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structure, technology and materials of highrise buildings


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evolution and description of highrise or tall buildings structural system..

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structure, technology and materials of highrise buildings

  1. 1. STRUCTURE , TECHNOLOGY & MATERIALS OF TALL BUILDINGS (HIGHRISE) GROUP_3 130103 130120 130131 120110 110133
  2. 2. CONTENT: • Structural loads. • Load distribution system. • Structural members. • Structural Typology.
  3. 3. Structural load : Structural loads are forces, deformations, or accelerations applied to a structure or its components. Types of loads • Dead load • Loads that are relatively constant over time. • Also known as permanent or static loads. • Live load • Dynamic or impose or moving loads, temporary of short duration. • Considerations: impact, momentum, vibration, slosh dynamic of fluid. • Environmental loads These are loads that act as a result of weather, topography and other natural phenomena. These are: • Seismic load • Snow, rain and ice load • Wind loads • Thermal loads (temperature changes leading to thermal expansion) • Lateral pressure of soil, groundwater or bulk materials Reference: Wikipedia
  4. 4. Seismic Load: • Buildings undergoes dynamic motion during earthquake. • Building is subjected to inertia forces that act in opposite direction to the acceleration of earthquake excitations. • These inertia forces, called seismic loads, are usually dealt with by assuming forces external to the building. Reference:
  5. 5. Foundation diagram for resisting seismic load Reference:
  6. 6. Wind Load: Wind load has the ability to bring a building to sway. V max. V max. Variation of wind velocity with height Wind velocity increases with the increase of height.
  7. 7. Variation of wind load with the variation of forms Round shape Minimum wind pressure Irregular shape Maximum wind pressure Plan view
  8. 8. WIND TURBULENCE : When any moving air mass meets an obstruction, such as building, it responds like any fluids by moving to each side, then rejoining the major airflow. The Ventury effect is one type of turbulent wind action. Turbulence develops as the moving air mass is funneled through the narrow space between two tall buildings. The corresponding wind velocity in this space exceeds the wind velocity of the major airflow
  9. 9. LOAD DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM : All type of loads can be considered as_ •Vertical load & •Lateral load Vertical loads transfer through_ •Bearing wall •Column •Core •Diagonal frame Lateral loads transfer through_ • Shear wall • Slab Core • Beam Core/Column • Diagonal Frame
  10. 10. Structural member: Beam : Beam is a rigid structural member designed to carry and transfer loads across spaces to supporting elements. Column : A rigid relativity slender structural member designed primarily to support axial compressive loads applied at the member ends. In high rise buildings it can be use as mega column, concrete filled tubular(CFT) etc. Shear wall: A vertical diaphragm or wall acting as a thin, deep cantilever beam in loads to the ground foundation. Bracing : It is a structural element for positioning, supporting, strengthening or restraining the member of a structural frame.
  11. 11. Core : Core is one of the most important structural and functional elements of the high rise building. The core of a building is the area reserved for elevators’ stairs, mechanical equipments and the vertical shafts that are necessary for ducts, pipes and wires. Its wall are also the most common location for the vertical wind bracing. The placement of the service core stems from four generic types which are : - Central core - Split core - End core - Atrium core Central core End core Atrium coresplit core
  12. 12. Type I : Shear Frames Type II : Interacting Systems Type III: Partial Tubular Systems Type IV: Tubular Systems (CTBUH, 1980) Structural typology: According to ‘Council on Tall Buildings and Urban habitat’ there are four types of structural system- According to Mir M. Aliand Kyoung Sun Moon, Structural systems of tall buildings can be divided into two broad categories- 1.interior structures and 2.exterior structures. According to material it can be also- 1. Concrete type and 2. steel type
  13. 13. EXTERIOR STRUCTURES In newer skyscrapers, like the Sears Tower in Chicago, engineers moved the columns and beams from the core to the perimeter, creating a hollow, rigid tube as strong as the core design, but weighing much, much less. INTERIOR STRUCTURES By clustering steel columns and beams in the core, engineers create a stiff backbone that can resist tremendous wind forces. The inner core is used as an elevator shaft , and the design allows lots of open space on each floor Interior structure 1. Rigid Frames 2. Shear Wall Hinged Frames 3. Shear Wall (or Shear Truss) - Frame Interaction System 4. Outrigger Structures Exterior structure 1. Tube 2. Diagrid 3. Space Truss Structures 4. Super frames 5. Exo-skeleton Interior and exterior classification is based on the distribution of the components of the primary lateral load-resisting system over the building.
  14. 14. INTERIOR STRUCTURE 1. Rigid Frames: 860 & 880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments (Chicago, USA, 26 stories, 82 m) • The moment-resisting frame (MRF) consists of horizontal (girder) and vertical (column) members rigidly connected together in a planar grid form. • The size of the columns is mainly controlled by the gravity loads. • The size of the girders, on the other hand, is controlled by stiffness of the frame in order to ensure acceptable lateral sway of the building. The two basic types of lateral load- resisting systems in the category of interior structures are the moment- resisting frames and shear trusses/shear walls.
  15. 15. 860 & 880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments (Chicago, USA, 26 stories, 82 m) Material : steel Ingalls Building (Cincinnati, USA, 16 stories, 65 m) Material : concrete
  16. 16. SHEAR WALL HINGED FRAME • Reinforced concrete planar solid or coupled shear walls have been used for high-rise construction to resist lateral forces caused by wind and earthquakes. • Treated as vertical cantilevers fixed at the base. • When two or more shear walls in the same plane are interconnected by beams or slabs the total stiffness of the system exceeds the sum of the individual wall stiffness. Hinged frames are used for this interconnection. • The connecting beam forces the walls to act as a single unit by restraining their individual cantilever actions. These are known as coupled shear walls.
  17. 17. 77 West Wacker Drive (Chicago, USA, 50 stories, 203.6 m),
  18. 18. SHEAR WALL (or SHEAR TRUSS) - FRAME INTERACTION SYSTEM • When shear trusses or shear walls are combined with MRFs, a shear truss (or shear wall)-frame interaction system results. • The upper part of the truss is restrained by the frame, whereas at the lower part, the shear wall or truss restrains the frame. Sub category : 1. Braced Rigid Frames 2. Shear Wall Rigid Frames
  19. 19. Empire state building Braced Rigid Frames Shear Wall Rigid Frames: Material: Concrete Shear Wall + Steel Rigid Frame Seagram Building, up to the 17th floor (New York, USA, 38 stories, 157 m) Cook County Administration Building, former Brunswick Building (Chicago, USA, 38 stories, 145 m) Material: Concrete Shear Wall + Concrete Frame
  20. 20. OUTRIGGER SYSTEM • The core may be centrally located with outriggers extending on both sides or in some cases it may be located on one side of the building with outriggers extending to the building columns on the other side. • The outriggers are generally in the form of trusses in steel structures, or walls in concrete structures. • Outriggers serve to reduce the overturning moment in the core that would otherwise act as pure cantilever, and to transfer the reduced moment to the outer columns through the outriggers connecting the core to these columns.
  21. 21. Effectively resists bending by exterior columns connected to outriggers extended from the core.
  22. 22. Belt truss
  23. 23. EXTERIOR STRUCTURE 1. Tube system • Concept is based on the idea that a building can be designed to resist lateral loads by designing it as a hollow cantilever perpendicular to the ground. • In the simplest incarnation of the tube, the perimeter of the exterior consists of closely spaced columns that are tied together with deep spandrel beams through moment connections. • This assembly of columns and beams forms a rigid frame that amounts to a dense and strong structural wall along the exterior of the building. The different tubular systems are-  Framed tube  Braced tube  Bundled tube  Tube in tube
  24. 24.  FRAMED TUBE • In a framed tube system, which is the basic tubular form, the building has closely spaced columns and deep spandrel beams rigidly connected together throughout the exterior frames. • Exterior column spacing should be from 5 to 15ft (1.5 to 4.5m) on centers. Practical spandrel beam depths should vary from 24 to 48in (600 to 1200mm) • The axial forces in the corner columns are the greatest and the distribution is non-linear for both the web frame (i.e., frame parallel to wind), and the flange frame (i.e., frame perpendicular to wind).
  25. 25. • This is because the axial forces in the columns toward the middle of the flange frames lag behind those near the corner due to the nature of a framed tube which is different from a solid-wall tube. This phenomenon is known as shear lag. • The purpose is to limit the shear lag effect and aim for more cantilever-type behavior of the structure. • A reasonable and practical limits can be a cantilever deflection of 50 to 80 percent of the total lateral sway of the building.
  26. 26. Aon Center (Chicago, USA, 83 stories, 346 m)
  27. 27.  BRACED TUBE • A braced tube overcomes this problem by stiffening the perimeter frames in their own planes. • This concept stems from the fact that instead of using closely spaced perimeter columns, it is possible to stiffen the widely spaced columns by diagonal braces to create wall-like characteristics. • The braces also collect gravity loads from floors and act as inclined columns. • The diagonals of a trussed tube connected to columns at each joint effectively eliminate the effects of shear lag throughout the tubular framework. • Therefore, the columns can be more widely spaced and the sizes of spandrels and columns can be smaller than those needed for framed tubes, allowing for larger window openings than in the framed tubes (Khan, 1967). The framed tube becomes progressively inefficient over 60 stories since the web frames begin to behave as conventional rigid frames. Consequently, beam and column designs are controlled by bending action, resulting in large size. In addition, the cantilever behavior of the structure is thus undermined and the shear lag effect is aggravated.
  28. 28. John Hancock Center (Chicago, USA, 100 stories 344 m) Architect: Skidmore, Owings & Merril Braced frame Braced Frame material /configuration : STEEL
  29. 29. Onterie Center (Chicago, 58 stories, 174 m) Architect: Skidmore, Owings & Merril Braced frame Braced Frame material /configuration : CONCRETE
  30. 30.  BUNDLED TUBE • A bundled tube is a cluster of individual tubes connected together to act as a single unit. • For such a structure, the three- dimensional response of the structure could be improved for strength and stiffness by providing cross walls or cross frames in the building. • Also allowed for wider column spacing in the tubular walls, which made it possible to place interior frame lines without seriously compromising interior space planning of the building. • It is possible to add diagonals to them to increase the efficient height limit.
  31. 31. Sears Tower (Chicago, USA, 108 stories, 442 m) Material /Configuration : STEEL Section A-A Section B-B Section C-C Two additional tube omitted Section D-D • 9 steel framed tubes are bundled at the base. • Some of which are terminated at various levels with two tubes continuing between the 90th floor and the roof.
  32. 32. Carnegie Hall Tower (New York, USA, 62 stories, 230.7 m) Material /Configuration : CONCRETE Bundle Tubes
  33. 33.  TUBE IN TUBE • The stiffness of a framed tube can also be enhanced by using the core to resist part of the lateral load resulting in a tube-in-tube system. • The floor diaphragm connecting the core and the outer tube transfer the lateral loads to both systems. • The core itself could be made up of a solid tube, a braced tube, or a framed tube. Such a system is called a tube-in-tube. • It is also possible to introduce more than one tube inside the perimeter tube. • The inner tube in a tube-in-tube structure can act as a second line of defense against a malevolent attack with airplanes or missiles.
  34. 34. Millennium Tower Architect: Norman Foster • The exterior columns & beams are spaced so closely that the façade has the appearance of a wall with perforated window opening. • The entire building acts as a hollow tube cantilevering out of the ground. • The interior core increases the stiffness of the building by sharing the loads with the façade tube. Inner Tube (Core) Outer Tube
  35. 35. 2. DIAGRID SYSTEM • With their structural efficiency as a varied version of the tubular systems. • For diagrid structures, almost all the conventional vertical columns are eliminated. • This is possible because the diagonal members in diagrid structural systems can carry gravity loads as well as lateral forces due to their triangulated configuration in a distributive and uniform manner. • Efficiently resists lateral shear by axial forces in the diagonal members but have Complicated joints.
  36. 36. 30 St Mary Axe, also known as Swiss Re Building (London, UK, 41 stories, 181 m) Material /Configuration : STEEL • Steel framed tube type structural system • Triangular steel frame generates the tube • Beams are supported by diagonal steel member • Requires less steel then conventional steel frame Triangular grids are exposed in façade Triangular steel frame
  37. 37. O-14 Building (Dubai) Material /Configuration : CONCRETE
  38. 38.  Space truss structures are modified braced tubes with diagonals connecting the exterior to interior.  In a typical braced tube structure, all the diagonals, which connect vertical corner columns in general, are located on the plane parallel to the facades.  However, in space trusses, some diagonals penetrate the interior of the building. 3. SPACE TRUSS STRUCTURE
  39. 39. Bank of China (Hong Kong, China, 72 stories, 367 m)
  40. 40. 4. SUPERFRAMES • A super frame is composed of mega columns comprising braced frames of large dimensions at building corners, linked by multistory trusses at about every 15 to 20 stories. • The concept of super frame can be used in various ways for tall buildings, such as the 56-story tall Parque Central Complex Towers of 1979 in Caracas, Venezuela and the 168-story tall Chicago World Trade Center proposed by Fazlur Khan in 1982 (Ali, 2001; Iyengar, 1986). Parque Central Complex Towers Chicago World Trade Center
  41. 41. 5. EXO-SKELETON • In exoskeleton structures, lateral load-resisting systems are placed outside the building lines away from their facades. Examples include Hotel de las Artes in Barcelona. • Due to the system’s compositional characteristics, it acts as a primary building identifier – one of the major roles of building facades in general cases. • Fire proofing of the system is not a serious issue due to its location outside the building line. • However, thermal expansion/contraction of the system, exposed to the ever- changing outdoor weather, and the systemic thermal bridges should be carefully considered during design.
  42. 42. Hotel de las Artes (Barcelona, Spain, 43 stories, 137 m) Exterior skeloton
  43. 43. References : • Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. (CTBUH) • Structural Developments in Tall Buildings: Current Trends and Future Prospects -Mir M. Ali† and Kyoung Sun Moon • • High-rise building structure -Wolfgang Schueller • . • .