The literacy rates among fourth grade students in America are sobering. In a recent report by the Annie E. Casey Foundation, one out of three students scored "below basic" on the 2009 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) Reading Test. Among these low performing students, 49 percent come from low-income families. Even more alarming is the fact that more than 67 percent of all US fourth graders scored "below proficient," meaning they are not reading at grade level.http://www.studentsfirst.org/pages/the-stats
In the growing global marketplace, students will need to excel in both math and science to compete internationally as engineers, scientists, physicians, and creative entrepreneurs. Yet, in an assessment by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 15-year-olds in the U.S. placed 25th out of 30 countries in math performance and 21st in science performance.n April 2009, Education Week reported that average math and reading scores for 17-year-olds in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) tests have remained stagnant since the 1970s. And according to The Journal, fourth- and eighth-grade reading scores "have barely budged since 1992," despite policy and investment focused on improving overall student achievement.
1900 Bok- Ladies Home Journal- mentioned how homework is detrimental to a child’s healthA nation at risk- A Nation at Risk: The Imperative For Educational Reform is the title of the 1983 report of American President Ronald Reagan's National Commission on Excellence in Education. Its publication is considered a landmark event in modern American educational history. Among other things, the report contributed to the ever-growing (and still present) sense that American schools are failing, and it touched off a wave of local, state, and federal reform efforts.No child left behind = requires states to develop assessments in basic skills. States must give these assessments to all students at select grade levels in order to receive federal school funding
KOHN = He explains that homework not only burdens children but parents as well
My action research project will be guided by these questions:
. They note economically challenged students whose home environment makes it difficult for them to complete assignments due to a lack of support. Thus, understanding the effects of homework can help teachers’ better address students’ challenges
a tool that helps young children to “develop good study habits, foster positive attitudes toward school, and communicate to students the idea that learning takes place at home and school” (Cooper, 1989. p.90). Additionally, homework is essential to honing in on independent study skills (Butler, 1987).
GILL AND = criticized those who advocate that homework is harmful and not beneficial for student’s learning. The authors commented on the amount of homework being assigned to students. They stated that other studies showed only a moderate amount of homework was being given. Additionally, they noted that not many parents object to homework.
ALLEMAN= PROVIDED teachers should assign homework that is meaningful: work that challenges students’ critical thinking skills, work that provides application of their acquired knowledge, or work that involves creating products. = 7 principles of what meaningful homework should be: connection of homework with the school community or environment; application of critical thinking skills by using real-world situations; involvement of parents; use of students’ background, ethnicity or culture as a resource; linkage to student’s personal situations, cost-effective projects; and use of up-to-date and easy-to-access resources.
there is a positive correlation between the amount of homework given and student achievement. Moreover, homework should match students’ interests, and thus, may help increase motivation resulting in increased achievement (Bempechat, 2004)
A longitudinal study with fifth grade students (Xu, M., Benson, S.N.K., Mudrey-Camino, R., & Steiner, R. P., 2010) indicated that homework fosters self-regulation skills. Homework allows students to practice self-regulatory behavior such as planning, organization, overcoming obstacles, persistence and staying on task. The study mentioned that students who complete their homework develop skills for academic work through practice making homework self-regulated learning.
One of the main problems with homework is not whether it benefits learning; the problem is in the implementation= Cooper
KOHN = He noted the lack of unity among researchers whether homework is beneficial to student learning
Paul (2011) questioned the effectiveness of homework in relation to advance learning. It is the quality, not the quantity that matters According to Paul’s survey of parents, 4 out of 10 parents polled believed that most of the homework given was merely busywork. The survey reported that homework given in science, history, and English did very little to increase the students’ test scores. BENNET= PROVIDED EVIDENCE THAT HOMEWORK HARMFUL TO CHILDS HEALTH AND TAKE AWAY FAMILY TIME and blamed teachers who were not trained properly on how to give homework
Schnurmacher (2012), a radio talk show host, complained that homework is forced labor. Homework has very little benefits, cause unnecessary stress for parents and childNelson (2007), a newspaper writer, interviewed the principal from the Street Prep School in Victorville, San Bernardino County who recently banned homework in 2006. The principal was persuaded in his decision by existing research and regular complaints from parents that teachers were giving too much homework. The principal believed that making the teacher act as coacheswould be more beneficial than giving homework when there is no coach at home to help the students. He noted that excellent teaching does not require hours of homework
Through their interviews they found that homework often disrupts family life. In their findings, they noted that almost 50% of parents reported arguing with their children over homework, and 34% reported homework as a source of stress and struggle (Kralovec & Buell, 2000). = stated that the effects of homework cannot be visibly seen in test scores. The authors decided to do a study by not giving homework to students. The students reported that the no homework policy improved their learning and removed a great deal of stress as well as enriched their cooperative learningThey noted that homework should be used to build cognitive skills and not a “drill-and-kill” task (Baker and Le Tendre, 2005)
HOMEWORKDOES IT INCREASE STUDENT
By: Carmen Serrano
Social Studies, JFK
• FOR YEARS AMERICANS HAVE BEEN
CONCERNED ABOUT FALLING BEHIND
IN EDUCATION AND THEY MAY HAVE
BEEN CORRECT IN DOING SO.
• IN A RECENT REPORT BY
THE ANNIE E. CASEY
FOUNDATION, ONE OUT
OF THREE STUDENTS
SCORED "BELOW BASIC"
ON THE 2009 NATIONAL
(NAEP) READING TEST.
EVEN MORE ALARMING
IS THE FACT THAT MORE
THAN 67 PERCENT OF
ALL US FOURTH
• AMERICAN STUDENTS RANKED 25TH IN
MATH, 17TH IN SCIENCE AND 14TH IN
• THE UNITED STATES PLACES 17TH IN THE
DEVELOPED WORLD FOR
EDUCATION, ACCORDING TO A GLOBAL REPORT BY
EDUCATION FIRM PEARSON (2007).
WHY HOMEWORK HAS BECOME
• SOVIET UNION LAUNCHED SPUTNIK CAUSED THE UNITED
STATES TO FOCUS ON EDUCATION, ESPECIALLY IN THE
AREAS OF SCIENCE AND MATH (NELSON 2007).
• A NATION AT RISK WAS PUBLISHED, AND IT CRITICIZED
UNITED STATES EDUCATION, CALLING IT MEDIOCRE (U.S.
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, 1983).
• NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND LEGISLATION WAS IMPLEMENTED
TO SECURE ALL CHILDREN’S EDUCATION (PL 107-110,
• HOMEWORK HAS BECOME A COMMON AND
WELL-KNOWN STUDENT DAILY ROUTINE
(COOPER, ROBINSON, & PATALL, 2006).
• DOES HOMEWORK REALLY HELP STUDENTS
INCREASE THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE?
• DO STUDIES SHOW A LINK BETWEEN HOMEWORK
AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT?
• THERE IS VERY LITTLE CORRELATION BETWEEN
HOMEWORK AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
• KOHN (2006) ARGUES THAT NONE OF THE
RESEARCH SHOWS A CONNECTION BETWEEN
HOMEWORK AND INDEPENDENT THINKING.
• SO WHY DO TEACHERS CONTINUE TO
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
• COLLECTING HOMEWORK BECAME FRUSTRATING!!!!
• IS HOMEWORK A MAJOR COMPONENT OF STUDENT
• AM I FAILING TO PROMOTE HIGH ACADEMIC STANDARDS BY
NOT GIVING HOMEWORK?
• WILL ASSIGNING HOMEWORK HELP THEM UNDERSTAND THE
• IS MY IMPLEMENTATION OF HOMEWORK CORRECT? AM I
ASSIGNING THE RIGHT WORK?
• DOES HOMEWORK HELP INCREASE THEIR CRITICAL
• THE PURPOSE OF THIS ACTION RESEARCH PROJECT IS
TO IMPROVE MY EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES AND
DETERMINE IF USING HOMEWORK BENEFITS STUDENT
• TO DETERMINE IF ASSESSMENT RESULTS ARE
SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT AMONG STUDENTS WHO
WERE GIVEN HOMEWORK AND STUDENTS WHO WERE
NOT GIVEN HOMEWORK.
• THE POTENTIAL OF LEADING TO PROFESSIONAL
DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES ON HOMEWORK
• 1. WHAT ARE THE STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS CONCERNING
• 2. HOW DOES HOMEWORK IMPACT STUDENT
• THE IMPORTANCE OF THIS STUDY IS TO GAIN INSIGHT AS
TO WHETHER HOMEWORK ACTUALLY HELPS INCREASE
• HOMEWORK CONTRIBUTES TO THE CORPORATE STYLE
AND COMPETITIVE CULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES
(KRALOVEC AND BUELL, 2000)
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF
• BUTLER (1987) STATES THAT HOMEWORK SHOULD BE
ACTIVITIES THAT REINFORCE LEARNING, PROVIDE PRACTICE,
AND ALLOW STUDENTS TO APPLY NEW LEARNED SKILLS.
• COOPER (2007) DEFINES HOMEWORK AS "TASKS ASSIGNED
TO STUDENTS BY SCHOOL TEACHERS THAT ARE INTENDED
TO BE CARRIED OUT DURING NON-SCHOOL HOURS” (P. 4).
• HOMEWORK SHOULD BE FUN, AND RELATED TO LIFE SKILLS
• HOMEWORK HELPS STUDENTS DEVELOP SELF-DISCIPLINE,
RESPONSIBILITY, AND GOOD HABITS AND ATTITUDES (PAULU,
PERCEPTION OF HOMEWORK
• MORE THAN 80% OF TEACHERS
AND 77% OF STUDENTS AFFIRMED
THAT HOMEWORK IS VERY
IMPORTANT TO THEM;
APPROXIMATELY 90% OF
TEACHERS AND PARENTS AND 69%
OF STUDENTS BELIEVED THAT
HOMEWORK HELPED STUDENTS
LEARN MORE IN SCHOOL (MARKOW,
KIM, AND LIEBMAN 2007)
• ONLY 10% OF PARENTS BELIEVED
THAT THEIR CHILDREN HAD TOO
MUCH, WHILE 25% BELIEVED THEY
HAD TOO LITTLE, AND 64% OF
PARENTS BELIEVED THEIR
CHILDREN HAD ABOUT THE RIGHT
AMOUNT OF HOMEWORK (GILL &
ADVANTAGE OF HOMEWORK
• HOMEWORK INCREASES LEARNING
AND, THEREFORE, SHOULD BE
CONTINUED AND MODIFIED FOR
IMPROVEMENT WHEN NECESSARY
(MARZANO & PICKERING, 2007).
• HOMEWORK ENHANCES CLASSROOM
INSTRUCTION, CONNECTS FUTURE
LESSONS, BOOSTS FAMILY
RELATIONSHIPS, AND ADDS TO THE
STUDENT’S INTEREST IN LEARNING
ADVANTAGE OF HOMEWORK
• STUDENTS REMEMBER ONLY 50% OF THE INFORMATION. THUS,
HOMEWORK WILL REINFORCE OR HELP STUDENTS APPLY THAT
INFORMATION (KURUTS, 2006).
• THERE IS A POSITIVE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE AMOUNT OF
HOMEWORK GIVEN AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT. (BEMPECHAT,
• SINCE 1962, OUT OF 20 STUDIES DONE, 14 ARE PRO-HOMEWORK ;
OUT OF 50 STUDIES, 43 SHOWED STUDENTS WHO DID THEIR
HOMEWORK IMPROVED IN THEIR ACHIEVEMENT (COOPER, 2000).
• ALSO NOTED THAT STUDENTS WHO DO HOMEWORK WILL
OUTPERFORM STUDENTS WHO DO NOT DO HOMEWORK BY 69%
ON A STANDARDIZED TEST. COOPER (2000)
• ALSO SHOWS THAT THE POSITIVE CORRELATION IS MUCH
STRONGER FOR SECONDARY STUDENTS THAN ELEMENTARY
STUDENTS (COOPER, 2006)
• HOMEWORK COMPLETION SIGNIFICANTLY INFLUENCES
STUDENT’S SELF-REGULATORY BEHAVIOR AND
MOTIVATIONAL BELIEFS, AND THAT HOMEWORK
IMPROVES STUDENTS’ SELF-EFFICACY AND INSTILLS
RESPONSIBILITY TOWARDS THEIR ACADEMIC
ACHIEVEMENT (BEMBENUTTY, 2009)
• HOMEWORK FOSTERS SELF-REGULATION SKILLS, IT
ALLOWS STUDENTS TO PRACTICE BEHAVIOR SUCH AS
PLANNING, ORGANIZATION, OVERCOMING OBSTACLES,
PERSISTENCE AND STAYING ON TASK (XU, M., BENSON,
S.N.K., MUDREY-CAMINO, R., & STEINER, R. P., 2010)
• DUKE UNIVERSITY RESEARCHERS HAVE REVIEWED MORE
THAN 60 RESEARCH STUDIES ON HOMEWORK BETWEEN
1987 AND 2003 AND CONCLUDED THAT HOMEWORK DOES
HAVE A POSITIVE EFFECT ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT.
• DURHAM, N.C. 2013, DUKE UNIVERSITY
DISADVANTAGE OF HOMEWORK
• RECENTLY, HOMEWORK HAS BECOME “A
SOURCE OF COMPLAINT AND FRICTION
BETWEEN HOME AND SCHOOL MORE
OFTEN THAN OTHER TEACHING
ACTIVITIES” (COOPER, 2001 P. IX).
• TEACHERS LACK THE SKILLS TO DESIGN
HOMEWORK THAT ACTUALLY BENEFITS
THE STUDENT’S LEARNING (COOPER,
• REVIEW OF 60 STUDIES NOTED THAT
TOO MUCH HOMEWORK MAY REDUCE
THE EFFECT OF HOMEWORK OR MAY
EVEN BECOME A HINDRANCE TO
STUDENT LEARNING (COOPER, 2007)
DISADVANTAGE OF HOMEWORK
• IF THERE IS A CORRELATION BETWEEN
HOMEWORK AND ACHIEVEMENT, IT IS NOT
SUFFICIENT ENOUGH TO JUSTIFY THAT
CONCLUSION AND THAT SEVERAL FACTORS
SURROUNDING HOMEWORK AND
ACHIEVEMENT NEED TO BE CONSIDERED
• HOMEWORK SEEMS TO BE TAKING OVER SOME
OF THE TIME MEANT TO BE FOR
SOCIALIZATION. (KOHN, 2006).
• FOUND CONTRADICTING RESEARCH
STUDIES—THAT SHOWED HOMEWORK DOES
BENEFIT LEARNING WHILE OTHER
RESEARCHERS ARGUED THAT IT DOES NOT
DISADVANTAGE OF HOMEWORK
• 4 OUT OF 10 PARENTS POLLED BELIEVED THAT
MOST OF THE HOMEWORK GIVEN WAS MERELY
BUSYWORK (PAUL, 2011)
• TOO MUCH HOMEWORK CAN BE HARMFUL TO A
CHILD’S HEALTH AND FAMILY TIME (BENNET &
KALISH 2006, P. 53).
• CAUTIONED TEACHERS NOT TO GIVE TOO MUCH
HOMEWORK BECAUSE THIS MAY DIMINISH ITS’
EFFECTIVENESS OR EVEN BECOME
COUNTERPRODUCTIVE (COOPER, ROBINSON, AND
• HOMEWORK SHOULD NOT BE GIVEN TOO OFTEN,
BUT WHEN IT IS GIVEN, THEN IT SHOULD BE
REALISTIC IN LENGTH AND THE DIFFICULTY
SHOULD BE BASED ON STUDENTS’ SKILL LEVEL.(
GOOD AND BROPHY ,2003)
• CLAIM THAT HOMEWORK CAN BE HARMFUL TO STUDENT’S
WELL-BEING WHEN TEACHERS ARE NOT TRAINED IN HOW
TO ASSIGN HOMEWORK. THE AUTHORS RECOMMEND
REDUCING THE AMOUNT OF HOMEWORK GIVEN,
DESIGNING MORE VALUABLE ASSIGNMENTS, AND
AVOIDING GIVING HOMEWORK DURING HOLIDAYS OR
BREAKS (BENNET AND KALISH, 2006)
• HOMEWORK IS “FORCED LABOR.” TEACHERS SHOULD BE
ABLE TO DO EVERYTHING INSIDE THE CLASSROOM
• PRINCIPAL BANNED HOMEWORK IN HIS SCHOOL AND
NOTED THAT EXCELLENT TEACHING DOES NOT REQUIRED
HOURS OF HOMEWORK (NELSON, 2007).
• REPORTED THAT ONE QUARTER OF STUDENTS FINISH
HOMEWORK ONLY SOMETIMES, RARELY, OR NEVER
(MARKOW ET AL. (2007)
• CONDUCTED A STUDY ON ALTERNATIVE HIGH SCHOOLS
AND WERE AMAZED TO DISCOVER THAT HOMEWORK WAS
ONE OF THE CONTRIBUTING FACTORS THAT CAUSED
STUDENTS TO DROP OUT OF SCHOOL. (KRALOVEC AND
• SUGGEST THAT POLICYMAKERS SHOULD LOOK INTO THE
QUALITY OF HOMEWORK BEING ASSIGNED IN ORDER TO
MAKE HOMEWORK PRACTICES EFFECTIVE (BAKER AND LE
• COOPER ET. AL., (2006) NOTE THAT SINCE HOMEWORK
HAS BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES, A
NEED FOR CONTINUED RESEARCH IS NECESSARY.
METHODOLOGY• RESEARCH SETTING
• THIS STUDY WILL TAKE PLACE AT A PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOL IN SCHOOL
• THE SCHOOL USES A BLOCK SCHEDULE FORMAT WITH ALTERNATING
PERIODS EACH DAY. STUDENTS TAKE THREE 100-MINUTES CLASSES PER
• THE PARTICIPANTS OF THIS STUDY WILL BE STUDENTS IN MY U. S.
HISTORY CLASS (N=130).
• THE CLASSES CHOSEN FOR THE STUDY WILL BE CALLED CLASS A AND
CLASS B. CLASS A WILL BE PERIOD 1 AND 3, WHILE CLASS B WILL BE
PERIOD 2, 4, AND 6. CLASS A WILL BE NOT BE GIVEN HOMEWORK AND
CLASS B WILL BE GIVEN HOMEWORK.
• CONSENT FORMS WILL BE DISTRIBUTED FOR STUDENTS AND PARENTS
TO SIGN. THE STUDENTS WHO RETURN THE CONSENT FORMED WITH
SIGNATURES WILL PARTICIPATE IN THE STUDY.
• DAY’S LESSONS USING LECTURES AND POWER POINT
• GROUP B WILL RECEIVE HOMEWORK
• ALL GROUPS WILL RECEIVE QUIZZES
• DATA COLLECTION
• I WILL USE MY GRADE BOOK AS ONE FORM OF COLLECTING
• I WILL SURVEY STUDENTS AT THE END OF THE PROJECT
• COOPER POINTED OUT THAT THERE ARE LIMITATIONS TO
CURRENT RESEARCH ON HOMEWORK. FOR INSTANCE,
LITTLE RESEARCH HAS BEEN DONE TO ASSESS WHETHER
A STUDENT'S RACE, SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS OR ABILITY
LEVEL AFFECTS THE IMPORTANCE OF HOMEWORK IN HIS
OR HER ACHIEVEMENT.
• HOMEWORK 'BRIDGES THE GAP BETWEEN LEARNING AT
SCHOOL AND LEARNING AT HOME' AND SHOULD THEREFORE
BE CONSISTENT WITH AND CONNECTED TO THE LEARNING
EXPERIENCES BEING PROVIDED IN THE CLASSROOM. AS
WELL AS EMPHASIZING CURRICULUM RELEVANCE, SCHOOL
HOMEWORK POLICIES SHOULD ENSURE THAT HOMEWORK
• IS APPROPRIATE FOR EACH STUDENT'S AGE AND ABILITY
• TAKES INTO ACCOUNT STUDENTS' OTHER COMMITMENTS,
SUCH AS SPORT, PART-TIME EMPLOYMENT AND HOME
• TAKES INTO ACCOUNT TECHNOLOGY SUCH AS EMAIL AND
THE INTERNET SO THAT STUDENTS WITHOUT ACCESS ARE