Introduction to Harvard
Donna Irving – Health Studies
What do you already know?
Have you done referencing before? If so
Why is referencing important (as many
reasons as you can think of)
What does citation mean?
What is a journal volume?
What are the important parts of a
Citations (pointers in the text)
Author’s surname (not initials) or name of
and year of publication (Author-Date)
the Dutch people, on average, are the tallest in the
world (Leroi, 2004) …
according to the Department of Health (2002) …
Smith’s research (2002) shows that…
Dark chocolate contains powerful antioxidants
called flavonoids which are known to protect the
body against cell-damaging free radicals according
to Beckett (2000). Some caution is necessary
however as key research in this area is funded by
the chocolate manufacturer Mars (BBC, 2009).
Where there is less controversy is in the effects of
chocolate on mood. Mood improvements, sadly,
are short-lived (Parker et al., 2006).
“The personal is political” (Hanisch, 2009, p.204)
But keep direct quotations to an absolute minimum.
Useful when the words are famous, significant or
Too many quotes will show you haven’t done the
necessary thinking for yourself
The reference list
At the end of your work
Full details of the sources you have used
In alphabetical order by author’s surname.
All the authors’ names are given
Not included in word count
Not a bibliography
Anatomy of a book reference
Means, R., Richards, S. and Smith, R. (2008)
Community care: policy and practice. London:
Provide a reference for a book called:
Learning to learn in Nursing Practice. By Kath
Sharples. Published by Learning Matters Ltd, in
Exeter, in 2009
How would you reference this?
Sharples, K. (2009) Learning to learn in nursing
practice. Exeter: Learning Matters Ltd
How did you do?
Anatomy of a journal article reference
Dinovitzer, R. and Dawson, M. (2007) Family-based
justice in the sentencing of domestic violence. British
Journal of Criminology, 47 (4), pp.655-70.
Provide a reference for an
How can we add skills to transform the healthcare
system. By Helen Bevan in 2010. Published in Journal
of research in nursing. Volume 15, number 2. Page
How did you do?
Bevan, H. (2010) How can we add skills to transform
the healthcare system. Journal of Research in
Nursing, 15 (2), p.139
Anatomy of an
electronic source reference
Rutter, L. and Holland, M. (2002) Citing references:
the Harvard system [Online]. Poole: Bournemouth
University. Available from:
uments/Library/Citing_References.pdf [accessed 5
Place of Publication
You still need Author-Date
Put in [online], URL (web address) and date you
saw the page
If you can’t identify the author, cite the title.
BBC (2005) Is chocolate good for you? [Online].
London: BBC. Available from:
foryou.shtml [Accessed 1 November, 2009]
Try this one:
Provide a reference for a website called:
Personal Care at Home consultation
By DoH in 2010
Available from www.dh.gov.uk/en/Consultations
Accessed 7 April 2012
Published by DoH in London
How did you do?
Department of Health (2010) Personal care at home
consultation [Online]. London: DoH. Available from:
www.dh.gov.uk/en/Consultations [accessed 7 April
British Broadcasting Corporation (2009) Is chocolate
good for you? [online]. London: BBC. Available from:
foryou.shtml [accessed 1 November, 2008].
Beckett, S.T. (2000) The Science of chocolate.
Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Parker, G., Parker, I. and Brotchie, H. (2006) Mood
state effects of chocolate. Journal of Affective
Disorders, 92 (6), pp.149-159.
Remember it’s the Author-Date style. You need to
identify and credit the author.
It’s only a habit – get it right as soon as possible
Check if in doubt – the guide, lecturers or Library
When making notes and copies, write on all the
details you’ll need for your reference
The Harvard referencing guide
Available online through library and blackboard
or print one out Online guide
Library staff can help with referencing
What’s a bibliography
A bibliography is a list of everything you read,
whether or not you referred specifically to it (cited it)
in your assignment.
References are the full details of the sources you
have referred to (cited) in your assignment