk@aemuf Ak'<u xdkjA[R%ykÀm;wdk@tm; ta&;t}uD;qHk;aom =o0g'wpfckudk rdef@¹rufcJhavonf? “opPmw&m;udk xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufol ynm&dSonf T[momv#if trSefw&m;jzpfonf/ tjcm; bmrqdk rSm;,Gif;onf [kajymqdkjcif;iSm roifhacs?” opPmw&m; xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufjcif; oabmudk &Sif;vif; a[mjyyg&ef ykÀm;vkvifrsm;u awmif;yef av#mufxm;&mwGif “yk*d~KvfwpfOD;Y ,Hk=unfr_wpfck&dStHh/ “T[monf usGEfkyf. ,Hk=unfr_ jzpfyg onf” [kqdkaomf Ttcsdeftxd ‚onf trSefw&m;udk xdef;odrf; apmifha&Smufxm;onf rnfayonf? xdk@xufvGefI “T[mom trSefw&m;jzpfonf/tjcm;bmrqdk rSm;,Gif;onf” [k ,wdjywf qHk;jzwfr_udk rjyKtyfay? wpfenf;qdk&aomf yk*d~KvfwpfOD;wpfa,mufonf rdrdóuufovdk ,Hk=unfEdkifI “T[mudk usGEfkyf ,Hk=unf.” [kajymqdkEdkifyg.? Todk@ajymqdkonfhwdkifatmif trSefw&m;udk xdef;odrf;xm;ayao;onf? odk@aomf Todk@ rdrd,Hk=unf ouf0ifr_&dS&Hkr#jzifh ‚. ,Hk=unfr_onfom trSefw&m;jzpfI tjcm;bmrqdk --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1? oH,kwWedum,f 5/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 423/ 3/ pmrsufESm 103? rZdÆredum,f 3/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 19? 2? oH,kwf 5/ (ywp) pmrsufESm 422? 3? puôokwW/ trSwf 95/ rZdÆredum,f ?
  26. 26. 26 Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm; rSm;,Gif;onf[k rajymqdktyfay? ” 1 [k rdef@¹rufawmf rlcJhonf? t&mwpfck(t,ltqwpfrdsK;) udk pJGvrf;ESpfoufI tjcm;t&mrsm;(t,ltqrsm;)udk nHhzsif;onf [k EdSrfhcswwfjcif;udk ynm&dSwdk@u “taESmiftzJG@”[k orkwfa=umif; Ak'<u a[m=um;xm;ayonf? 2 w&Ha&mtcg Ak'<u wynfhom0ursm;tm; yËdpPorkyg'f w&m;udk a[m=um;awmfrl.? &[ef;rsm;u w&m;awmfudk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; od&Sdem;vnf=ua=umif; av#mufxm;=u.? xdktcg Ak'<u “tdk &[ef;wdk@/ T tvGef&Sif;vif;jywfom;vSaom w&m;udkawmifrS toifwdk@onf qkyfudkifxm;v#if/ ,k,ydkufaxG;xm;v#if/ jrwfEdk;pGm odrf;qnf;xm;v#if/ pJGvrf;aev#if/ w&m;awmfonf azmifESifhwla=umif;/ wpfbufurf;odk@ ul;cyfoGm;&efom toHk;ðy&rnfjzpfa=umif;/ qkyfudkifxm;&ef r[kwfa=umif; oifwdk@em;rvnf=uao;” [k rdef@ ¹rufawmfrlavonf? 3 wjcm;wpfae&mwGif w&m;awmfudk azmifESifh E_if;,SOfjyjyD;v#if wpfbufurf;odk@ ul;cyf&mY toHk;ðy &efomjzpfI ausmukef;xufwGif o,fydk;aqmif,loGm;&ef/ qkyfudkifxm;&ef r[kwfa=umif; xif&Sm;pGm Oyrm aqmif a[m=um;xm;cJhayonf? “tdk &[ef;wdk@/ vlwpfa,mufonf c&D;xGufcJh.? olonf us,fjyef@aom a&jyif}uD;wpfckodk@ qdkufa&mufvm.? TrSmbufurf;&dk;onf tEW&m,fxlajym.? tjcm;bufrSmrl ab;uif;&ef&Sif;jzpf.? ab;uif;&ef&Sif;aom xdkbufurf;odk@ avSvnf;roGm;/ ausmfjzwfoGm;&ef wHwm;vnf;r&dS? xdkolu pOf;pm;.? Tyifv,fa&jyifum; us,fjyef@vS.? Tbufurf;&dk;onf tEW&m,fxlajym.? tjcm;bufwGif ab;uif;&ef&Sif;.? xdkbufurf;odk@ avSvnf;roGm;/ ausmfjzwfoGm;&ef wHwm;vnf;r&dS? jruf/ opfom;/ opfudkif;ESifh opf&Gufrsm; pkaqmif;I azmifaqmuf&aomf aumif;avpG/ ‚azmifudktoHk;jyKI ig. ajcvuf rsm;jzifh avSmfcwfI wpfbufurf;odk@ ab;uif;pGm ul;oGm;aytHh?” Todk@pOf;pm;jyD;aemuf xdkolonf jrufajcmuf/ opfom;/ opfudkif;/ opf&Gufrsm;udk pkaqmif;I azmifwnfaqmuf.? ‚azmifudk toHk;ðyI rdrd. ajcvufwdk@jzifh avSmfcwfjyD;v#if wpfbufurf;odk@ ab;uif;pGmul;ajrmufoGm;cJh.? TuJhodk@ ul;ajrmufI wpfbufurf;odk@ a&mufjyD;aemuf ‚vlwGif “Tazmifonf ightwGuf tvGeftoHk;0ifcJhbd.? ig.ajcvufwkd@jzifh avSmfcwf&mwGif wpfbufurf;odk@a&mufatmif ydk@aqmifcJhay.? xdk@a=umifh Tazmifudk ig. ausmxufrSm vnf;aumif;/ OD;acgif;xufrSm vnf;aumif; o,f,loGm;&aomf aumif;aytHh” [k t}uHjzpfay:vm.? tdk-&[ef;wdk@/ toifwdk@ rnfodk@oabm&oenf;? xdkvlonf Tt}uHtwdkif; aqmif&Gufaomf azmifESifh ywfoufI avsmufywfpGmaqmif&Gufjcif; rnfygoavm? “rrnfygbk&m;”? 'gjzifh tb,fuJhodk@ aqmif&GufrS azmifESifhywfoufI avsmufywfpGm aqmif&Gufjcif; rnfrvJ? wpfbufodk@ ul;ajrmufjyD;aemuf Tvlu TuJhodk@ }uHpnfaytHh? “Tazmifonf ihgtwGuf tvGeftoHk;0ifcJh.? ig. ajcvufwdk@jzifh avSmfcwf&mwGif wpfzufurf;odk@a&mufatmif ulnDydk@aqmifcJhay.? Tazmifudk urf;wGif qJGwifxm;I vnf;aumif;/ urf;wGifuyfjyD; csnfaESmifIvnf;aumif;/ xm;cJhjyD;aomf usGEfkyfoGm;vdk&modk@ qufvufxGufcGg oGm;&aomf aumif;aytHh” Tt}uHtpnftwdkif; aqmif&GufrSom xdkazmifESifh ywfoufI avsmufywfpGm aqmif&Gufonf rnfayonf? tdk-&[ef;wdk@/ xdkenf;wlpGm azmifESifhwlaom w&m;"rRudk igbk&m;jyoawmfrlayjyD? wpfbufurf;odk@ ull;ajrmuf&ef twGufomjzpfI ,laqmifoGm;&ef (qJGudkifxm;&ef) r[kwfay? oif &[ef;wdk@onfvnf; w&m; "rRonf r*~ifazmifESifh wlnDa=umif; em;vnf oabmaygufygu aumif;rGefaomt&mrsm; ("rR) udkyif pGef@v$wf=u&ayrnf? raumif;rGefaom t&mrsm;(t"rR) udkrl pGef@v$wf=u&efrSm tb,fqdkbG,f &dSawmhtHh enf;? 4 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1? okwWedygw (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 151? 2? r[mw%SmocF,okwW/ trSwf 38/ rZdÆredum,f ? 3? rZdÆredum,f (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 260? 4? rZdÆredum,f (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 134/135?
  27. 27. 27 Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm; Ak'<.a'oemawmfrsm;onf vlom;wdk@tm; ab;uif;&m/ jidrf;csrf;&m/ aysmf&$if&m/ wnfjidrf&m edAŠmef odkd@ta&muf o,f,lydk@aqmif&efjzpfa=umif;udk TyHkjyifrSm aumif;pGmxif&Sm;vSayonf? Ak'<.a'oem wpf&yf vHk;onf T&nf&G,fcsufodk@ OD;wnfayonf? ^m%fynmupm;&efom Ak'<u t&m&mudk a[mjycJhonf r[kwfay? vufawG@oifjyaom q&mwpfql jzpfawmfrlonfhtavsmuf vlom;wdk@tm; jidrf;csrf;r_ESifh aysmf&$ifr_ udkay;pGrf;Edkifrnfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udkom a[m=um;jyoawmfrlayonf? wpf&Ha&mtcg jrwfpGmbk&m;onf aumordŠjynf&dS (,ck tvmAmbmh'f) &if;wdkufawmtkyfwGif oDwif;oHk;aeawmfrl.? opf&Gufwpfqkyfudk vufwGifudkifawmfrlI wynfh&[ef;wdk@tm; Todk@ Ak'<u ar;awmf rl.? “tdk &[ef;wdk@/ toifwdk@ rnfodk@xifjrifoenf;/ ig.vufwGif qkyfudkifxm;aom opf&GuftcsdK@ESifh tay:u opfawmrSm&dSaom opf&GufawG b,f[mu ydkrsm;ayoenf;”? “t&Sifbk&m;vufawmfwGif qkyf udkifxm;onfh opf&Gufrsm;rSm tenf;i,fr#om jzpfygonf? &if;wdkufawmtkyfrSm &dSwJh opf&Gufrsm;u tq rsm;pGmydkrdkrsm;ygonf bk&m;”? “TuJhodk@yJ &[ef;wdk@/ igbk&m;od&dSonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;teuf a[majymjyonfrSm tenf;i,f r#om jzpfayonf/ ra[majymcsefxm;onfrSm trsm;tjym;&dSonf/ tb,fha=umifh ra[mrajymbJ xm;o enf;? tudsK;aus;Zl; r&dSI/ edAŠmefodk@ ra&mufapEdkifI xdkta=umif;rsm;udk ra[majymbJxm;onf?” 1 Ak'<onf od&dSem;vnfaomfvnf; ra[m=um;bJxm;onfh ta=umif;rsm;udk tcsdK@ynm&Sifrsm;u yifyifyef;yef; óu;pm;I qifjcif}uHqae=uonfrSm tcsnf;EDS;tm;xkwfr_yif jzpfayonf? pdwful;,Of jyem rsm;jzpfay:apI ajrmfac:}uHqr_oufoufr#omjzpfaom tusdK;rrsm;onfh wuUdu (pdwfydkif;qdkif&m) ykp>mrsm; (Metaphysical)udk aqG;aEG;&ef Ak'<onf pdwfr0ifpm;acs? ‚wdk@udk “0g'uEWm&” (Wilderness of opinions) [lIom rSwf,lawmfrlonf? Todk@ Ak'<uoabmxm;awmfrlonfudk ‚.wynfh &[ef;rsm;wGif rauseyf oabmraygufaom &[ef;tcdsK@ &dScJh[efwlayonf? ta=umif;rl rmvkusykwW trnf&dS&[ef;wpfyg; onf olrauseyfr_udk azmfxkwfjyD;v#if pHwifavmufatmif xif&Sm;aom wuUduykp>m (10) ck udk Ak'<tm; av#mufxm;I tajzudk awmif;cHcJhayonf? 2 wpfae@oY rmvkusykwWonf urRXmef;cGifrSxI Ak'<xHyg;csOf;uyfjyD; &dScdk;0yfwGm; av#mufxm;onf rSm - “t&Sifbk&m;/ wynfhawmf wpfOD;wnf; bm0emyGm;rsm;aepOf pdwfY Ttwdkif; jzpfay:vmygonf? jrwfpGmbk&m;onf Tykp>mrsm;udk &Sif;vif;rjy/ vufrcH/ y,f&Sm;awmfrlonf- 1? p=um0Vmonf tpOftjrJwnfoavm/ 2? rwnfoavm/ 3? p=um0Vmonf tuef@towf&dSoavm/ 4? r&dSoavm/ 5? 0dnmOfonf um,ESifh twlwlyifavm/ 6? 0dnmOfuwoD;wjcm;/ um,u woD;wjcm;yifavm/ 7? wxm*wonf aoonf.tjcm;rJhY wnf&dSoavm/ 8? aoonf.tjcm;rJhY rwnf&dSoavm/ 9? aoonf.tjcm;rJhY (wpfòyifeuf) wnf&dS-rwnf&dSoavm/ 10? aoonf.tjcm;rJhY (wpfòyifeuf) rwnf&dS-rwnf&dSr[kwfoavm/ Tykp>mrsm;udk jrwfpGmbk&m;u ightm;&Sif;vif;rjyay? Ttcsufudk igrauseyf/ oabmròcuf/ bk&m;xHoGm;I ar;jref;rnf/ jrwfpGmbk&m;u &Sif;vif;a[mjyv#if &[ef;0wfjzifh qufvufI ‚xHY w&m; --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1? oH,kwf 5 (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 457? 2? plVrmvkusokwW trSwf 63/ rZdÆredum,f?
  28. 28. 28 Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm; usifhaexdkifrnf/ &Sif;vif;a[mjyjcif; rðyvkyfv#if &[ef;0wfudk pGef@ypfI xGufcGmoGm;awmhrnf? jrwfpGmbk&m; onf p=um0Vmonf tpOftjrJwnf&dSonfudk odygu ‚ta=umif;udk &Sif;vif;a[mjyygap/ jrwfpGmbk&m; onf p=um0Vmonf tpOftjrJrwnf&dSa=umif; odv#ifvnf; r&dSa=umif;ajymygap/ p=um0Vmonf tpOftjrJ wnf&dSonf/ p=um0Vmonf tpOftjrJrwnf&dSponfwdk@udk rodygu rodonfhtavsmuf ruG,fraxmufbJ “igrodbl;/ igrjrifbl;” [k jrwfpGmbk&m;u yGifhyGifhvif;vif;yJ ajymjy&efom&dSonf?” ,ae@urBmwGif oef;aygif;rsm;pGmaom vltaygif;wdk@onf tqdkyg wudUuykp>mrsm;ESifh tzdk;xdkufwef vSaom tcsdefrsm;udkðzef;ypfI rdrdudk,fudkrdrd pdwfrcsrf;omr_udk tv[ zefwD;ae=uayonf? rmvkusykwW tm; Ak'<u ajz=um;awmfrlaom w&m;rsm;onf xdkolrsm;twGuf tudsK;aus;Zl;rsm;pGm &dSayrnf? “rmvkusykwW/ igbk&m;u oifhtm; ‘rmvkusykwW/ vmavmh/ ighxHY &[ef;0wfvSnfhavmh/ 'Dykp>mrsm; udk ig&Sif;vif;a[mjyrnf’ [k ajymzl;ygovm;”? “rajymzl;ygbk&m;” “oifuaum/ ‘t&Sifbk&m;/ t&Sifbk&m;xHY &[ef;0wfygrnf/ Tykp>mrsm;udk &Sif;vif;ajymjyyg’ [k awmif;yefzl;/ av#mufxm;zl;ovm;”? “rav#mufxm;zl;yg bk&m;”? “rmvkusykwW/ tckawmifrS igbk&m;u oifhtm; ighxHvmI &[ef;ðyavmh/ oifhtm; Tta=umif; t&mrsm;udk &Sif;vif;a[mjyrnf[k rajym/ oifuvnf; t&Sifbk&m;xH &[ef;0wfI aexdkifygrnf/ Tykp>mrsm; udk ajz&Sif;jyawmfrlyg[k rav#mufxm;/ TuJhodk@jzpfjcif;a=umifh rnfolu rnfol@udk n‡Of;qJonf[k ac:qdk& rnfenf; toifvlrdkuf”? 1 “rmvkusykwW/ wpfpHkwpfa,mufaomolonf jrwfpGmbk&m;xHY Tykp>mrsm;udk rajzrcsif; &[ef; r0wf[k ajymjim;tHh/ ‚olonf wxm*wxHrS Tykp>mwdk@. tajzudkr&&dSbJ toufomv#if qHk;&H_;aumif; qHk;&H_;oGm;ayrnf?” “rmvkusykwW/ tu,fI vlwpfa,mufudk tqdyfvl;aomjrm; xdtHh/ ‚. rdwfo*F[ aqGrdsK; om;csif;wdk@u orm;wpfa,mufxH aqmif=uOf;oGm;tHh/ xdktcgwGif vlemu ‘usGEfkyftm; jrm;jzifhypfoludk rod&or# jrm;udk rðzwf&jyD/ jrm;ypform;onf cwdW, (ppfonfawmfwef;pm;) rsdK;EG,favm/ jAm[R% (&[ef; ykÀm;) trdsK;EG,fyifavm/ odk@r[kwf a0 (ukefonfv,fvkyf) twef;tpm;avm/ ok'<(Zmwfedrfh) xJu yifavm/ ol@trnf/ ol.aqGrdsK;trnfu tb,fjzpfoenf;/ t&yfjrifhovm;/ykovm;/ tv,ftvwf yJvm;/ tom;ta&u rnf;ovm;/ !dkovm;/ a&$a&miftqif;vm;/ b,f&Gm/ b,fòr@/ b,fed*Hk;u vmcJhoenf;? tb,fav;rdsK;jzifh ypfcGif;vdkufonfudkf rod&or# jrm;udk rðzwf&jyD/ rnfuJhodk@av;óu;udk toHk;ðy vdkufoenf;/ jrm;wHu rnfonfhtrdsK;tpm;jzpfoenf;/ jrm;wHay:wGifrnfonfh tarG;zGm;rsm; wyfxm; oenf;/ jrm;OD;udk rnfonfht&m0wˆKjzifh ðyvkyfxm;oenf;/’ ponfjzifh ar;jref;pHkprf;onf[k qdkygawmh/ xdkolonf ‚odvdkaom Tta=umif;t&mrsm; wpfckr#rod&dSEdkfifrD toufaoqHk;&ayrnf?” “rmvkusykwW/ Tenf;wlpGmyif wpfpHkwpfa,mufaomolonf p=um0Vmonf tpOftjrJ wnfoavm/ rwnfoavm tp&dSaom ykp>mwdk@udk rajzrcsif; jrwfpGmbk&m;xHY &[ef;r0wf[k ajymjim;tHh/ xdkolonf toufaoqHk;onfhwdkifatmif wxm*w xHrS Tykp>mrsm;. tajzwdk@udk &&dSrnf r[kwfay”? xdk@aemuf Ak'<onf rmvkusykwWtm; &[ef;0wfI olawmfaumif;w&m;usifhEdkif&ef Tt,ltq oabmw&m;rsm;tay: rwnf&dSa=umif; &Sif;vif;a[mjyawmfrlavonf? Tjyem&yfrsm;ESifh ywfoufI rnfuJhodk@ xifjrif,lqapumrl Zmwd/ Z&m/ Asm"d/ r&%/ aomu/ y&da'0/ 'kuQ/ a'gre wdk@ &dSjrJ&dSaernf? ‘Tb0Yyif ‚wdk@csKyfjidrf;&m (edAŠmef) udpPudkom igbk&m; a[m=um;awmfrlayonf’ [k rdef@jrGufawmfrlav onf? --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1? ESpfOD;pvHk;vGwfvGwfvyfvyf &dSonf? wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; uwd0efcHcsufrsm;jzifh csnfaESmifxm;r_r&Sd[k qdkvdkonf?
  29. 29. 29 Ak'<bmom pdwfaeoabmxm; “rmvkusykwW/ 'ga=umifh rnfonfhta=umif;t&mrsm;udk igbk&m;a[m=um;oenf;/ rnfonfh ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk igbk&m; ra[m=um;/ &Sif;vif;rjyoenf; qdkonfwdk@udk aumif;pGm ESvHk;oGif;xm; avmh? rnfonfhta=umif;t&mrsm;udk igbk&m; ra[m=um;oenf;/ p=um0Vmonf tpOftjrJwnfoavm/ rwnfoavm/ (txufazmfjyyg t,ltq 10 rdsK;) ponfwdk@udk igbk&m; &Sif;vif;azmfjy a[m=um;awmfrrl? rmvkusykwW/ Tta=umif;t&mrsm;udk igbk&m; tb,fa=umifh ra[m=um;ayoenf;? Tt,ltq oabmw&m;rsm;onf toHk;r0if/ t&mra&muf? olawmfjrwfwdk@. vkyfief;usifhpOfESifh tajccH qufpyfjcif; r&dS? jiD;aiG@&HG&Smjcif;/ wG,fwmr_uif;jcif;/ csKyfjidrf;jcif;/ csrf;ajrhjcif;/ xdk;xGif;odjrifjcif;/ edAŠmefodk@a&mufjcif; tvdk@iSm axmufyHhulnDr_rðy? xdk@a=umifh Tta=umif;t&mrsm;udk oifhtm;ra[m=um;jcif;jzpfonf? 'gjzifhv#if rmvkusykwW/ oifhtm; tb,fw&m;rsm;udk igbk&m; a[m=um;ayoenf;/ oifhtm; 'kuQta=umif;udk &Sif;vif;a[m=um;onf? 'kuQjzpfay:jcif;(ork',) ta=umif;/ 'kuQcsKyfjidrf;jcif;(eda&m") ta=umif;/ 'kuQcsKyfjidrf;&m a&muf&efvrf;pOf ('kuQeda&m" *grdedyËdy'g) 1 ta=umif;udk a[m=um;onf? tb,fha=umifh Tta=umif;t&mrsm;udk a[m=um;ayoenf;? rmvkusykwW/ Tta=umif;t&m rsm;onf toHk;0if t&ma&mufonf? olawmfjrwfwdk@. vkyfief;usifhpOfESifh tajccH qufpyfv#uf &dSonf? jiD;aiG@&HG&Smjcif; jzpfaponf/ wG,fwmr_uif;aponf/ csKyfjidrf;aponf/ csrf;ajrhaponf/ xdk;xGif;odjrifjcif;/ edAŠmefodk@a&mufjcif; tvdk@iSmom axmufyHhulnDr_ ðyonf? xdk@a=umifh Tta=umif;t&mrsm;udk igbk&m; &Sif;vif; a[mjyjcif;jzpfayonf?” 2 rmvkusykwWtm; Ak'<u &Sif;vif;a[mjyaom opPmav;yg;w&m; . ta=umif;udk ,ck usGEfkyfwdk@ avhvm=uaytHh? --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1? TopPmav;yg;w&m;rsm;udk aemuftcef; 4 wGif &Sif;vif;azmfjyxm;onf? 2? Ak'<. qdkqHk;rpum;onf rmvkusykwWtm; vdktyfaom tusdK;udkjyD;ap[ef &dSayonf? ta=umif;rl tjcm;wpfae&mwGif rmvkusykwWonf Ak'<xHodk@wpfzefqnf;uyfjyefI w&m;cH,ljyD;aemuf &[EWmjzpfoGm;a=umif; azmfjyxm;ayonf? t*FkwdˆKvf (udkvHbdk 1929) pmrsufESm 345/ 346?
  30. 30. 30 ttttcccceeeeff;;ff;;((((2222)))) t&d, opPmav;yg; yyyyxxxxrrrr tttt&&&&dd,,ooooppppPPmmPPmm - ''''kkuukkuuQQQQ Am&m%oDteD; (qm&feof) ÁodywewGif w&m;usifhazmfusifhzuf jzpfcJhonfh &[ef;ig;yg;tm; w&m;OD; 1 a[m&mwGif &Sif;vif; a[m=um;awmfrlcJhaom t&d,opPmav;yg; ( pwWm&d t&d, opPmed) wGif Ak'<a'oemawmf. tqDtESpfonf udef;atmif;wnf&dSavonf? rlv ygVdawmfrsm;wGif awG@&dS&onfh T w&m;OD;a'oemawmfwGif opPmav;yg;w&m;udk tusOf;csHK;Iom azmfjyxm;ayonf? odk@&mwGif a&S;tusqHk; Ak'<pmay usrf;*efrsm;wGifrl ae&mtESH@tjym;Y opPmav;yg; w&m;rsm;udk enf;trdsK;rdsK;jzifh xyfwvJvJ tao;pdwf cJGjcm;&Sif;vif;xm;ayonf? xdkpmayusrf;*efyg &nf!$ef;udk;um;csufESifh &Sif;vif;csufrsm;udk vufpJGðyI t&d,opPmav;yg;w&m;udk avhvmoHk;oyfygu Ak'<. t"du a'oemawmfrsm;udk rlvygVdawmfrsm;wGif yg&dSonfhtwdkif; wdusrSefuefpGm od&dSem;vnfEdkif=uayrnf? t&d,opPmav;yg; [lonf- 1? 'kuQ2 - 'kuQ/ 2? ork', - 'kuQ.tp/ odk@r[kwf jzpfay:&jcif;/ 3? eda&m" - 'kuQ. csKyfjidrf;&jcif;/ 4? r*~ - 'kuQ. csKyfjidrf;&modk@ !$efjy a&S;&_onfhvrf;? yyyyxxxxrrrr tttt&&&&dd,,ooooppppPPmmPPmm - ''''kkuukkuuQQ QQ yxrt&d,opPm ('kuQt&d,opPm) udk tm;vHk;aomynm&Sifwdkif;vdkyif ‘yifyef;qif;&Jjcif; t&d, opPm’ [k bmomjyefqdkavh &dS=ujyD; Ak'<0g't&qdkv#if avmuY aexdkifr_onf ‘yifyef;qif;&Jr_’ r#om jzpfonf [k t"dy`g,faumuf,l=uonf? bmomjyefyHkESifh t"dy`g,faumuf,lcsuf ESpfckpvHk;onf auseyfzG,f r&dS&Hkomru xifa,mifxifrSm;yif jzpfaponf? TuJhodk@ usOf;usOf;ESifh tvG,ftvGwf bmomjyefjcif;/ tay:,du t"dy`g,faumuf,ljcif;rsm;twGuf Ak'<0gponf tqkd;bufudkom =unfhwwfaom raumif;jrif 0g'[k vltrsm;tm; xifjrifvGJrSm;aponf? Ak'<0g'onf tqdk;tysufbufudkom wpfbufowf=unfhwwfaom 0g'vnf;r[kwf/ taumif;buf tjzpfbufudkom jrifwwfaom 0g'vnf;r[kwfa=umif; a&S;OD;pGmxkwfazmf&ayrnf? avmuESifh b0. wu,fyuwd tjzpfrSefudkom qifjcifoHk;oyf&um; Ak'<0g'onf obm0"rRtwdkif; &_jrifaom0g'jzpfonf [k omqdk&ayrnf? ‚0g'onf ta=umif;t&m[lor#udk ,xmblwusatmif avhvmoHk;oyfonf? Ak'<0g' onf pdwful;,OfavmuY arhavsmhaysmfyg;aeap&ef arSmufrSm;aom ESpfodrfhr_udkvnf;ray;? tjypfrsm; tEW&m,frsm;udk awG;awmI pdk;&drfaomu a&mufaeatmif ajcmufvSef@ EdSyfpufr_vnf;rðy? rdrd. yuwd tppftrSef ywf0ef;usifavmu. tajctae tjzpfoepfrSefudk twdtus ,xmblwusus ajymjyI vHk;0 vGwfvyfa&;/ jidrf;csrf;a&;/ wnfjidrfa&;ESifh csrf;ajrhaysmf&$ifa&;udk &Edkif&ef vrf;!$ef jyoay;ayonf? orm;wpfOD;onf a&m*gtajctaeudk ‘tvGefpdk;&drfzG,f&dSonf’ [k csJ@xGifajymqdkI ar#mfvifhcsufr&dS awmh[k xifjrifap.? tjcm;orm;wpfOD;u rodrvdrRmpGm ‘rnfonfha&m*grS r&dS/ aq;uko&ef rvdkyg’ [k ajymI vlemtm;arSmufrSm;aom ESpfodrfhr_udk ay;.? yxrorm;tm; tqdk;bufudkom =unfhwwfol[lI vnf;aumif;/ 'kwd,orm;tm; taumif;bufudkom =unfhwwfol[lI vnf;aumif;/ ac:qdkEdkifyg.? ESpfOD; --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1? "rRpuUy0wWeokwW ‘opPmw&m;puf0ef;udk vSnfhvnfapjcif;’ r[m0*~/ (tvGwf*gr/ pmrsufESm 9)? oH,kwfedum,f 5 (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 420? 2? 'kuQ - Ta0g[m&udk atmufwGif azmfjyygta=umif;rsm;a=umifh t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh teuft"dy`g,f rzGifhawmhyg?
  31. 31. 31 yxr t&d,opPm pvHk;yif nDwlnDr# a=umufrufzG,f aumif;ayonf? wwd,orm;url a&m*g. vuQ%mudk rSefuefpGm ppfaq;I a&m*g.oabmESifh jzpfjcif;ta=umif;udk od&dSem;vnfoGm;.? aysmufuif;atmif ukoEdkifa=umif; &Sif;vif;pGmodjrif&um; owdW&dS&dSjzifh ydkifEdkifpGmukoav&m vlem toufcsrf;omavawmhonf? Ak'<onf wwd,orm;ESifh wlawmfrlI urBmavmu. tema&m*grsm;udk ukoay;&ef vdrRmusGrf;usifaom avmu"gwfynm&Sif orm;awmf}uD; (bdouU/ aboZ…*k&k) jzpfawmfrlayonf? ygVdpum;vHk; 'kuQ (ouUw - 'kc) onf omreftoHk;wGif ‘qif;&JcH&jcif;’/ ‘emusifjcif;’/ ‘0rf;enf; ylyefjcif;’/odk@r[kwf ‘òijiifqif;&Jjcif;’ [lI ‘aysmf&$ifjcif;’/ ‘oufomjcif;’/ ‘ryifyef;jcif;’ paom okc. qef@usifbuf teuft"dy`g,fudk aqmifonfrSm rSefygonf? odk@&mwGif Ak'<. avmuESifh b0tay:tjrifudk azmfxkwfaqmifaom yxrt&d,opPm tjzpfjzifh toHk;ðyxm;onfh ‘'kuQ’ wGif ‚wdk@xuf eufeJonfh t"dy`g,f ('eÏ) &dSI tvGefydkrdk us,fjyef@vSaomteufudk aqmifayonf? yxrt&d,opPm. ‘'kuQ’ wGif‘qif;&JcH&jcif;’ [lonfh omrefteuf xif&Sm;pGmyg&dSa=umif; 0efcHyg onf? odk@&mwGif ‚tjyif ydkrdkeufeJonfh oabmrsm;udkaqmifaom ‘csGwf,Gif;jcif;’ ‘rwnfjrJjcif;’ ‘[if;vif;Avmjzpfjcif;’ ‘tESpfom&j'yfuif;rJhjcif;’ paom t"dy`g,frsm;vnf; yg0ifayonf? yxr t&d,opPm jzpfaom 'kuQ pum;vHk;. us,f0ef;aom t"dy`g,frsm;udk tjynfhtpHk csKyfiHkEdkifonfh bmomjcm; pum;wpfvHk;udk &SmazG&ef cJ,Of;vSayonf? xdk@a=umifh qif;&JcH&jcif;/ emusifjcif; ponfwdk@jzifh vG,fulpGm jyefqkdvdkufI teuft"dy`g,f rjynfhrpHk rSm;rSm;,Gif;,Gif; jzpfaprnfxuf bmomrjyefbJ ‘'kuQ’ [lIyif oHk;pJGonfu ydkrdkoifhjrwfayonf? 'kuQ qif;&Jjcif;&dSonf[k a[majymjcif;jzifh avmuwGif aysmf&$ifr_okcr&dS[k Ak'<u jiif;qdkawmfrljcif; r[kwfay? &[ef;rsm;ESifh 0wfa=umifrsm;twGufyg avmuD avmukwW&m ESpfjzmaomCmersm;wGif aysmf&$ifr_ okc trdsK;rdsK;&dSa=umif; Ak'<u 0efcHawmfrlayonf? Ak'<a'oemawmfrsm; pkaygif;xm;&m rlvedum,fig;&yf ygVdawmfwdk@wGif tygt0ifjzpfonfh t*FkwdˆKvfedum,fY (okcged) [k aysmf&$ifcsrf;ajrhr_rdsK;pHk pm&if;udk zwf&_& onf? tdrfaxmifb0wGif csrf;omr_/ &[ef;b0wGifcsrf;omr_/ umr*k%fpnf;pdrf csrf;omr_/ awmxGuf pGef@pm; jcif;. csrf;omr_/ cifrifwG,fwmjcif;. csrf;omr_/ pGef@ypfa&SmifcGmoGm;jcif;. csrf;omr_/ udk,fcsrf;omr_/ pdwf csrf;omr_ ponfwdk@jzpfayonf? 1 odk@&mwGif ‚wdk@tm;vHk;onf 'kuQwGif tusHK;0if=uonf [k qdkxm;ay onf? txufwef; bm0emvkyfief;jzifh &tyfaom omrefvlwdk@ em;vnfonfh 'kuQ. t&dyfta,mifr#yif r,Sufoef;/ uif;&Sif;aom okcoufouf[kyif qdkEdkifavmufaom tvGef=unfvif oef@pifonfh avmukwW&m psmef tajctaeudkvnf;aumif;/ okca0'em/ 'kuQa0'emwdk@ uif;vGwfI OayuQmESifh odr_omv#if&dSaom psmeftajctaeudkvnf;aumif; xdkuJhodk@ tqifhtwef; jrifhrm;vSonfh avmukwW&m psmef t*Fg&yfrsm;udkyif 'kuQpm&if;wGif oGwfoGif;xm;ayonf? rZdÆredum,f(rlvedum,f ig;&yftygt0if) yg okwfwpfokwfwGif xdkxdk psmefrsm;. avmukwW&mokcudk csD;rGrf;jyD;aemuf ‚wdk@onf rwnfrjrJ/ qif;&Jazmufjyefwwfonf? (tedpPm/ 'kuQm/ 0dy&d%mr"rRm)2 [k a[m=um;xm;ayonf? TY 'kuQ[laom pum;vHk;udk twdtvif; xifxif&Sm;&Sm; toHk;ðyxm;a=umif; owdðy=u&ayrnf? omref teuft"dy`g,f t& qif;&Jjcif;&dSaeI 'kuQ [k ,l&onfr[kwf? rwnfjrJaom oabmjzpfI 'kuQ[k rSwf&onf? (,'edpPH/ wH 'kuQH)? Ak'<onf wu,fyuwd wnf&dSaom tjzpfrSef/ tajctaerSefrsm;udk ,xmblwuspGm qifjcif oHk;oyfawmfrlonf? avmutwGif; aexdkif&mYvnf;aumif;/ umr*k%fpnf;pdrfrsm;udk cHpm;&mwGif vnf;aumif; ta=umif;jcif;&m oHk;ckudk &Sif;vif;pGm odem;vnfxm;&rnf[k rdef@¹rufcJhavonf? 1? wyfrufom,mjcif;/ odk@r[kwf csdKjrdef cHpm;jcif; (tm')? --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1? t*FkwdˆKvf (udkvHbdk 1929) pmrsufESm 49? 2? r[m'kuQuQE<okwW/ rZdÆredum,f twJG 1 (ywp)/ pmrsufESm 90?
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