INTRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL LAMPS
NAME SAURABH DAYAL SINGH
BRANCH ELECTRICAL -01
SUBJECT ELEMENTS OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
SUBJECT CODE 2110005
ROLL NO 13EE010
As we know that almost all human activities depends on light. Sun is a
prime natural source of light but artificial lighting plays almost
main role in our daily life. These artificial lights are produced by
mechanical lamps and electrical lamps.
But due to poor performance the mechanical light are totally replaced
by electrical lights. The electrical lighting are mainly used for
decorative purpose, advertising, traffic control , medical field and
street lighting etc.
Electrical lighting has following advantages :
2. Easy to control
4. Easy to handle
5. Steady output
6. Better reliability
7. Suitable for almost all purposes etc.
Definitions and Common Terms
• 1 lumen = the photometric equivalent of the watt
• 1 lumen = luminous flux per m2 of a sphere with 1 m radius and a 1
candela isotropic light source at the centre
• 1 watt = 683 lumens at 555 nm wavelength
• metric unit of measure for illuminance on a surface: 1 lux = 1 lumen /
Luminous intensity (I)
• measured in Candela (cd)
Luminous flux (lm)
• 4π x luminous intensity
Installed load efficacy
• Average maintained illuminance on a working plane: lux/W/m2
Installed load efficiency ratio
• Target load efficacy / Installed load
Rated luminous efficacy
• Rated lumen output of the lamp / rated power consumption
• Lumens per watt
• Ratio for the plan dimensions of the room
Target load efficiency
• Installed load efficacy considered achievable under best efficiency
• A measure of the effectiveness of the lighting scheme
Cool White - 4100K
Daylight Fluo - 6500K
North Sky - 8500K
Warm White - 3000K
HPS - 2100K
Halogen – 3100K
Incandescent – 2700K
• Lighting efficiency is expressed as lumens output/wattage input.
– Ranges from 4 to 150 lumens/watt.
Lamp Lumen Depreciation
• As lamps age, they lose a certain amount of output.
• Old T12 fluorescents can lose up to 30% of output over their life.
• New T8 fluorescents maintain up to 95% of original lumens.
• This depreciation must be accounted for when installing new lighting
• Luminaire = Lighting fixture
– Lamp sockets
– Reflective material
– Lenses, refractors, louvers
• Directs the light using reflecting and shielding surfaces.
On 21-22 October 1879, Edison and
his staff conducted their first
successful experiments with a
carbon-filament lamp in a vacuum.
The filament was made from a piece
of carbonized thread. By New
Year's he was demonstrating lamps
using carbonized cardboard
filaments to large crowds at the
Menlo Park laboratory. A year later,
Edison began manufacturing
commercial lamps using carbonized
Japanese bamboo as filaments.
History of Incandescent Bulbs
• It is widely regarded that Thomas Alva Edison
invented the first reasonably practical
incandescent lamp, using a carbon filament
in a bulb containing a vacuum. Edison's first
successful test occurred in 1879.
• There were earlier incandescent lamps, such
as one by Heinrich Goebel made with a
carbon filament in 1854. This incandescent
lamp had a carbonized bamboo filament and
was mentioned as lasting up to 400 hours. At
least some sources regard Goebel as the
inventor of the incandescent lamp.
The lamp is a spark or electric arc through the air
between two carbon rods. The rods must have a gap
in between of the right size. If the gap is too big than
the arc will flicker more or may go out, if the gap is to
narrow than it will produce less light.
The first carbon was made of charcoal (made from
wood). The carbon substance is vaporized in the high
temperature of the arc (around 6500 F, 3600 C). The
carbon vapor is highly luminous (very bright) and this
is why we use carbon in the lamp. This light is much
more useful and bright than that of an arc between
steel like in the Jacobs Ladder example photo below.
The carbon vapor and normal air ionizes easily which
helps make light. When the atoms of the carbon and
air ionize it means they give up and take on electrons.
This happens as electric current passes from one
electrode (in this case one of the carbon rods) to the
other electrode. Lighting ionizes the air that is passes
CARBON ARC LAMP
-Super bright light, capable of lighting a large length of street or a large factory
-Was the ONLY electric light available to light large areas from 1800 - 1901
-Was cheaper to light streets with the arc lamp than gas or oil lamps
-Carbon rods had to be replaced after a short period of time, this became a full
time job in a city
-Produces dangerous UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C rays
-Created a buzzing sound and flickering as the light burned
-Created large amounts of RFI (radio frequency interference)
-Dangerous: it was a fire hazard, many theaters burned as a result of the
excessive heat or sparks emitted, also the unenclosed lamp could easily
electrocute or severally burn technicians.
-Carbon Monoxide emissions (bad for indoor use!) It only worked in the past
because buildings were poorly insulated and fresh air could enter. Some of
today's energy efficient buildings are almost air tight.
The glowing wire is called a filament.
Filaments are made of materials that
resist the flow of current. Current
flowing through a material of high
resistance (like carbon or tungsten)
generates heat and makes the
material glow or become
incandescent. The power lines and
lead wires are made with materials of
low resistance like copper. Thus they
do not get hot.
• One of the oldest electric lighting
• Light is produced by passing a
current through a tungsten
• Least efficient – (4 to 24
• Lamp life ~ 1,000 hours.
• High CRI (100) – Warm Color (2700K)
• Halogen 2900K to 3200K)
• Excellent beam control
• Easily dimmed – no ballast needed
• Immediate off and on
• No temperature concerns – can be used outdoors
• 100, 75, 60 and 40 watt lamps will be going away per
2007 law beginning 2012
Properties of Metal for Filament
1. High melting point : so that it can be operated at high
2. High specific resistance : so that it produces more heat.
3. Low temperature coefficient : so that filament resistance
may not change at operating temperature.
4. Low vapor pressure ; so that it may not vaporize
5. High ductile : so that it may withstand mechanical
Types of Incandescent Bulbs
• Standard incandescent
– Most common yet the most inefficient
– Larger wattage bulbs have a higher efficacy than smaller wattage bulbs
• Tungsten halogen
– It has a gas filling and an inner coating that reflect heat
– Better energy efficiency than the standard A-type bulb
• Reflector lamps
– Reflector lamps (Type R) are designed to spread light over specific areas
– floodlighting, spotlighting, and down lighting
• Step 1: Tungsten atoms evaporate from the hot filament and move toward the cooler wall of
• Step 2: Tungsten, oxygen and halogen atoms combine at the bulb-wall to form tungsten
• Step 3: The bulb-wall temperature keeps the tungsten oxyhalide molecules in a vapor. The
molecules move toward the hot filament where the higher temperature breaks them apart.
• Step 4: Tungsten atoms are re-deposited on the cooler regions of the filament–not in the
exact places from which they evaporated. Breaks usually occur near the connections
between the tungsten filament and its molybdenum lead-in wires where the temperature
*Great for small area lighting
*Good color rendering: CRI of 100 which is the best possible
*Cheap to produce
*No quantity of toxic materials to dispose of (like mercury, toxic alloys, or
*Is easily used in strobe or dimming circuits
*Not energy efficient (90% of energy goes to heat, 10% makes visible light)
*Traditional incandescent light bulbs are not useful for lighting large areas. It
takes many to light a large area where as only one HID lamp can light a large
open area. Halogen incandescent is useful for this purpose but it is not covered
on this page.
• A type of incandescent lamp.
• Encloses the tungsten filament in
a quartz capsule filled with
• Halogen gas combines with the
vaporized tungsten and
redeposit's it on the filament.
• More efficient.
• Lasts longer (up to 6,000 hrs.)
Tungsten halogen lamps
(BEE India, 2005)
• More compact
• Longer life
• More and whiter light
• Cost more
• Increased IR and UV
• Handling problems
• Most common commercial lighting technology.
• High Efficicacy: up to 100 lumens/watt.
• Improvements made in the last 15 years.
– T12: 1.5 inch in diameter.
– T8: 1 inch in diameter.
• ~30% more efficient than T12.
– T5: 5/8 inch in diameter.
• ~40% more efficient than T12.
A choke is connected in series with the tube which act as a blast and
provide a high voltage at starting glow in the tube. During running
condition the same choke absorbs some supply voltage and remain a
voltage of 110 V across the tube. A capacitor is connected to improve
the power factor.
– Linear (8 ft., 4 ft., 2 ft., 1 ft.)
– U bend (fit in a 2 ft. x 2 ft.
– Circular (rare, obsolete).
– Fixtures can be 4, 3, 2, or 1
lamp per fixture.
• Output Categories
– Standard Output (430 mA).
– High Output (800 mA).
– Very High Output (1,500 mA).
Types of Fluorescents
Compact fluorescent•Tube fluorescent
Schematic of Fluorescent Lamp
Phosphor crystals Mercury atom Electron Electrode
Advantages of Fluorescent Tube
1. Voltage fluctuation has very small effect on light output.
2. The luminous efficiency is more as length of rod is more.
3. It gives light close to natural light.
4. Heat radiations are negligible.
Disadvantages of Fluorescent Tube
1. Its brightness is less.
2. Initial cost is more
3. Overall maintenance cost is high.
Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs)
• Fluorescent lamp that is small in
size (~2 in. diameter, 3 to 5 in. in
• Developed as replacement for
• Two Main Types
– Ballast non-integrated (allows
only lamp to be replaced).
•Excellent color available – comparable to incandescent
•Many choices (sizes, shapes, wattages, output, etc.)
•Wide Range of CRI and Color Temperatures
•Energy Efficient (3.5 to 4 times incandescent)
•Long Life (generally 10,000 hours –
lasts 12 times longer than standard 750 hour incandescent lamps)
•Less expensive dimming now available (0-10v dimming to 5%)
•Available for outdoor use with amalgam technology
Compact Fluorescent Lamps
• Use ¼ the power of an
incandescent for an equivalent
amount of light. (an 18-watt CFL
is equivalent to a 75-watt
• 10,000 hour life. (10x an
• Saves about $30 over the life of
• Auxiliary component that
performs 3 functions:
– Provides higher starting
– Provides operating voltage.
– Limits operating current.
• Old type ballasts were
• New ballasts are electronic.
– Lighter, less noisy, no lamp
flicker, dimming capability).
•DEFINITION: The fraction of rated lamp lumens produced by a specific lamp-
•APPLICATIONS: High Ballast FactorIncreases output
(1.00-1.30) AND energy consumption
Typical Ballast Factor Comparable light output in
(0.85-0.95) one-to-one replacement
Low Ballast Factor Decreases light output
(0.47-0.83) AND energy consumption
•For optimal efficiency lamps and ballasts must be properly matched.
•Maximize energy savings by selecting electronic ballasts with ballast factor
that provides target illuminance.
Ballast Circuit Types
• Instant Start Ballast – starts lamp instantly with higher starting voltage.
Efficient but may shorten lamp life.
• Rapid Start – delay of about 0.5 seconds to start; supplies starting current
to heat the filament prior to starting and continues during operation.
Uses 2 to 4 watts more than an instant start ballast.
• Programmed Rapid Start - delay of about 0.5 seconds to start; starting
current heats the filament prior to starting, then cuts off during operation.
High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps
• produces light by means of an
electric arc between tungsten
electrodes housed inside a
translucent or transparent fused
quartz or fused alumina (ceramic)
arc tube filled with special gases.
• Circuit diagram of HID
High Intensity Discharge Lamps
• Arc tube can be filled by various types of gases and metal salts.
• HID lamps are used in industrial high bay applications, gymnasiums,
outdoor lighting, parking decks, street lights.
• Efficient (up to 150 lumens/watt).
• Long Life (up to 25,000 hours).
• Drawback – take up to 15 minutes to come up to full light after power
This is the ratio of light output from a lamp to the electric power it
consumes and is measured in lumens per watt (LPW).
High Intensity Discharge Lamps
• Types of HIDs
– Mercury Vapor (obsolete)
– Sodium Vapor
• High pressure
• Low pressure
– Metal Halide
• Arc tube contains argon,
mercury, and metal
• Gives better color
temperature and CRI.
Working Principle :
When the supply is switched ON, full
voltage is applied across main and starting
electrodes. This voltage breaks down the gap
and discharge through argon gas takes place.
As the lamp warms up, mercury is vaporized ,
which increase the vapor pressure. This
discharge takes the shape of intense arc. After
5 minutes, the lamp gives full light. It gives
greenish blue color light . this lamp is always
suspended vertically, other wise inner glass
tube may break due to excessive heat.
Mercury Vapor Lamp
Mercury Vapor Lamps
• Oldest HID lamp
• Consists of: arc tube with mercury and argon gas and
quartz envelope, third electrode, outer phosphor
coated bulb, outer glass envelope
• Long life and low initial costs
• Very poor efficacy: 30 – 65 lumens/Watt
• Color rendering index: 3
• Color temperature: intermediate
• Lamp life: 16000 – 24000 hours
- Good efficiency (lamps after 1980s have a high lumen per watt rating)
- Color rendering is better than that of high pressure sodium street lights
- Some lamps last far longer than the 24000 hour mark, sometimes 40 years
- Like many lamps it contains traces of mercury which must be disposed of
- HPS streetlights have a better lumen per watt rating
- Human skin looks green under the light, it is poor for color
-Warm up time required to start the lamp
Sodium Vapor Lamp
Working Principle :
An electric discharge lamps require a high voltage at staring and low voltage
during operation. So at starting a voltage of 450 V is applied across the
lamp to start the discharge. After 10 to 15 minutes, the voltage falls to 150
V because of low power factor. To improve the power factor a capacitor is
connected across the supply. The color of light produce is yellowish.
Types of sodium lamps
• High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamps
• Low Pressure Sodium (LPS) Lamps
High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamps
• Used in outdoor and industrial
• Consist of: ballast, high- voltage
electronic starter, ceramic arc tube,
xenon gas filling, sodium, mercury
• No starting electrodes
• High efficacy: 60 – 80 lumen/Watt
• Color rendering index: 1 - 2
• Color temperature: warm
• Lamp life < 24,000 hrs
Circuit diagram of HID
-Good efficiency (lumens per watt)
-Smaller size than LPS or fluorescent, the HPS fits into many fixture types
-Can be retrofitted into older Mercury Vapor fixtures
-Better bulb life than LPS lamps
-Still has a bad color rendering compared to metal halide and halogen lamps
-Requires a lossy ballast (inefficient) that operates a low arc voltage of 52-
100V. This reduces the actual efficiency of the lamp when you count the
whole system together.
Low Pressure Sodium (LPS) Lamps
• Commonly included in the HID family
• Highest efficacy: 100 - 200 lumen/Watt
• Poorest quality light: colors appear black,
white or grey shades
• Limited to outdoor applications
• Efficacy: Color rendering index: 3
• Color temperature: yellow
• Lamp life < 16,000 hours
- Very efficient lamp
- Powerful lamp for use of large areas
- Despite a warm up time of 5-10 minutes it restarts immediately if there is a
- Lumen output does not drop with age (such as in LEDs or incandescent)
- Worst color rendering of any lamp
- Sodium is a hazardous material which can combust when exposed to air
(such as if the bulb is broken in the trash)
Metal Halide Lamps
• Most common HID in use today.
• Recent Improvements.
– Allow higher pressure & temperature.
– Better efficiency, better CRI and better lumen maintenance.
– Pulse Start vs. older Probe Start
– Ceramic vs. older Quartz arc tube.
• Works similar to tungsten halogen lamps
• Largest choice of color, size and rating
• Better efficacy than other HID lamps: 80 lumen/Watt
• Require high voltage ignition pulse but some have third electrode for starting
• Color rendering index: 1A – 2
• Color temperature:
3000 – 6000 k
• Lamp life:
6000 – 20,000 hours
• Step 1: Metal atoms move from the hot electric arc toward the cooler arc tube wall
where the halides are.
• Step 2: Near the wall, the temperature and vapor pressure allow the metals and halides
to form a stable molecule which will not corrode the arc tube.
• Step 3: When the metal halides approach the hot arc, the molecule breaks apart.
• Step 4: The halides move away from the arc, while the metals are energized and radiate
• Sometimes a metal atom will not combine with a halide, but instead migrates through
the arc tube. Over time, when enough metal atoms are lost, the lamp will fail.
*More pure white light than the popular HPS lamps, close to daylight
frequencies, which allows it to be used for growing plants
*More energy efficient than mercury vapor and halogen lamps, great
*Good for indoor (high ceiling areas - "high bay" applications) and outdoor
use due to good light quality
*Expensive per-bulb cost: expensive to manufacture - many parts to
assemble and materials are not cheap
*Light pollution: the light is so bright that it produces much more light
pollution than HPS or LPS street lamps, the whites from an MH lamp are
closer to daylight in frequency.
• “Two-in-one”: 2 light sources in 1
gas filled bulb
• Quartz mercury discharge
• Tungsten filament
• Suitable for flame proof areas
• Fit into incandescent lamps
• Efficacy: 20 – 30 lumen/Watt
• Lamp life < 8000 hours
• High power factor: 0.95
• Typical rating: 160 W Circuit diagram
When the supply is switched ON at primary side of transformer, a voltage
of 10000 V develops across secondary side which come across two
electrodes. At this voltage a discharge occurs in neon gas.
Different colors can be obtained by changing the constituents of gases
and mercury filled in the tubes.
Neon lamps are generally used for advertising. Most of letters having
two ends at which electrodes are placed. In letter having more than
two ends , the tube path is repeated for some portion.
*Good lumen per watt performance
*Neon performs more reliably in cold weather than hot cathode
*More reliable than LEDs for airport runway landing lights
50 Lumens per watt (red)
65 Lumens per watt (green)
*Shape of tube is a limitation
*Argon is not reliable in cold temperatures
*Diffused light (not good for any focused beam applications)
• When the supply is given to the
lamp, a filament glows and
produce light. The halogen in
addition to inert gas causes the
evaporated tungsten to resettle
back on the filament during
cooling, that’s why lamp can be
operated at high temperature. It
provides high intensity light.
Advantages of Halogen Lamp
1. It is smaller in size.
2. It does not need any blast.
3. Good colors can be obtained.
4. Excellent optical control.
5. Gives same output throughout life
6. It has long life
Disadvantages of Halogen Lamp
1. During maintenance the handling of lamp is
2. Radiant heat is more which heats the
3. Operating temperature is high which effects its
Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
• Latest Lighting Technology.
• Invented in 1962.
• In the past, used as indicator lights, automotive lights, and traffic lights;
now being introduced for indoor and outdoor lighting.
• LED is a semiconductor technology.
• Electroluminescence. Electrons recombine with holes in the
semiconductor, releasing photons.
• Newest type of energy efficient lamp
• Two types:
• red-blue-green array
• phosphor-coated blue lamp
• Emit visible light in a very narrow spectrum and can produce “white light”
• Used in exit signs, traffic signals, and the technology is rapidly progressing
• Significant energy savings: 82 – 93%
• Longest lamp life: 40,000 – 100,000 hours
Light Emitting Diodes
• Lower energy consumption.
• Longer lifetime (50,000 to
• Smaller size.
• Faster switching.
• Greater durability and reliability.
• LEDs create light by electroluminescence in
a semiconductor material. Electroluminescence is
the phenomenon of a material emitting light
when electric current or an electric field is passed
through it - this happens when electrons are sent
through the material and fill electron holes.
An electron hole exists where an atom lacks
electrons (negatively charged) and therefore has a
positive charge. Semiconductor materials like
germanium or silicon can be "doped" to create
and control the number of electron
holes. Doping is the adding of other elements to
the semiconductor material to change its
properties. By doping a semiconductor you can
make two separate types of semiconductors in
the same crystal. The boundary between the two
types is called a p-n junction. The junction only
allows current to pass through it one way, this is
why they are used as diodes. LEDs are made using
p-n junctions. As electrons pass through one
crystal to the other they fill electron holes. They
emit photons (light).
LED Replacement Lamps for a 4-ft. Fluorescent Fixture
Successfully used today for many
• Signs & Traffic signals (most
• Displays (change colors for
• Exit Signs (most common)
• Indicators and Flashlights
• Under Counter & Coves
• Parking Garage & Outdoor
• Down lights
• Food Freezers
- Energy efficient source of light for short distances and small areas. The typical LED
requires only 30-60 mill watts to operate
- Durable and shockproof unlike glass bulb lamp types
- Directional nature is useful for some applications like reducing stray light pollution
- May be unreliable in outside applications with great variations in summer/winter
temperatures, more work is being done now to solve this problem
- Semiconductors are sensitive to being damaged by heat, so large heat sinks must
be employed to keep powerful arrays cool, sometimes a fan is required.
- Circuit board solder and thin copper connections crack when flexed and cause
sections of arrays to go out
- Rare earth metals used in LEDs are subject to price control monopolies by certain
- Reduced lumen output over time
Comparison of LED with a Fluorescent Lamp
Popular T8 Brand
Watt Rating, typical B.F. = 0.8 22W 34W
Lumens, initial Equivalent 2850
CRI 85 85
Color Temperature 5000K 5000K
Life Expectancy 12 hrs per start /
3 hrs per start
10 years 10
20000 hours 16000
Light output at 0° C 20% increase 50% decrease
Comparison: LED to Ceramic Metal HalideComparison: LED to Ceramic Metal Halide
Cree LED Lighting LRP38 – Total Wattage = 36W
Ceramic Metal Halide – Total Wattage ~ 158 to 237W
Type of Lamp
Lum / Watt
Typical Application Life (Hours)
Incandescent 8-18 14 Excellent Homes, restaurants, general
lighting, emergency lighting
Fluorescent Lamps 46-60 50 Good w.r.t.
Offices, shops, hospitals,
Compact fluorescent lamps
40-70 60 Very good Hotels, shops, homes,
High pressure mercury
44-57 50 Fair General lighting in factories,
garages, car parking, flood
Halogen lamps 18-24 20 Excellent Display, flood lighting,
stadium exhibition grounds,
High pressure sodium
90 Fair General lighting in factories,
ware houses, street lighting
Low pressure sodium (LPSV)
150 Poor Roadways, tunnels, canals,
Energy Efficiency: Light Sources in the 20th Century
• Light source in which the power required to generate light is transferred
from the outside of the lamp envelope by means of electromagnetic
• Type of fluorescent lamp – uses radio waves rather than arc to excite
phosphor coating on lamp to glow
• Long lifespan due to the lack of electrodes - between 65,000 and 100,000
hours depending on the lamp model;
• High energy conversion efficiency of between 62 and 90 Lumens/Watt
[higher wattage lamps are more energy efficient];
• High power factor due to the low loss of the high frequency electronic
ballasts which are typically between 95% and 98% efficient;
• Minimal Lumen depreciation (declining light output with age) compared
to other lamp types as filament evaporation and depletion is absent;
• “Instant-on” and hot re-strike, unlike most conventional lamps used in
commercial/industrial lighting applications (such as Mercury-Vapor lamp,
Sodium Vapor Lamp and Metal Halide Lamp);
• Environmentally friendly as induction lamps use less energy, and use less
mercury per hour of operation than conventional lighting due to their
• Induction Lamps create light by using an electromagnetic field to excite mercury
particles mixed in an inert gas like argon or krypton. The mercury creates a UV light
and a phosphor on the inside of the bulb or tube filters the energy into visible light.
This is a type of fluorescent light. Unlike a standard fluorescent light this does not
use electrodes in the tube.
• The lamp has three parts: frequency generator (ballast), discharge tube and
electromagnet (aka: inductor, energy coupling coils or energizing coils).
• 1. First the ballast creates high frequency current (230 or 250 KHz).
2. The current is sent through the electromagnet and an electric field is produced.
The number of turns (times the wire is wrapped around the iron core) is determined
by how each product is designed (so it is not consistent among different lamps).
3. Energy is transferred from the magnet to the mercury in the tube in the same
way that a transformer works... induction.
4. The mercury vapor emits UV light which strikes the phosphor and makes light
• Applications where maintenance is expensive and/or difficult
• 24 hour a day.7 days a week applications
• Low Bay Industrial
• Select Outdoor Lighting Applications
• Long burning hour applications
-Longer life: no electrodes, electrodes fail in normal fluorescent lamps shortening
life, the tungsten thins and brakes.
-Longer life: sealed tube, by not having electrodes the tube can be perfectly
sealed, when seals go bad in regular fluorescent lamps gas escapes through the
weakness and the lamp fails.
-Energy efficient, often 80+ lumens per watt
-Dimmable 30 -100%
-Can light both small and large areas depending on which type of induction lamp
-Bulky design for large area lighting, the discharge tube is large compared with
-New and Old technology: it is new: it is still expensive to buy the lamps. It is old:
most companies that make the lamps are using 20 year old ballast technology
copied from OSRAM and Philips. The ballasts have a high failure rate.
- The technology is under commercialized.
-Radio interference is a major problem to be worked out. The lamps are limited
in use due to this issue.
• Old incandescent exit signs used (2)
20-watt incandescent lamps.
– At $0.08/kWh, energy cost for 1
sign = $28/yr.
• CFL exit signs use 10 to 12 watts
– Energy cost for 1 sign = $7 to
• LED exit signs use 3 to 4 watts
– energy cost for 1 sign = $3 to
• Photoluminescent sign uses 0 watts,
but may have (slightly) radioactive
– New technology claims
completely non-toxic and
• Older technology for outdoor
– High pressure sodium
– Metal Halide
• Newer technology
– Compact fluorescents
• Solar street lights
electric lines don’t need
to be run in a new
Hazardous Waste Disposal
Hazardous Waste Lamps will now be regulated under the Federal Universal
Waste Rule which was first developed to regulate the disposal of other widely
generated wastes that contain toxic materials, such as batteries and
State Rule supersedes Federal Rule
Under current federal law, mercury-containing lamps (fluorescent, HID) may
be hazardous waste
The rule applies only to lamps that fail the TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic
Leaching Procedure) test which is used to determine if a waste is hazardous.
Mercury Content of Lamps
TYPICAL MERCURY CONTENT OF VARIOUS LAMPS
250 watt Metal Halide lamp 38 mg
250 watt High Pressure Sodium lamp 15 mg
Pre 1988 T12 Fluorescent 45 mg
Post 1988 T12 Fluorescent 12 mg
Typical T8 Fluorescent Tube 4-5 mg
Typical Compact Fluorescent (CFL) 4-5 mg
4-5 mg is less mercury than a coal fired power plant will emit while
producing the additional energy to power an equivalent incandescent lamp.
Lamps containing mercury that fail the TCLP test must be recycled!
EPA encourages responsible disposal practices to limit the release of mercury
into the environment.
EPA encourages lamp recycling
Change from Old to New
and Save Energy
OLD TECHNOLOGY =>
• T12 Fluorescent – 4’ and 8’ Systems
• Magnetic Ballasts
• Probe Start Metal Halide
and Mercury Vapor
• Manual Controls
• T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent Systems
• Electronic Ballasts
• Halogen IR, MH & LED
• Metal Halide and LED
• Pulse Start and
Ceramic Metal Halide
•Automatic Controls, Bi-Level and
Continuous Dimming Systems