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Learning Theory
Dominic Egan
What works?
Find out what works for you?
Find out what works for your student?
Pick up the cues from them
Be aware of your...
How do you learn?
Visual
Aural
Kinaesthetic
Read write.
Fleming,N. (2011) VARK a guide to learning
styles. [online] http:/...
What can we learn from
learning theory
Behaviourism

Cognitivism
Humanism
Behaviourism
Positive negative reinforcement of behaviour.
Omission of reinforcement.
Conditioning.
Variable response rein...
Behaviourism
Behavioural objectifies
Linear teaching programmes (Chaining)
Branching teaching Programmes
Mastery of learni...
Vicarious learning
Learning by the observation of others
Useful with early learning stages
Promote learners to act as a ro...
Cognitivism
Memory (Two types)
Short term
Long term

Encoding
• Put into
memory

Storage
• Maintain
in memory

Retrieval
•...
Cognitivism
Lasts seconds – minutes
To encode we must attend to it, a selective process
How do you remember a number
Visua...
Try to remember this

RLBKSJ
And now this…

SPT, OARE
… and this

O AIR TEK
How did you encode these?
SPT, OARE - Visually
O AIR TEK - Acoustically?
Try remember this

25734169385
What goes wrong?
Displacement
Trying to learn too much
Can we help this?
Try chunking, or strings that are already in our ...
Forgetting
Proactive inhibition old info interferes with the new
retroactive inhibition – new info interferes with old

Em...
Improving memory Recall
Use of mental imagery
Self Recital during study
Over learning
Organisational schemes
Factors involved in
successful learning
Methods of presentation of material
Knowledge of progress and results
Distribution...
Factors involved in
successful learning
Implications for the teacher
Relevance of the Info
Avoid unfamiliar info

Motivati...
Humanism
Whole person, feelings, values, attitudes
Self direction, empowerment, autonomy, internal
motivations.
Maslow - n...
Humanism cont…
Rogers principles of learning
Enable curiosity
Psychologically
Mutual respect: participation.
Expression of...
Critical thinking development:
Absolute knowing
2/3 of first years notions of fixed, correct,

Transitional knowing
1/3 fr...
Critical thinking development cont..
It implies re-processing of something learnt in order
to learn more

It deals with co...
Critical thinking development cont..
"Active, persistent, and careful consideration of any
belief or supposed form of know...
Mezirow's Three Domains of Learning
Instrumental: gaining of technical knowledge
Communicative: gaining of practical knowl...
Transformative learning involves:
Becoming more reflective and critical
Being more open to the perspectives of others
Bein...
Why?
Adult learning is inevitably related to making sense of
experience through reflection

Kolb
Schon
Knowles M.

Johns C...
Gibbs Reflective Model
Description
What happened?

Analysis
What sense can you
make of the situation
Model for Structured Reflection adapted from Johns (2000)
Looking in:
Find a space to focus on self
Pay attention to your ...
Model for Structured Reflection adapted from Johns (2000) cont…
Looking out:
Write a description of the situation
What iss...
Model for Structured Reflection adapted from Johns (2000) cont…
Looking out:
Personal
Why did I feel the way I did within ...
Model for Structured Reflection adapted from Johns (2000) cont…
Looking out:
Reflexivity:
How does this situation relate t...
Kolb
Stage1 - Experience (Kolb's "Concrete Experiences")
Life is full of experiences we can learn from. Whether at
home or...
Kolb cont…
Stage 3 - Conceptualise (Kolb's "Abstract
Conceptualisation")
When we pass from thinking about our experiences ...
Kolb cont…
Stage 4 - Plan (Kolb's "Active Experimentation”)
In the active experimentation stage of the learning cycle we
e...
Borton’s framework (1970)

What
Happened

So what

Now what
Schon (1987)
2 types of knowledge:
Technical rationality – empirical and scientific
knowledge
Tacit knowledge – intuitive ...
Types of knowledge:
Baumard P. 1999 Tacit knowledge in organisations
London: Sage
Individual
knowledge

Explicit

Tacit

C...
Carper (1978)
Empirical knowledge
Aesthetic knowledge

Personal knowledge
Ethical knowledge
Benner (1984)
Consider how far your portfolio demonstrates your
progression form novice to expert practitioner?
Stage 1: N...
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Lerning theory

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Lerning theory

  1. 1. Learning Theory Dominic Egan
  2. 2. What works? Find out what works for you? Find out what works for your student? Pick up the cues from them Be aware of your environment Look out for variables, limits, exclusions Consider your presentation style Get feedback as well as self evaluation
  3. 3. How do you learn? Visual Aural Kinaesthetic Read write. Fleming,N. (2011) VARK a guide to learning styles. [online] http://www.varklearn.com/english/index.asp (accessed 26/09/13) Paper version http://www.varklearn.com/documents/The%20VARK%20Questio
  4. 4. What can we learn from learning theory Behaviourism Cognitivism Humanism
  5. 5. Behaviourism Positive negative reinforcement of behaviour. Omission of reinforcement. Conditioning. Variable response reinforcement is most useful. Ignoring negative behaviour leads to extinction of the behaviour.
  6. 6. Behaviourism Behavioural objectifies Linear teaching programmes (Chaining) Branching teaching Programmes Mastery of learning Task A Task B Task C
  7. 7. Vicarious learning Learning by the observation of others Useful with early learning stages Promote learners to act as a role for their juniors
  8. 8. Cognitivism Memory (Two types) Short term Long term Encoding • Put into memory Storage • Maintain in memory Retrieval • Recover from memory
  9. 9. Cognitivism Lasts seconds – minutes To encode we must attend to it, a selective process How do you remember a number Visually Acoustically Semantically
  10. 10. Try to remember this RLBKSJ
  11. 11. And now this… SPT, OARE
  12. 12. … and this O AIR TEK
  13. 13. How did you encode these? SPT, OARE - Visually O AIR TEK - Acoustically? Try remember this 25734169385
  14. 14. What goes wrong? Displacement Trying to learn too much Can we help this? Try chunking, or strings that are already in our long term memory On Old Olympus
  15. 15. Forgetting Proactive inhibition old info interferes with the new retroactive inhibition – new info interferes with old Emotional, loss of STM, Decay of LTM. Repression. Altered recall. Physical Damage.
  16. 16. Improving memory Recall Use of mental imagery Self Recital during study Over learning Organisational schemes
  17. 17. Factors involved in successful learning Methods of presentation of material Knowledge of progress and results Distribution of practice Study and learner methods used by the learner
  18. 18. Factors involved in successful learning Implications for the teacher Relevance of the Info Avoid unfamiliar info Motivation Boredom fatigue Over learning Rehearsal repetition Organisation and content
  19. 19. Humanism Whole person, feelings, values, attitudes Self direction, empowerment, autonomy, internal motivations. Maslow - needs Rogers - freedom to learn Facilitation rather than teacher
  20. 20. Humanism cont… Rogers principles of learning Enable curiosity Psychologically Mutual respect: participation. Expression of feeling and values Self critique over feedback
  21. 21. Critical thinking development: Absolute knowing 2/3 of first years notions of fixed, correct, Transitional knowing 1/3 from certainty to uncertainty Independent knowing Aware of no certainties Contextual knowing Within the light of experience Baxter Magolda M.1992 Knowing and reasoning in college students: San franciso Jossey-Bass)
  22. 22. Critical thinking development cont.. It implies re-processing of something learnt in order to learn more It deals with complex ideas – not simple ones It implies a deep approach – not superficial It involves evaluation There is reflexivity/ metacognition (critical consideration of own learning processes) (Moon, 2008)
  23. 23. Critical thinking development cont.. "Active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusion to which it tends". (Dewey, 2010 cited in McGregor, 2007) “Critical thinking is not one single way of thinking, but rather it is multi -dimensional cognitive process. It demands a skilful application of knowledge and experience in making discriminating judgements and evaluations” (Jones and Brown, 1991 p. 530)
  24. 24. Mezirow's Three Domains of Learning Instrumental: gaining of technical knowledge Communicative: gaining of practical knowledge Emancipatory: gaining of emancipatory knowledge which leads to „transformation‟ in the learner Changing roles Natural Contextual to past perspectives Incremental or sudden acute
  25. 25. Transformative learning involves: Becoming more reflective and critical Being more open to the perspectives of others Being less defensive and more accepting of new ideas Mezirow, J. 1990. Fostering critical reflection in adulthood : a guide to transformative and emancipatory learning. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass.
  26. 26. Why? Adult learning is inevitably related to making sense of experience through reflection Kolb Schon Knowles M. Johns C. Mezirow Gibbs
  27. 27. Gibbs Reflective Model Description What happened? Analysis What sense can you make of the situation
  28. 28. Model for Structured Reflection adapted from Johns (2000) Looking in: Find a space to focus on self Pay attention to your thoughts and emotions Write down these thoughts and emotions
  29. 29. Model for Structured Reflection adapted from Johns (2000) cont… Looking out: Write a description of the situation What issues seem significant Aesthetics: What was I trying to achieve? Why did I respond as I did? What were the consequences for myself & others? How were others feeling? How did I know this?
  30. 30. Model for Structured Reflection adapted from Johns (2000) cont… Looking out: Personal Why did I feel the way I did within this situation? Ethics Did I act for the best? What factors were influencing me? What knowledge did or could have informed me?
  31. 31. Model for Structured Reflection adapted from Johns (2000) cont… Looking out: Reflexivity: How does this situation relate to previous experiences? How could I have handled this better? What would have been the consequences of alternative actions? How do I feel now about the experience? How can I support myself and others better in the future?
  32. 32. Kolb Stage1 - Experience (Kolb's "Concrete Experiences") Life is full of experiences we can learn from. Whether at home or at work or out and about, there are countless opportunities for us to 'kick-start' the learning cycle. Stage 2 - Reflect (Kolb's "Reflective Observation") Reflection involves thinking about what we have done and experienced. Some people are naturally good at this. Others train themselves to be more deliberate about reviewing their experiences and recording them.
  33. 33. Kolb cont… Stage 3 - Conceptualise (Kolb's "Abstract Conceptualisation") When we pass from thinking about our experiences to interpreting them we enter into the realm of what Kolb termed 'conceptualization'. To conceptualize is to generate a hypothesis about the meaning of our experiences.
  34. 34. Kolb cont… Stage 4 - Plan (Kolb's "Active Experimentation”) In the active experimentation stage of the learning cycle we effectively 'test' the hypotheses we have adopted. Our new experiences will either support or challenge these hypotheses. To learn from our experiences it is not sufficient just to have them. This will only take us into stage 1 of the cycle. Rather, any experience has the potential to yield learning, but only if we pass through all Kolb's stages by reflecting on our experiences, interpreting them and testing our interpretations. Summing up, learning from our experiences involves the key element of reflection. Obviously, most people don't theorize about their learning in this way, but in their learning follow Kolb's cycle without knowing it.
  35. 35. Borton’s framework (1970) What Happened So what Now what
  36. 36. Schon (1987) 2 types of knowledge: Technical rationality – empirical and scientific knowledge Tacit knowledge – intuitive knowledge in order to navigate through the “swampy lowlands” of real life practice Reflection – give the practitioner access to tacit knowledge
  37. 37. Types of knowledge: Baumard P. 1999 Tacit knowledge in organisations London: Sage Individual knowledge Explicit Tacit Collective knowledge Technical expertise Rules laws, regulations Intuitiveness Wisdom of social practice
  38. 38. Carper (1978) Empirical knowledge Aesthetic knowledge Personal knowledge Ethical knowledge
  39. 39. Benner (1984) Consider how far your portfolio demonstrates your progression form novice to expert practitioner? Stage 1: Novice Stage 2: Advanced Beginner Stage 3: Competent Stage 4: Proficient Stage 5: The Expert

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