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INTRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL LAMPS
NAME SAURABH DAYAL SINGH
BRANCH ELECTRICAL -01
SUBJECT ELEMENTS OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING...
As we know that almost all human activities depends on light. Sun is a
prime natural source of light but artificial lighti...
Electrical lighting has following advantages :
1. Cleanliness
2. Easy to control
3. Economical
4. Easy to handle
5. Steady...
Definitions and Common Terms
 Lumen
• 1 lumen = the photometric equivalent of the watt
• 1 lumen = luminous flux per m2 o...
 Installed load efficacy
• Average maintained illuminance on a working plane: lux/W/m2
 Installed load efficiency ratio
...
6
ColorColor
TemperatureTemperature
ScaleScale
Cool White - 4100K
Daylight Fluo - 6500K
North Sky - 8500K
Warm White - 300...
Efficiency
• Lighting efficiency is expressed as lumens output/wattage input.
– Ranges from 4 to 150 lumens/watt.
Lamp Lumen Depreciation
• As lamps age, they lose a certain amount of output.
• Old T12 fluorescents can lose up to 30% of...
Luminaires
• Luminaire = Lighting fixture
– Lamps
– Lamp sockets
– Ballasts
– Reflective material
– Lenses, refractors, lo...
Bulb
On 21-22 October 1879, Edison and
his staff conducted their first
successful experiments with a
carbon-filament lamp ...
History of Incandescent Bulbs
• It is widely regarded that Thomas Alva Edison
invented the first reasonably practical
inca...
Types of Lighting
1. Carbon arc lamp
2. Incandescent/Halogens.
3. Fluorescents.
4. High Intensity Discharge (HID).
5. Blen...
The lamp is a spark or electric arc through the air
between two carbon rods. The rods must have a gap
in between of the ri...
Advantages:
-Super bright light, capable of lighting a large length of street or a large factory
interior
-Was the ONLY el...
Incandescent Lamps
Working :-
The glowing wire is called a filament.
Filaments are made of materials that
resist the flow ...
Incandescent Lamps
• One of the oldest electric lighting
technologies.
• Light is produced by passing a
current through a ...
• High CRI (100) – Warm Color (2700K)
• Halogen 2900K to 3200K)
• Inexpensive
• Excellent beam control
• Easily dimmed – n...
Properties of Metal for Filament
1. High melting point : so that it can be operated at high
temperature.
2. High specific ...
Types of Incandescent Bulbs
• Standard incandescent
– Most common yet the most inefficient
– Larger wattage bulbs have a h...
• Step 1: Tungsten atoms evaporate from the hot filament and move toward the cooler wall of
the bulb.
• Step 2: Tungsten, ...
Advantages:
*Great for small area lighting
*Good color rendering: CRI of 100 which is the best possible
*Cheap to produce
...
Tungsten-Halogen Lamps
• A type of incandescent lamp.
• Encloses the tungsten filament in
a quartz capsule filled with
hal...
 Advantages:
• More compact
• Longer life
• More and whiter light
 Disadvantages:
• Cost more
• Increased IR and UV
• Ha...
Fluorescent Lamps
• Most common commercial lighting technology.
• High Efficicacy: up to 100 lumens/watt.
• Improvements m...
Working :
A choke is connected in series with the tube which act as a blast and
provide a high voltage at starting glow in...
• Configurations
– Linear (8 ft., 4 ft., 2 ft., 1 ft.)
– U bend (fit in a 2 ft. x 2 ft.
fixture).
– Circular (rare, obsole...
Types of Fluorescents
Compact fluorescent•Tube fluorescent
Schematic of Fluorescent Lamp
Phosphor crystals Mercury atom Electron Electrode
Advantages of Fluorescent Tube
1. Voltage fluctuation has very small effect on light output.
2. The luminous efficiency is...
Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs)
• Fluorescent lamp that is small in
size (~2 in. diameter, 3 to 5 in. in
length).
• Devel...
Compact Fluorescent
•Excellent color available – comparable to incandescent
•Many choices (sizes, shapes, wattages, output...
Compact Fluorescent Lamps
• Use ¼ the power of an
incandescent for an equivalent
amount of light. (an 18-watt CFL
is equiv...
Ballasts
• Auxiliary component that
performs 3 functions:
– Provides higher starting
voltage.
– Provides operating voltage...
Ballast Factor
•DEFINITION: The fraction of rated lamp lumens produced by a specific lamp-
ballast combination
•APPLICATIO...
Ballast Circuit Types
• Instant Start Ballast – starts lamp instantly with higher starting voltage.
Efficient but may shor...
High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps
High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps
• produces light by means of an
electric arc between tungsten
electrodes housed insid...
High Intensity Discharge Lamps
• Arc tube can be filled by various types of gases and metal salts.
• HID lamps are used in...
Efficacy
This is the ratio of light output from a lamp to the electric power it
consumes and is measured in lumens per wat...
High Intensity Discharge Lamps
• Types of HIDs
– Mercury Vapor (obsolete)
– Sodium Vapor
• High pressure
• Low pressure
– ...
Working Principle :
When the supply is switched ON, full
voltage is applied across main and starting
electrodes. This volt...
Mercury Vapor Lamps
• Oldest HID lamp
• Consists of: arc tube with mercury and argon gas and
quartz envelope, third electr...
Advantages:
- Good efficiency (lamps after 1980s have a high lumen per watt rating)
- Color rendering is better than that ...
Sodium Vapor Lamp
Working Principle :
An electric discharge lamps require a high voltage at staring and low voltage
during...
Types of sodium lamps
• High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamps
• Low Pressure Sodium (LPS) Lamps
High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamps
• Used in outdoor and industrial
applications
• Consist of: ballast, high- voltage
electr...
Advantages:
-Good efficiency (lumens per watt)
-Smaller size than LPS or fluorescent, the HPS fits into many fixture types...
Low Pressure Sodium (LPS) Lamps
• Commonly included in the HID family
• Highest efficacy: 100 - 200 lumen/Watt
• Poorest q...
Advantages:
- Very efficient lamp
- Powerful lamp for use of large areas
- Despite a warm up time of 5-10 minutes it resta...
Metal Halide Lamps
• Most common HID in use today.
• Recent Improvements.
– Allow higher pressure & temperature.
– Better ...
Circuit diagram
Working:-
• Step 1: Metal atoms move from the hot electric arc toward the cooler arc tube wall
where the halides are.
• St...
Advantages:
*More pure white light than the popular HPS lamps, close to daylight
frequencies, which allows it to be used f...
Blended Lamps
• “Two-in-one”: 2 light sources in 1
gas filled bulb
• Quartz mercury discharge
tube
• Tungsten filament
• S...
Neon Lamp
Working :
When the supply is switched ON at primary side of transformer, a voltage
of 10000 V develops across se...
Applications :
Neon lamps are generally used for advertising. Most of letters having
two ends at which electrodes are plac...
Advantages
*Good lumen per watt performance
*Neon performs more reliably in cold weather than hot cathode
fluorescent ligh...
Halogen Lamp
• When the supply is given to the
lamp, a filament glows and
produce light. The halogen in
addition to inert ...
Advantages of Halogen Lamp
1. It is smaller in size.
2. It does not need any blast.
3. Good colors can be obtained.
4. Exc...
Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
• Latest Lighting Technology.
• Invented in 1962.
• In the past, used as indicator lights, aut...
• Newest type of energy efficient lamp
• Two types:
• red-blue-green array
• phosphor-coated blue lamp
• Emit visible ligh...
Light Emitting Diodes
• Lower energy consumption.
• Longer lifetime (50,000 to
100,000 hrs).
• Smaller size.
• Faster swit...
• LEDs create light by electroluminescence in
a semiconductor material. Electroluminescence is
the phenomenon of a materia...
LED Replacement Lamps for a 4-ft. Fluorescent Fixture
LED Applications
Successfully used today for many
markets
• Signs & Traffic signals (most
common)
• Displays (change color...
Advantages:
- Energy efficient source of light for short distances and small areas. The typical LED
requires only 30-60 mi...
Comparison of LED with a Fluorescent Lamp
EverLED-TR
Popular T8 Brand
Fluorescent
Watt Rating, typical B.F. = 0.8 22W 34W
...
69
Comparison: LED to Ceramic Metal HalideComparison: LED to Ceramic Metal Halide
Cree LED Lighting LRP38 – Total Wattage ...
Comparing lamps
Type of Lamp
Lum / Watt
Color Rendering
Index
Typical Application Life (Hours)
Range
Avg
.
Incandescent 8-...
Energy Efficiency: Light Sources in the 20th Century
Induction Lights
• Light source in which the power required to generate light is transferred
from the outside of the lamp ...
Working :-
• Induction Lamps create light by using an electromagnetic field to excite mercury
particles mixed in an inert ...
Induction Applications
• Applications where maintenance is expensive and/or difficult
• 24 hour a day.7 days a week applic...
Advantages:
-Longer life: no electrodes, electrodes fail in normal fluorescent lamps shortening
life, the tungsten thins a...
Exit Signs
• Old incandescent exit signs used (2)
20-watt incandescent lamps.
– At $0.08/kWh, energy cost for 1
sign = $28...
Outdoor Lighting
• Older technology for outdoor
lighting
– High pressure sodium
– Metal Halide
• Newer technology
– Compac...
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Hazardous Waste Disposal
Hazardous Waste Lamps will now be regulated under the Federal Universal
Waste Rule which was firs...
Mercury Content of Lamps
TYPICAL MERCURY CONTENT OF VARIOUS LAMPS
250 watt Metal Halide lamp 38 mg
250 watt High Pressure ...
Change from Old to New
and Save Energy
OLD TECHNOLOGY =>
• T12 Fluorescent – 4’ and 8’ Systems
• Magnetic Ballasts
• Incan...
HID Upgrade to Fluorescent Lamps
• 400-Watt Metal Halide = 455 watts input
• 6-Lamp T8 Fixture = 234 watts
Lighting
THANK YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENTION

ELECTRICAL LAMPS AND THEIR TYPES
ELECTRICAL LAMPS AND THEIR TYPES
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ELECTRICAL LAMPS AND THEIR TYPES

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ELECTRICAL LAMPS AND THEIR TYPES

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL LAMPS NAME SAURABH DAYAL SINGH BRANCH ELECTRICAL -01 SUBJECT ELEMENTS OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING SUBJECT CODE 2110005 ROLL NO 13EE010
  2. 2. As we know that almost all human activities depends on light. Sun is a prime natural source of light but artificial lighting plays almost main role in our daily life. These artificial lights are produced by mechanical lamps and electrical lamps. But due to poor performance the mechanical light are totally replaced by electrical lights. The electrical lighting are mainly used for decorative purpose, advertising, traffic control , medical field and street lighting etc. Introduction
  3. 3. Electrical lighting has following advantages : 1. Cleanliness 2. Easy to control 3. Economical 4. Easy to handle 5. Steady output 6. Better reliability 7. Suitable for almost all purposes etc. Electrical Lighting
  4. 4. Definitions and Common Terms  Lumen • 1 lumen = the photometric equivalent of the watt • 1 lumen = luminous flux per m2 of a sphere with 1 m radius and a 1 candela isotropic light source at the centre • 1 watt = 683 lumens at 555 nm wavelength  Lux • metric unit of measure for illuminance on a surface: 1 lux = 1 lumen / m2  Luminous intensity (I) • measured in Candela (cd)  Luminous flux (lm) • 4π x luminous intensity
  5. 5.  Installed load efficacy • Average maintained illuminance on a working plane: lux/W/m2  Installed load efficiency ratio • Target load efficacy / Installed load  Rated luminous efficacy • Rated lumen output of the lamp / rated power consumption • Lumens per watt  Room index • Ratio for the plan dimensions of the room  Target load efficiency • Installed load efficacy considered achievable under best efficiency • Lux/W/m²  Utilization factor • A measure of the effectiveness of the lighting scheme
  6. 6. 6 ColorColor TemperatureTemperature ScaleScale Cool White - 4100K Daylight Fluo - 6500K North Sky - 8500K Warm White - 3000K HPS - 2100K Halogen – 3100K Incandescent – 2700K
  7. 7. Efficiency • Lighting efficiency is expressed as lumens output/wattage input. – Ranges from 4 to 150 lumens/watt.
  8. 8. Lamp Lumen Depreciation • As lamps age, they lose a certain amount of output. • Old T12 fluorescents can lose up to 30% of output over their life. • New T8 fluorescents maintain up to 95% of original lumens. • This depreciation must be accounted for when installing new lighting system.
  9. 9. Luminaires • Luminaire = Lighting fixture – Lamps – Lamp sockets – Ballasts – Reflective material – Lenses, refractors, louvers – Housing • Directs the light using reflecting and shielding surfaces.
  10. 10. Bulb On 21-22 October 1879, Edison and his staff conducted their first successful experiments with a carbon-filament lamp in a vacuum. The filament was made from a piece of carbonized thread. By New Year's he was demonstrating lamps using carbonized cardboard filaments to large crowds at the Menlo Park laboratory. A year later, Edison began manufacturing commercial lamps using carbonized Japanese bamboo as filaments.
  11. 11. History of Incandescent Bulbs • It is widely regarded that Thomas Alva Edison invented the first reasonably practical incandescent lamp, using a carbon filament in a bulb containing a vacuum. Edison's first successful test occurred in 1879. • There were earlier incandescent lamps, such as one by Heinrich Goebel made with a carbon filament in 1854. This incandescent lamp had a carbonized bamboo filament and was mentioned as lasting up to 400 hours. At least some sources regard Goebel as the inventor of the incandescent lamp. Thomas Edison
  12. 12. Types of Lighting 1. Carbon arc lamp 2. Incandescent/Halogens. 3. Fluorescents. 4. High Intensity Discharge (HID). 5. Blended lamp 6. Light Emitting Diode.
  13. 13. The lamp is a spark or electric arc through the air between two carbon rods. The rods must have a gap in between of the right size. If the gap is too big than the arc will flicker more or may go out, if the gap is to narrow than it will produce less light. The first carbon was made of charcoal (made from wood). The carbon substance is vaporized in the high temperature of the arc (around 6500 F, 3600 C). The carbon vapor is highly luminous (very bright) and this is why we use carbon in the lamp. This light is much more useful and bright than that of an arc between steel like in the Jacobs Ladder example photo below. The carbon vapor and normal air ionizes easily which helps make light. When the atoms of the carbon and air ionize it means they give up and take on electrons. This happens as electric current passes from one electrode (in this case one of the carbon rods) to the other electrode. Lighting ionizes the air that is passes through CARBON ARC LAMP
  14. 14. Advantages: -Super bright light, capable of lighting a large length of street or a large factory interior -Was the ONLY electric light available to light large areas from 1800 - 1901 -Was cheaper to light streets with the arc lamp than gas or oil lamps Disadvantages: -Carbon rods had to be replaced after a short period of time, this became a full time job in a city -Produces dangerous UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C rays -Created a buzzing sound and flickering as the light burned -Created large amounts of RFI (radio frequency interference) -Dangerous: it was a fire hazard, many theaters burned as a result of the excessive heat or sparks emitted, also the unenclosed lamp could easily electrocute or severally burn technicians. -Carbon Monoxide emissions (bad for indoor use!) It only worked in the past because buildings were poorly insulated and fresh air could enter. Some of today's energy efficient buildings are almost air tight.
  15. 15. Incandescent Lamps Working :- The glowing wire is called a filament. Filaments are made of materials that resist the flow of current. Current flowing through a material of high resistance (like carbon or tungsten) generates heat and makes the material glow or become incandescent. The power lines and lead wires are made with materials of low resistance like copper. Thus they do not get hot.
  16. 16. Incandescent Lamps • One of the oldest electric lighting technologies. • Light is produced by passing a current through a tungsten filament. • Least efficient – (4 to 24 lumens/watt). • Lamp life ~ 1,000 hours.
  17. 17. • High CRI (100) – Warm Color (2700K) • Halogen 2900K to 3200K) • Inexpensive • Excellent beam control • Easily dimmed – no ballast needed • Immediate off and on • No temperature concerns – can be used outdoors • 100, 75, 60 and 40 watt lamps will be going away per 2007 law beginning 2012
  18. 18. Properties of Metal for Filament 1. High melting point : so that it can be operated at high temperature. 2. High specific resistance : so that it produces more heat. 3. Low temperature coefficient : so that filament resistance may not change at operating temperature. 4. Low vapor pressure ; so that it may not vaporize 5. High ductile : so that it may withstand mechanical vibrations
  19. 19. Types of Incandescent Bulbs • Standard incandescent – Most common yet the most inefficient – Larger wattage bulbs have a higher efficacy than smaller wattage bulbs • Tungsten halogen – It has a gas filling and an inner coating that reflect heat – Better energy efficiency than the standard A-type bulb • Reflector lamps – Reflector lamps (Type R) are designed to spread light over specific areas – floodlighting, spotlighting, and down lighting
  20. 20. • Step 1: Tungsten atoms evaporate from the hot filament and move toward the cooler wall of the bulb. • Step 2: Tungsten, oxygen and halogen atoms combine at the bulb-wall to form tungsten oxyhalide molecules. • Step 3: The bulb-wall temperature keeps the tungsten oxyhalide molecules in a vapor. The molecules move toward the hot filament where the higher temperature breaks them apart. • Step 4: Tungsten atoms are re-deposited on the cooler regions of the filament–not in the exact places from which they evaporated. Breaks usually occur near the connections between the tungsten filament and its molybdenum lead-in wires where the temperature drops sharply. Working
  21. 21. Advantages: *Great for small area lighting *Good color rendering: CRI of 100 which is the best possible *Cheap to produce *No quantity of toxic materials to dispose of (like mercury, toxic alloys, or semiconductors) *Is easily used in strobe or dimming circuits Disadvantages: *Not energy efficient (90% of energy goes to heat, 10% makes visible light) *Traditional incandescent light bulbs are not useful for lighting large areas. It takes many to light a large area where as only one HID lamp can light a large open area. Halogen incandescent is useful for this purpose but it is not covered on this page.
  22. 22. Tungsten-Halogen Lamps • A type of incandescent lamp. • Encloses the tungsten filament in a quartz capsule filled with halogen gas. • Halogen gas combines with the vaporized tungsten and redeposit's it on the filament. • More efficient. • Lasts longer (up to 6,000 hrs.) Tungsten halogen lamps (BEE India, 2005)
  23. 23.  Advantages: • More compact • Longer life • More and whiter light  Disadvantages: • Cost more • Increased IR and UV • Handling problems
  24. 24. Fluorescent Lamps • Most common commercial lighting technology. • High Efficicacy: up to 100 lumens/watt. • Improvements made in the last 15 years. – T12: 1.5 inch in diameter. – T8: 1 inch in diameter. • ~30% more efficient than T12. – T5: 5/8 inch in diameter. • ~40% more efficient than T12.
  25. 25. Working : A choke is connected in series with the tube which act as a blast and provide a high voltage at starting glow in the tube. During running condition the same choke absorbs some supply voltage and remain a voltage of 110 V across the tube. A capacitor is connected to improve the power factor.
  26. 26. • Configurations – Linear (8 ft., 4 ft., 2 ft., 1 ft.) – U bend (fit in a 2 ft. x 2 ft. fixture). – Circular (rare, obsolete). – Fixtures can be 4, 3, 2, or 1 lamp per fixture. • Output Categories – Standard Output (430 mA). – High Output (800 mA). – Very High Output (1,500 mA).
  27. 27. Types of Fluorescents Compact fluorescent•Tube fluorescent
  28. 28. Schematic of Fluorescent Lamp Phosphor crystals Mercury atom Electron Electrode
  29. 29. Advantages of Fluorescent Tube 1. Voltage fluctuation has very small effect on light output. 2. The luminous efficiency is more as length of rod is more. 3. It gives light close to natural light. 4. Heat radiations are negligible. Disadvantages of Fluorescent Tube 1. Its brightness is less. 2. Initial cost is more 3. Overall maintenance cost is high.
  30. 30. Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) • Fluorescent lamp that is small in size (~2 in. diameter, 3 to 5 in. in length). • Developed as replacement for incandescent lamps. • Two Main Types – Ballast-integrated. – Ballast non-integrated (allows only lamp to be replaced).
  31. 31. Compact Fluorescent •Excellent color available – comparable to incandescent •Many choices (sizes, shapes, wattages, output, etc.) •Wide Range of CRI and Color Temperatures •Energy Efficient (3.5 to 4 times incandescent) •Long Life (generally 10,000 hours – lasts 12 times longer than standard 750 hour incandescent lamps) •Less expensive dimming now available (0-10v dimming to 5%) •Available for outdoor use with amalgam technology
  32. 32. Compact Fluorescent Lamps • Use ¼ the power of an incandescent for an equivalent amount of light. (an 18-watt CFL is equivalent to a 75-watt incandescent.) • 10,000 hour life. (10x an incandescent). • Saves about $30 over the life of the CFL.
  33. 33. Ballasts • Auxiliary component that performs 3 functions: – Provides higher starting voltage. – Provides operating voltage. – Limits operating current. • Old type ballasts were electromagnetic. • New ballasts are electronic. – Lighter, less noisy, no lamp flicker, dimming capability).
  34. 34. Ballast Factor •DEFINITION: The fraction of rated lamp lumens produced by a specific lamp- ballast combination •APPLICATIONS: High Ballast FactorIncreases output (1.00-1.30) AND energy consumption Typical Ballast Factor Comparable light output in (0.85-0.95) one-to-one replacement Low Ballast Factor Decreases light output (0.47-0.83) AND energy consumption •For optimal efficiency lamps and ballasts must be properly matched. •Maximize energy savings by selecting electronic ballasts with ballast factor that provides target illuminance.
  35. 35. Ballast Circuit Types • Instant Start Ballast – starts lamp instantly with higher starting voltage. Efficient but may shorten lamp life. • Rapid Start – delay of about 0.5 seconds to start; supplies starting current to heat the filament prior to starting and continues during operation. Uses 2 to 4 watts more than an instant start ballast. • Programmed Rapid Start - delay of about 0.5 seconds to start; starting current heats the filament prior to starting, then cuts off during operation.
  36. 36. High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps
  37. 37. High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps • produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina (ceramic) arc tube filled with special gases. • Circuit diagram of HID
  38. 38. High Intensity Discharge Lamps • Arc tube can be filled by various types of gases and metal salts. • HID lamps are used in industrial high bay applications, gymnasiums, outdoor lighting, parking decks, street lights. • Efficient (up to 150 lumens/watt). • Long Life (up to 25,000 hours). • Drawback – take up to 15 minutes to come up to full light after power outage.
  39. 39. Efficacy This is the ratio of light output from a lamp to the electric power it consumes and is measured in lumens per watt (LPW).
  40. 40. High Intensity Discharge Lamps • Types of HIDs – Mercury Vapor (obsolete) – Sodium Vapor • High pressure • Low pressure – Metal Halide • Arc tube contains argon, mercury, and metal halides. • Gives better color temperature and CRI.
  41. 41. Working Principle : When the supply is switched ON, full voltage is applied across main and starting electrodes. This voltage breaks down the gap and discharge through argon gas takes place. As the lamp warms up, mercury is vaporized , which increase the vapor pressure. This discharge takes the shape of intense arc. After 5 minutes, the lamp gives full light. It gives greenish blue color light . this lamp is always suspended vertically, other wise inner glass tube may break due to excessive heat. Mercury Vapor Lamp
  42. 42. Mercury Vapor Lamps • Oldest HID lamp • Consists of: arc tube with mercury and argon gas and quartz envelope, third electrode, outer phosphor coated bulb, outer glass envelope • Long life and low initial costs • Very poor efficacy: 30 – 65 lumens/Watt • Color rendering index: 3 • Color temperature: intermediate • Lamp life: 16000 – 24000 hours
  43. 43. Advantages: - Good efficiency (lamps after 1980s have a high lumen per watt rating) - Color rendering is better than that of high pressure sodium street lights - Some lamps last far longer than the 24000 hour mark, sometimes 40 years Disadvantages: - Like many lamps it contains traces of mercury which must be disposed of properly - HPS streetlights have a better lumen per watt rating - Human skin looks green under the light, it is poor for color film/photography -Warm up time required to start the lamp
  44. 44. Sodium Vapor Lamp Working Principle : An electric discharge lamps require a high voltage at staring and low voltage during operation. So at starting a voltage of 450 V is applied across the lamp to start the discharge. After 10 to 15 minutes, the voltage falls to 150 V because of low power factor. To improve the power factor a capacitor is connected across the supply. The color of light produce is yellowish.
  45. 45. Types of sodium lamps • High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamps • Low Pressure Sodium (LPS) Lamps
  46. 46. High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamps • Used in outdoor and industrial applications • Consist of: ballast, high- voltage electronic starter, ceramic arc tube, xenon gas filling, sodium, mercury • No starting electrodes • High efficacy: 60 – 80 lumen/Watt • Color rendering index: 1 - 2 • Color temperature: warm • Lamp life < 24,000 hrs Circuit diagram of HID
  47. 47. Advantages: -Good efficiency (lumens per watt) -Smaller size than LPS or fluorescent, the HPS fits into many fixture types -Can be retrofitted into older Mercury Vapor fixtures -Better bulb life than LPS lamps Disadvantages: -Still has a bad color rendering compared to metal halide and halogen lamps -Requires a lossy ballast (inefficient) that operates a low arc voltage of 52- 100V. This reduces the actual efficiency of the lamp when you count the whole system together.
  48. 48. Low Pressure Sodium (LPS) Lamps • Commonly included in the HID family • Highest efficacy: 100 - 200 lumen/Watt • Poorest quality light: colors appear black, white or grey shades • Limited to outdoor applications • Efficacy: Color rendering index: 3 • Color temperature: yellow • Lamp life < 16,000 hours
  49. 49. Advantages: - Very efficient lamp - Powerful lamp for use of large areas - Despite a warm up time of 5-10 minutes it restarts immediately if there is a brownout - Lumen output does not drop with age (such as in LEDs or incandescent) Disadvantages: - Worst color rendering of any lamp - Sodium is a hazardous material which can combust when exposed to air (such as if the bulb is broken in the trash)
  50. 50. Metal Halide Lamps • Most common HID in use today. • Recent Improvements. – Allow higher pressure & temperature. – Better efficiency, better CRI and better lumen maintenance. – Pulse Start vs. older Probe Start – Ceramic vs. older Quartz arc tube. • Works similar to tungsten halogen lamps • Largest choice of color, size and rating • Better efficacy than other HID lamps: 80 lumen/Watt • Require high voltage ignition pulse but some have third electrode for starting • Color rendering index: 1A – 2 • Color temperature: 3000 – 6000 k • Lamp life: 6000 – 20,000 hours
  51. 51. Circuit diagram
  52. 52. Working:- • Step 1: Metal atoms move from the hot electric arc toward the cooler arc tube wall where the halides are. • Step 2: Near the wall, the temperature and vapor pressure allow the metals and halides to form a stable molecule which will not corrode the arc tube. • Step 3: When the metal halides approach the hot arc, the molecule breaks apart. • Step 4: The halides move away from the arc, while the metals are energized and radiate light. • Sometimes a metal atom will not combine with a halide, but instead migrates through the arc tube. Over time, when enough metal atoms are lost, the lamp will fail.
  53. 53. Advantages: *More pure white light than the popular HPS lamps, close to daylight frequencies, which allows it to be used for growing plants *More energy efficient than mercury vapor and halogen lamps, great lumen output *Good for indoor (high ceiling areas - "high bay" applications) and outdoor use due to good light quality Disadvantages: *Expensive per-bulb cost: expensive to manufacture - many parts to assemble and materials are not cheap *Light pollution: the light is so bright that it produces much more light pollution than HPS or LPS street lamps, the whites from an MH lamp are closer to daylight in frequency.
  54. 54. Blended Lamps • “Two-in-one”: 2 light sources in 1 gas filled bulb • Quartz mercury discharge tube • Tungsten filament • Suitable for flame proof areas • Fit into incandescent lamps fixtures • Efficacy: 20 – 30 lumen/Watt • Lamp life < 8000 hours • High power factor: 0.95 • Typical rating: 160 W Circuit diagram
  55. 55. Neon Lamp Working : When the supply is switched ON at primary side of transformer, a voltage of 10000 V develops across secondary side which come across two electrodes. At this voltage a discharge occurs in neon gas. Different colors can be obtained by changing the constituents of gases and mercury filled in the tubes.
  56. 56. Applications : Neon lamps are generally used for advertising. Most of letters having two ends at which electrodes are placed. In letter having more than two ends , the tube path is repeated for some portion.
  57. 57. Advantages *Good lumen per watt performance *Neon performs more reliably in cold weather than hot cathode fluorescent lights *More reliable than LEDs for airport runway landing lights 50 Lumens per watt (red) 65 Lumens per watt (green) Disadvantages *Shape of tube is a limitation *Argon is not reliable in cold temperatures *Diffused light (not good for any focused beam applications)
  58. 58. Halogen Lamp • When the supply is given to the lamp, a filament glows and produce light. The halogen in addition to inert gas causes the evaporated tungsten to resettle back on the filament during cooling, that’s why lamp can be operated at high temperature. It provides high intensity light.
  59. 59. Advantages of Halogen Lamp 1. It is smaller in size. 2. It does not need any blast. 3. Good colors can be obtained. 4. Excellent optical control. 5. Gives same output throughout life 6. It has long life Disadvantages of Halogen Lamp 1. During maintenance the handling of lamp is difficult. 2. Radiant heat is more which heats the surroundings. 3. Operating temperature is high which effects its life.
  60. 60. Light Emitting Diodes (LED) • Latest Lighting Technology. • Invented in 1962. • In the past, used as indicator lights, automotive lights, and traffic lights; now being introduced for indoor and outdoor lighting. • LED is a semiconductor technology. • Electroluminescence. Electrons recombine with holes in the semiconductor, releasing photons.
  61. 61. • Newest type of energy efficient lamp • Two types: • red-blue-green array • phosphor-coated blue lamp • Emit visible light in a very narrow spectrum and can produce “white light” • • Used in exit signs, traffic signals, and the technology is rapidly progressing • Significant energy savings: 82 – 93% • Longest lamp life: 40,000 – 100,000 hours
  62. 62. Light Emitting Diodes • Lower energy consumption. • Longer lifetime (50,000 to 100,000 hrs). • Smaller size. • Faster switching. • Greater durability and reliability. • Cycling. • Dimming.
  63. 63. • LEDs create light by electroluminescence in a semiconductor material. Electroluminescence is the phenomenon of a material emitting light when electric current or an electric field is passed through it - this happens when electrons are sent through the material and fill electron holes. An electron hole exists where an atom lacks electrons (negatively charged) and therefore has a positive charge. Semiconductor materials like germanium or silicon can be "doped" to create and control the number of electron holes. Doping is the adding of other elements to the semiconductor material to change its properties. By doping a semiconductor you can make two separate types of semiconductors in the same crystal. The boundary between the two types is called a p-n junction. The junction only allows current to pass through it one way, this is why they are used as diodes. LEDs are made using p-n junctions. As electrons pass through one crystal to the other they fill electron holes. They emit photons (light).
  64. 64. LED Replacement Lamps for a 4-ft. Fluorescent Fixture
  65. 65. LED Applications Successfully used today for many markets • Signs & Traffic signals (most common) • Displays (change colors for attention) • Exit Signs (most common) • Indicators and Flashlights • Under Counter & Coves • Accent • Parking Garage & Outdoor • Down lights • Food Freezers
  66. 66. Advantages: - Energy efficient source of light for short distances and small areas. The typical LED requires only 30-60 mill watts to operate - Durable and shockproof unlike glass bulb lamp types - Directional nature is useful for some applications like reducing stray light pollution on streetlights Disadvantages: - May be unreliable in outside applications with great variations in summer/winter temperatures, more work is being done now to solve this problem - Semiconductors are sensitive to being damaged by heat, so large heat sinks must be employed to keep powerful arrays cool, sometimes a fan is required. - Circuit board solder and thin copper connections crack when flexed and cause sections of arrays to go out - Rare earth metals used in LEDs are subject to price control monopolies by certain nations - Reduced lumen output over time
  67. 67. Comparison of LED with a Fluorescent Lamp EverLED-TR Popular T8 Brand Fluorescent Watt Rating, typical B.F. = 0.8 22W 34W Lumens, initial Equivalent 2850 CRI 85 85 Color Temperature 5000K 5000K Life Expectancy 12 hrs per start / 3 hrs per start 10 years 10 years 20000 hours 16000 hours Light output at 0° C 20% increase 50% decrease
  68. 68. 69 Comparison: LED to Ceramic Metal HalideComparison: LED to Ceramic Metal Halide Cree LED Lighting LRP38 – Total Wattage = 36W Ceramic Metal Halide – Total Wattage ~ 158 to 237W
  69. 69. Comparing lamps Type of Lamp Lum / Watt Color Rendering Index Typical Application Life (Hours) Range Avg . Incandescent 8-18 14 Excellent Homes, restaurants, general lighting, emergency lighting 1000 Fluorescent Lamps 46-60 50 Good w.r.t. coating Offices, shops, hospitals, homes 5000 Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) 40-70 60 Very good Hotels, shops, homes, offices 8000- 10000 High pressure mercury (HPMV) 44-57 50 Fair General lighting in factories, garages, car parking, flood lighting 5000 Halogen lamps 18-24 20 Excellent Display, flood lighting, stadium exhibition grounds, construction areas 2000-4000 High pressure sodium (HPSV) SON 67- 121 90 Fair General lighting in factories, ware houses, street lighting 6000- 12000 Low pressure sodium (LPSV) SOX 101- 175 150 Poor Roadways, tunnels, canals, street lighting 6000- 12000
  70. 70. Energy Efficiency: Light Sources in the 20th Century
  71. 71. Induction Lights • Light source in which the power required to generate light is transferred from the outside of the lamp envelope by means of electromagnetic fields. • Type of fluorescent lamp – uses radio waves rather than arc to excite phosphor coating on lamp to glow • Long lifespan due to the lack of electrodes - between 65,000 and 100,000 hours depending on the lamp model; • High energy conversion efficiency of between 62 and 90 Lumens/Watt [higher wattage lamps are more energy efficient]; • High power factor due to the low loss of the high frequency electronic ballasts which are typically between 95% and 98% efficient; • Minimal Lumen depreciation (declining light output with age) compared to other lamp types as filament evaporation and depletion is absent; • “Instant-on” and hot re-strike, unlike most conventional lamps used in commercial/industrial lighting applications (such as Mercury-Vapor lamp, Sodium Vapor Lamp and Metal Halide Lamp); • Environmentally friendly as induction lamps use less energy, and use less mercury per hour of operation than conventional lighting due to their long lifespan.
  72. 72. Working :- • Induction Lamps create light by using an electromagnetic field to excite mercury particles mixed in an inert gas like argon or krypton. The mercury creates a UV light and a phosphor on the inside of the bulb or tube filters the energy into visible light. This is a type of fluorescent light. Unlike a standard fluorescent light this does not use electrodes in the tube. • The lamp has three parts: frequency generator (ballast), discharge tube and electromagnet (aka: inductor, energy coupling coils or energizing coils). • 1. First the ballast creates high frequency current (230 or 250 KHz). 2. The current is sent through the electromagnet and an electric field is produced. The number of turns (times the wire is wrapped around the iron core) is determined by how each product is designed (so it is not consistent among different lamps). 3. Energy is transferred from the magnet to the mercury in the tube in the same way that a transformer works... induction. 4. The mercury vapor emits UV light which strikes the phosphor and makes light
  73. 73. Induction Applications • Applications where maintenance is expensive and/or difficult • 24 hour a day.7 days a week applications • Bridges • Low Bay Industrial • Select Outdoor Lighting Applications • Long burning hour applications
  74. 74. Advantages: -Longer life: no electrodes, electrodes fail in normal fluorescent lamps shortening life, the tungsten thins and brakes. -Longer life: sealed tube, by not having electrodes the tube can be perfectly sealed, when seals go bad in regular fluorescent lamps gas escapes through the weakness and the lamp fails. -Energy efficient, often 80+ lumens per watt -No flickering -Dimmable 30 -100% -Can light both small and large areas depending on which type of induction lamp one uses Disadvantages: -Bulky design for large area lighting, the discharge tube is large compared with HID lamps. -New and Old technology: it is new: it is still expensive to buy the lamps. It is old: most companies that make the lamps are using 20 year old ballast technology copied from OSRAM and Philips. The ballasts have a high failure rate. - The technology is under commercialized. -Radio interference is a major problem to be worked out. The lamps are limited in use due to this issue.
  75. 75. Exit Signs • Old incandescent exit signs used (2) 20-watt incandescent lamps. – At $0.08/kWh, energy cost for 1 sign = $28/yr. • CFL exit signs use 10 to 12 watts – Energy cost for 1 sign = $7 to $8.50/yr. • LED exit signs use 3 to 4 watts – energy cost for 1 sign = $3 to $4/yr. • Photoluminescent sign uses 0 watts, but may have (slightly) radioactive material. – New technology claims completely non-toxic and recyclable.
  76. 76. Outdoor Lighting • Older technology for outdoor lighting – High pressure sodium – Metal Halide • Newer technology – Compact fluorescents – LEDs • Solar street lights (economical when electric lines don’t need to be run in a new installation).
  77. 77. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
  78. 78. Hazardous Waste Disposal Hazardous Waste Lamps will now be regulated under the Federal Universal Waste Rule which was first developed to regulate the disposal of other widely generated wastes that contain toxic materials, such as batteries and pesticides State Rule supersedes Federal Rule Under current federal law, mercury-containing lamps (fluorescent, HID) may be hazardous waste The rule applies only to lamps that fail the TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) test which is used to determine if a waste is hazardous.
  79. 79. Mercury Content of Lamps TYPICAL MERCURY CONTENT OF VARIOUS LAMPS 250 watt Metal Halide lamp 38 mg 250 watt High Pressure Sodium lamp 15 mg Pre 1988 T12 Fluorescent 45 mg Post 1988 T12 Fluorescent 12 mg Typical T8 Fluorescent Tube 4-5 mg Typical Compact Fluorescent (CFL) 4-5 mg 4-5 mg is less mercury than a coal fired power plant will emit while producing the additional energy to power an equivalent incandescent lamp. Lamps containing mercury that fail the TCLP test must be recycled! EPA encourages responsible disposal practices to limit the release of mercury into the environment. EPA encourages lamp recycling
  80. 80. Change from Old to New and Save Energy OLD TECHNOLOGY => • T12 Fluorescent – 4’ and 8’ Systems • Magnetic Ballasts • Incandescent • Halogen • Probe Start Metal Halide and Mercury Vapor • Neon • Manual Controls NEW TECHNOLOGY • T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent Systems • Electronic Ballasts • Halogen IR, MH & LED • Metal Halide and LED • Pulse Start and Ceramic Metal Halide •LED •Automatic Controls, Bi-Level and Continuous Dimming Systems
  81. 81. HID Upgrade to Fluorescent Lamps • 400-Watt Metal Halide = 455 watts input • 6-Lamp T8 Fixture = 234 watts
  82. 82. Lighting THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION 

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