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Minto pyramid

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Minto pyramid

  2. 2. OBJECTIVE • The main objective for having logic in writing, thinking, problem solving and presentation is to enhance clear communication to facilitate easy and correct flow of information. • Logic in writing helps the reader get the clear picture about what he/she should expect from the content and get an idea about what the writer wants to convey. • Logic in thinking trains our mind to think in a manner that is now easy to put on paper logically. Logic in thinking trains the mind to write logically.
  3. 3. • Logic in problem solving, helps us find the optimum solution for a given problem and helps us facilitate our capability to think logically. • Finally logic in presentation is the amalgamation of logic in writing, thinking and problem solving that help in clearer thinking and rich information exchange.
  5. 5. • Phrase coined by George A. Miller in his treatise, “The magical number seven, plus or minus two” is a pattern governing the process of our mind. • Whenever we encounter a number of items the mind begins to group them into logical categories so they can be retained. The mind will automatically impose order on everything around it. This tendency of the mind is nicely illustrated by the Greeks who grouped stars into figures instead of pinpoints of lights.
  6. 6. 1.1 WHY A PYRAMID STRUCTURE • • For example : the following list items are to be remembered. • Given beside is a set of List of items : Grapes, Oranges, Milk, Butter, Potatoes, Apples, Eggs, Sour Cream, Carrots. pyramids of logically related items. • The point of grouping was not just to move from set of 9 to separate sets of 4, 3 and 2, it was to move above the 9, to 3.
  7. 7. 1.2 THINKING FROM BOTTOM UP • Ideas at any level in the pyramid must always be summaries of the ideas grouped below them. • Ideas in each grouping must always be the same kind of idea. which means that the ideas in grouping must fall in the same category. • Ideas in each grouping must always be logically ordered.
  9. 9. 1.4 HOW TO BUILD A PYRAMID STRUCTURE • The Top-Down Approach :
  10. 10. 1.5 DEDUCTION AND INDUCTION : THE DIFFERENCE • Deduction and induction, these two forms of reasoning are the only patterns available for establishing logical relationships between ideas. 1. Deduction presents a line of Induction define group of ideas reasoning that leads to a and or facts to be same kind of thing “therefore” conclusion, and the then makes a statement(or point above is a summary of that inference) about the sameness. line of reasoning, resting heavily on the final point. 2. Deductive points arrive from each each other. Inductive points do not arrive from other.
  11. 11. 2. LOGIC IN THINKING
  12. 12. 2.1 ANALYTICAL ACTIVITIES PERFORMED BY THE MIND • Second rule of Minto Pyramid Principle is that, “ideas in any grouping must be in logical order”. • This makes sure that ideas brought together truly belong together and none has been left out. • Mind can perform only 3 analytical activities : • 1. Determine the cause of an effect :
  13. 13. • 2. Divide a whole into its parts : • 3. Classify like things :
  14. 14. 2.2 IMPOSING LOGICAL ORDER • Orders can be applied singly or in combination, but one of them must always be present in a grouping to justify its existence. • Different types of order : 1. TIME ORDER : It would seem to be the simplest order of all to understand, for it is certainly the most pervasively used as the basis of grouping of ideas. Time-ordered grouping reflects the steps a person must take to achieve a particular effect, in the order in which he must take them1,2,3.
  15. 15. 2. STRUCTURAL ORDER : It is the order which reflects what you see once you have visualized something – either by diagram or by map, by drawing or photograph. While creating a structure following things should be taken care of : 1. Mutually exclusive pieces (No Overlaps). 2. Collectively exhaustive in terms of the whole (Nothing Left Out). 3. DEGREE ORDER : This order is imposed on a grouping when it brings together a set of things that have been classified as being alike because they possess a characteristic in common, it is also the most commonly called order of importance.
  16. 16. 2.3 SUMMARIZING GROUPED IDEAS • Act of summarizing = Act of completing the thinking. • Avoid intellectually blank assertions : They are deadly for the reader because they do not anchor his mind, they are not stimulating to read and they present the very real danger that he will not grasp what you are trying to say. • State the effect of actions. • Look for the similarity in conclusions.
  18. 18. 3.1 THE MAIN SEQUENCE • Define the problem Structure Conduct the Form the the analysis analysis/find pyramid to the solution communicate the ideas
  19. 19. 3.1 DEFINING THE PROBLEM • Defining a problem begins the process of Sequential Analysis, a particularly efficient problem solving technique that involves finding the answers to a series of questions in logical sequence. • 1. Is there/is likely to be a problem? Define the 2. Where does it exist? problem 3. Why does it exist? Structure the 4. What could we do about it? Find the solution analysis 5. What should we do about it?
  20. 20. • Laying out the Elements. • Converting to an Introduction. • The Starting Point/Opening Scene. • The Disturbing Event. -The Disturbing Event is what happens – or what could happen or would likely to happen in the near future – to threaten the relatively stable situation described in the opening scene.
  21. 21. 3.2 STRUCTURING THE ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM • Problem analysis generally proceed in a standard way : Gather State Draw Data Findings Conclusions Recommend Actions • Devising Diagnostic Framework : Physical External Head bruised head allergies, bad weather Hurts Internal Mental stress, tension Hypochondria flu, cold brain tumor water on the brain
  22. 22. • Tracing cause and effect E.g. Financial Structure, Task Structure, Activity Structure. • Classifying Possible Causes( create MECE classification, formulate yes-no question). • Need for action is revealed by Decision tree and PERT diagram. • Decision Tree Decision Point Chance Event • PERT Diagram Event Activity
  24. 24. 4.1 REFLECTING THE PYRAMID ON THE PAGE • Title or chapter heading • Sections heading • Subsections headings • Numbered paragraphs • Dash Points Major Thought
  25. 25. • Hierarchical headings • Underlined points • Decimal numbering • Indented display • Dot-Dash outlines • Summarizing sections • Making full conclusions • Stating next steps
  26. 26. 4.2 PROBLEM SOLVING IN STRUCTURE-LESS SITUATIONS • DEDUCTION INDUCTION Case Rule Result Case Result ABDUCTION Rule Result Rule Case • Where you start determines the form of thinking you will see. • Deductive arguments are needed when the reader is incapable of understanding the action without prior explanation. • Inductive reasoning is used when hypothesis or ideas already exist and we just establishing probabilistic grounds for them. • Abductive reasoning is used to generate inference networks : the skillful combination of relevance and credibility characteristics of evidence. Example : medical diagnosis.
  27. 27. THANK YOU