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Prof. Sohan R. Yadav 
Professor of Sociology, BHU 
1
 Research is a movement. 
 from 
2
curiosity 
curiosity 
We are with 
DUE TO THIS WHEN THE UNKNOWN 
CONFRONTS US, WE WONDER AND OUR 
CURIOSITY MAKES US PROBE...
RESEARCH IS A systematized effort to 
gain new knowledge. 
4
IN A TECHNICAL SENSE 
RESEARCH COMPRISES 
 DEFINING AND REDEFINING PROBLEMS 
 FORMULATING HYPOTHESIS OR SUGGESTED 
SOLUT...
RESEARCH IS AN ORIGINAL 
TO THE EXISTING STOCK OF KNOWLEDGE 
MAKING IT MORE ADVANCES. 
HUNT 
 IT IS THE OF TRUTH WITH THE...
 THE MAIN AIM OF RESEARCH IS TO FIND OUT THE TRUTH WHICH IS 
HIDDEN AND WHICH HAS NOT BEEN DISCOVERED AS YET. 
 BUT WE M...
As a concept, ‘research ethics’ refers to a complex set of values, 
standards and institutional schemes that help to const...
 Many of the ethical norms help to ensure that researchers 
can be held accountable to the public. 
 Ethical norms in re...
The following is a rough and general summary of some 
ethical principals such as: 
Honesty 
 Strive for honesty in all sc...
Integrity 
 Keep your promises and agreements; act with 
sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and action. 
Carefu...
Confidentiality 
 Protect confidential communications, such as papers 
or grants submitted for publication, personnel rec...
Responsible Mentoring 
 Help to educate, mentor, and advise students. Promote 
their welfare and allow them to make their...
Competence 
 Maintain and improve your own professional 
competence and expertise through lifelong education 
and learnin...
There are various methods to classify the research. 
Like; 
On the basis of basic nature of research (Pure and 
applied re...
Research 
DESCRIPTIVE 
RESEARCH 
answer 
question of 
who, what, 
when and 
how 
EXPLORATORY 
RESEARCH 
attempts to gain 
...
 Descriptive research provide answer to questions of who, 
what, where and how associated with a particular research 
pro...
 An exploratory research is conducted about a 
research problem when there are few or no earlier 
studies to refer to. 
...
 Explanatory research may be thought as understanding a 
phenomenon in terms of conditional statements in form, if ‘X’ 
t...
Research 
FUNDAMENTAL 
RESEARCH 
concern with 
understanding 
of social world 
with 
developing 
hypothesis and 
theories ...
 PURE RESEARCH is 
also called basic 
research, is concerned 
with quest for knowledge 
and knowing more about 
the pheno...
Research 
EXPERIMENTAL 
RESEARCH 
One variable 
(independent) 
is manipulated 
and its effect 
upon another 
variable 
(de...
 It is a research in which some of the variables 
being studied are manipulated or which seek to 
control condition withi...
Research 
QUALITATIVE 
RESEARCH 
Aims at discovering 
underlying motives and 
desires 
Word Association Test, 
Sentence Co...
 QUANTITATIVE 
RESEARCH employs 
quantitative 
measurement and use of 
statistical analysis. This 
kind of research is ba...
Research 
LONGITUDINAL 
RESEARCH 
Study of problem over a 
period of time or cross-sectional 
study 
COMPARATIVE 
RESEARCH...
 LONGITUDINAL 
RESEARCH involves the 
study of the problem or 
the same body of 
phenomena over a period 
of time. For ex...
 There are some other types of research 
too like:- 
 Field setting research or laboratory research 
or simulation resea...
Research methodology is a way to systematically 
solve the research problem. 
 It may be understood as a science of study...
 When we talk of research methodology we not only 
talk of the research methods but also consider the 
logic behind the m...
 Methodological and philosophical orientations govern 
the choice of methods. It helps us to identify 
appropriate method...
 Research methods may be understood as all those methods that 
are used for conduction of research. 
 In other words, al...
Field study method:- 
 in this method subject are observed under their usual 
environmental condition of life rather than...
Survey methods:- 
 in which a systematic study of a particular community 
or a group or an institution is made for analyz...
Statistical method:- 
 in which data is collected quantitatively or by 
statistics. A statistics may be a measure of cent...
Evolutionary method:- 
 in which changes is studied in stages through time 
from earlier and generally simpler forms thro...
 Participant observation method: in this method 
researcher observe the phenomena with participating 
in the phenomena. ....
 Questionnaire method 
 Interview method 
 Schedule method 
 Observation method 
 Case study method 
 Content analys...
 Research process consists of a number of closely 
related activities. 
 These activities overlap continuously rather th...
 VARIOUS STEPS OF RESEARCH PROCESS 
Defining research problem 
Reviewing the literature 
Identifying the universe 
and un...
Selection of research 
techniques and methods 
Standardization of 
research 
Pilot study/ use of statistical 
and other me...
 The first step is to select and clearly define the 
problem to be researched. You need to find the 
problem and formulat...
 Give as much emphasis to the area of research as 
the topic. To some extent, the choice of the area 
determines the succ...
 A good researcher needs to be fully aware of the limits 
of your resources and also clearly define the time 
frame while...
 But in social sciences unless we not get 
liberal time in our research, it will fail 
because we cannot subject social 
...
 The purpose of reviewing the existing literature on 
your research theme is to help you assess the 
feasibility of the p...
 The hypothesis is a tentative assumption made in 
order to test its logical or empirical consequences. 
 You may define...
 A hypothesis may have variables and it may be 
looking for the nature of the relationship 
between the variables. 
Varia...
Relationship among variables: 
 Positive relationship 
 Negative relationship 
 zero relationship 
49
 We discussed earlier in methodology. 
 Our methodological and philosophical 
orientations govern our choice of methods....
 Before starting with data collection you have to 
identify the universe and the unit of study. The 
identification of un...
 A pilot study is an exploratory study done before 
the actual work starts in the field. It is a pre-testing 
of your res...
 A universe is often too large for an individual to 
work upon. A sample is the smaller 
representation of a larger whole...
Portion of a population or universe which represent 
the characteristics of population is called sample 
and the method of...
 Often in social research requires the study of the 
‘other’ community and researchers need to make 
extensive preparatio...
 There is several way of data collection: 
1. Primary data: those data which are 
collected by researcher himself. 
2. Se...
 After data collection, you would turn to their analysis. 
Analysis requires a number of closely related operation 
such ...
 Whatever may be the types of research works and 
studies, one thing that is important is that they all 
meet on the comm...
 The researcher should report with complete 
frankness, flaws in procedural design and estimate 
their effects upon the f...
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reseach methodology in social sciences..

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It describes the basic concept of research methods and methodology in social research..

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reseach methodology in social sciences..

  1. 1. Prof. Sohan R. Yadav Professor of Sociology, BHU 1
  2. 2.  Research is a movement.  from 2
  3. 3. curiosity curiosity We are with DUE TO THIS WHEN THE UNKNOWN CONFRONTS US, WE WONDER AND OUR CURIOSITY MAKES US PROBE AND ATTTAIN TOTAL UNDERSTAINDING TO 3
  4. 4. RESEARCH IS A systematized effort to gain new knowledge. 4
  5. 5. IN A TECHNICAL SENSE RESEARCH COMPRISES  DEFINING AND REDEFINING PROBLEMS  FORMULATING HYPOTHESIS OR SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS  COLLECTING, ORGANIZING AND EVALUATING DATA  MAKING DEDUCTIONS AND REACHING CONCLUSIONS AND  AT LAST CAREFULLY TESTING THE CONCLUSIONS TO DETERMINE WHETHER THEY FIT THE FORMULATING HYPOTHESIS. 5
  6. 6. RESEARCH IS AN ORIGINAL TO THE EXISTING STOCK OF KNOWLEDGE MAKING IT MORE ADVANCES. HUNT  IT IS THE OF TRUTH WITH THE HELP OF STUDY, OBSERVATION, COMPARISON AND EXPERIMENT. 6
  7. 7.  THE MAIN AIM OF RESEARCH IS TO FIND OUT THE TRUTH WHICH IS HIDDEN AND WHICH HAS NOT BEEN DISCOVERED AS YET.  BUT WE MAY POINT THE FOLLOWING AS MAIN FOCUS OF RESEARCH:  TO GAIN FAMILIARITY WITH A PHENOMENON OR TO ACHIEVE NEW INSIGHTS INTO IT. (EXPLORATORY OR FORMULATIVE RESEARCH STUDIES)  TO DESCRIBE ACCURATELY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A PARTICULAR INDIVIDUAL, SITUATION OR A GROUP. (DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH STUDIES)  TO DETERMINE THE FREQUENCYWITHWHICH SOMETHING OCCURS OR WITH WHICH IT IS ASSOCIATED WITH SOMETHING ELSE. (DIAGNOSTICRESEARCHSTUDIES)  TO TEST A HYPOTHESIS OF A CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES.(EXPLANATORYRESEARCHSTUDIES). 7
  8. 8. As a concept, ‘research ethics’ refers to a complex set of values, standards and institutional schemes that help to constitute and regulate scientific activity. Ultimately, research ethics is a codification of ethics of science in practice. In other words, it is based on general ethics of science, just as general ethics is based on commonsense morality. There are several reasons why it is important to follow the ethical norms in research. 1. Norms promote the aims of research, such as knowledge, truth, and avoidance of error. 2. research often involves a great deal of cooperation and coordination among many different people in different disciplines and institutions, ethical standards promote the values that are essential to collaborative work, such as trust, accountability, mutual respect, and fairness. 8
  9. 9.  Many of the ethical norms help to ensure that researchers can be held accountable to the public.  Ethical norms in research also help to build public support for research. People more likely to fund research project if they can trust the quality and integrity of research.  Many of the norms of research promote a variety of other important moral and social values, such as social responsibility, human rights, compliance with the law, and health and safety. Ethical lapses in research can significantly harm students, and the public. 9
  10. 10. The following is a rough and general summary of some ethical principals such as: Honesty  Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data. Do not deceive colleagues, granting agencies, or the public. Objectivity  Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research where objectivity is expected or required. Avoid or minimize bias or self-deception. Disclose personal or financial interests that may affect research. 10
  11. 11. Integrity  Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and action. Carefulness  Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work and the work of your peers. Keep good records of research activities, such as data collection, research design, and correspondence with agencies or journals. Openness  Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism and new ideas. 11
  12. 12. Confidentiality  Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records. Responsible Publication  Publish in order to advance research and scholarship, not to advance just your own career. Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication. 12
  13. 13. Responsible Mentoring  Help to educate, mentor, and advise students. Promote their welfare and allow them to make their own decisions. Respect for colleagues  Respect your colleagues and treat them fairly. Social Responsibility  Strive to promote social good and prevent or mitigate social harms through research, public education, and advocacy. Non-Discrimination  Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other factors that are not related to their scientific competence and integrity. 13
  14. 14. Competence  Maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise through lifelong education and learning; take steps to promote competence in science as a whole. Legality  Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies. Human Subjects Protection  When conducting research on human subjects, minimize harms and risks and maximize benefits; respect human dignity, privacy, and autonomy. 14
  15. 15. There are various methods to classify the research. Like; On the basis of basic nature of research (Pure and applied research) or on the basis of data dealt (Qualitative and Quantitative research) Main purposes of social research are: •To explore •To describe •To explain In this way, we may illustrate three types of research 15
  16. 16. Research DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH answer question of who, what, when and how EXPLORATORY RESEARCH attempts to gain better understanding of different dimension of research EXPLANATORY RESEARCH explains causes of problems 16
  17. 17.  Descriptive research provide answer to questions of who, what, where and how associated with a particular research problem.  A descriptive study cannot conclusively establish answer to why.  Descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena and to describe “what exists” with respect to variables or conditions in a situation.  In such a study subject is being observed in a completely natural and unchanged natural environment.  It yield rich data that lead to important recommendations. Descriptive research is often used as a pre-cursor to more quantitatively research designs. 17
  18. 18.  An exploratory research is conducted about a research problem when there are few or no earlier studies to refer to.  The focus is on gaining insights and familiarity for later investigation or undertaken when problems are in a preliminary stage of investigation.  It is a useful for gaining background information on a particular topic.  Exploratory research is flexible and can address research questions of all types (what, why, how). 18
  19. 19.  Explanatory research may be thought as understanding a phenomenon in terms of conditional statements in form, if ‘X’ then ‘Y’.  It is mainly concerned with causes or ‘why’ factor about some phenomenon.  The hypothesis in an explanatory research that expresses relationship between two or more variables, i.e. not only hypothesized that X is related to Y but rather that X has some particular effect on Y.  In other words, we say that Y is the consequence of X.  Explanatory research focuses on ascertaining the ‘why’ aspect of correlation.  This kind of research helps researchers understand why the world works the way it does through the process of proving a causal link between variables and eliminating other possibilities. 19
  20. 20. Research FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH concern with understanding of social world with developing hypothesis and theories APPLIED RESEARCH concern with solving specific problem 20
  21. 21.  PURE RESEARCH is also called basic research, is concerned with quest for knowledge and knowing more about the phenomenon without concern for its practical use and also with developing and testing hypothesis and theories.  APPLIED RESEARCH is concerned with search for ways of using scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. It focuses on analyzing and solving social and real-life problems. 21
  22. 22. Research EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH One variable (independent) is manipulated and its effect upon another variable (dependent) is measured EVALUATION RESEARCH study of effectiveness of an action program 22
  23. 23.  It is a research in which some of the variables being studied are manipulated or which seek to control condition within which persons are observed.  Here ‘control’ means holding one factor constant while other are free to vary in the experiment. One variable (independent) is manipulated and its effect upon another variable (dependent) is measured, while other variable which may confound such a relationship are eliminated or controlled. 23
  24. 24. Research QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Aims at discovering underlying motives and desires Word Association Test, Sentence Completion Test Or Other Projective Technique QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Concern with measurement of quantities 24
  25. 25.  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH employs quantitative measurement and use of statistical analysis. This kind of research is based on the methodological principles of positivism and follows the standards of strict sampling and research design.  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH presents non-quantitative type of analysis. It describes reality as experienced by the groups, communities, individuals etc. 25
  26. 26. Research LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH Study of problem over a period of time or cross-sectional study COMPARATIVE RESEARCH Study of similarities or differences between different units 26
  27. 27.  LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH involves the study of the problem or the same body of phenomena over a period of time. For example prevalence of AIDS among males and females in India in 1979, 1989, and 1999  COMPARATIVE RESEARCH the similarities and differences between different units or cultural or social groups are studied. 27
  28. 28.  There are some other types of research too like:-  Field setting research or laboratory research or simulation research  Clinical or diagnostic research  Historical research  Conclusion-oriented research 28
  29. 29. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem.  It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically.  In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them. 29
  30. 30.  When we talk of research methodology we not only talk of the research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method and why we are not using others so that research results are capable of being evaluated either by researcher himself or by other. 30
  31. 31.  Methodological and philosophical orientations govern the choice of methods. It helps us to identify appropriate methods and techniques of data collection. Ex.  Positivistic orientation : observational method  Phenomenological model : interviews  Post-modern model : multidimensional methods  Action research : multiple methods and multiple investigators. 31
  32. 32.  Research methods may be understood as all those methods that are used for conduction of research.  In other words, all those methods which are used by the researcher during the course of studying his research problem are termed as research methods.  It can be put into the following three groups:  In the first group we include those methods which are concerned with the collection of data. These methods will be used where the data already available are not sufficient to arrive at the required solution;  The second group consists of those statistical techniques which are used for establishing relationships between the data and the unknowns;  The third group consists of those methods which are used to evaluate the accuracy of the results obtained. 32
  33. 33. Field study method:-  in this method subject are observed under their usual environmental condition of life rather than under laboratory conditions. The subject may or may not be aware of being observed. Often interviews are used in this method. Experimental methods:-  in which variables being studied are controlled by the investigator. In other words, the effect of one variable is observed while other relevant variables are held constant. 33
  34. 34. Survey methods:-  in which a systematic study of a particular community or a group or an institution is made for analyzing the problem/ issue/ event. Case study method:-  in which phenomena is studied through thorough/ intensive/in-depth analysis of the cases, i.e. an individual, group, community, episode or any other unit of social life. Variety of facts is related to a single case. 34
  35. 35. Statistical method:-  in which data is collected quantitatively or by statistics. A statistics may be a measure of central tendency of dispersion of correlation of difference between two samples. Historical method:-  in which information is collected about the past from written records of all types, reports, documents, newspapers, diaries, travelers’ accounts etc. 35
  36. 36. Evolutionary method:-  in which changes is studied in stages through time from earlier and generally simpler forms through a long series of small changes. Each changes results in minor modification but the cumulative effect of many changes over a long period of time in the emergence of more complex forms.  Non-participant direct observation method: in this method researcher observe the phenomena but not participate in the phenomena. For example: Observational behavioral scales, use of score cards, etc. 36
  37. 37.  Participant observation method: in this method researcher observe the phenomena with participating in the phenomena. . For example: Interactional recording, possible use of tape recorders, photo graphic techniques etc.  There are other various methods used in social sciences like mass observation, mail questionnaire, opinionnaire, personal interview, focused interview, group interview etc.  The selection of methods broadly depends on nature of research and universe. 37
  38. 38.  Questionnaire method  Interview method  Schedule method  Observation method  Case study method  Content analysis  Projective techniques  Scaling techniques 38
  39. 39.  Research process consists of a number of closely related activities.  These activities overlap continuously rather than following a strictly prescribed sequence. At times, the first step determines the nature of the last step to be undertaken.  One should remember that the various steps involved in a research process are not mutually exclusive; nor are they separate and distinct. They do not necessarily follow each other in any specific order and the researcher has to be constantly anticipating at each step in the research process the requirements of the subsequent steps. 39
  40. 40.  VARIOUS STEPS OF RESEARCH PROCESS Defining research problem Reviewing the literature Identifying the universe and unit of study Formulating hypothesis and identifying variables 40
  41. 41. Selection of research techniques and methods Standardization of research Pilot study/ use of statistical and other methods collecting data Analyzing data Interpretation and report writing 41
  42. 42.  The first step is to select and clearly define the problem to be researched. You need to find the problem and formulate it so that it can be subjected to research.  Specifying the problem/ topic to be studied on the basis of one’s interest and idea of research. The idea might come from a theory, a sponsored research or one’s own interest in specific field. 42
  43. 43.  Give as much emphasis to the area of research as the topic. To some extent, the choice of the area determines the success of your research.  For instance, a study on communal relations cannot be carried out in tribal village. 43
  44. 44.  A good researcher needs to be fully aware of the limits of your resources and also clearly define the time frame while designing your research. Unless you draw up a schedule of the different steps of your research, it is likely to become a long drawn process, which is bad for both quality and relevance.  Ex. Cholera epidemics…. 44
  45. 45.  But in social sciences unless we not get liberal time in our research, it will fail because we cannot subject social realities to overnight machine test in the laboratory to obtain quick results. 45
  46. 46.  The purpose of reviewing the existing literature on your research theme is to help you assess the feasibility of the project but also to formulate an effective methodology. You would need to consult academic journals, conferences, government report, books, internet, etc.  You may review two types of literature, literature concerning the concepts and theories, and the empirical literature consisting of studies made earlier. You may come across even such studies that contain both theoretical as well as substantive aspects of your research. A more sophisticated and clearer statement of specific research question is likely to emerge after the literature review. 46
  47. 47.  The hypothesis is a tentative assumption made in order to test its logical or empirical consequences.  You may define a hypothesis as a proposition or a set of proposition set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified phenomena either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide some investigation or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts. 47
  48. 48.  A hypothesis may have variables and it may be looking for the nature of the relationship between the variables. Variables?  Dependent variables: the variable that you wish to explain.  Independent variables: other variables expected to explain the change in dependent variables 48
  49. 49. Relationship among variables:  Positive relationship  Negative relationship  zero relationship 49
  50. 50.  We discussed earlier in methodology.  Our methodological and philosophical orientations govern our choice of methods.  Methodological and theoretical basis of research also help you identify appropriate methods and techniques of data collection. 50
  51. 51.  Before starting with data collection you have to identify the universe and the unit of study. The identification of universe implies demarcation of the physical area and social unit of study. The universe consists of the population within a well-defined area where the study is to be conducted. However such a group is usually too large and not possible to be covered by a single investigator. Sample?
  52. 52.  A pilot study is an exploratory study done before the actual work starts in the field. It is a pre-testing of your research methods and techniques in order to perfect them. Pilot study will ensure that right questions have been put in the questionnaires for making the fieldwork fruitful. It makes you aware of difficulties beforehand and provides you an opportunity of modifying your techniques to suit field condition.
  53. 53.  A universe is often too large for an individual to work upon. A sample is the smaller representation of a larger whole. Sampling allows the researcher to work scientifically and saves time. A sampling frame includes all the elements of a population from which the sample is drawn. The determination of an error while sampling, statistically, or qualitatively is known as sampling error.  Therefore a sample must be a true representative as well as being adequate in size.
  54. 54. Portion of a population or universe which represent the characteristics of population is called sample and the method of selection of such sample is known as sampling. On the basis of nature of research and population there are different sampling methods: 1) Simple random sampling 2) Multi-stage sampling 3) Systematic sampling 4) Stratified random sampling 5) Cluster sampling 6) Snow-ball sampling 7) Area sampling 8) Quota sampling 54
  55. 55.  Often in social research requires the study of the ‘other’ community and researchers need to make extensive preparations to gain entry into the society under study. Debate:  Study on alien society or culture. Or  Study on own society or culture.
  56. 56.  There is several way of data collection: 1. Primary data: those data which are collected by researcher himself. 2. Secondary data: data which we get by secondary sources.
  57. 57.  After data collection, you would turn to their analysis. Analysis requires a number of closely related operation such as establishing categories and their application to raw data through coding, tabulation so that you can draw statistical inferences.  Often the nature of data collected by you determines the nature of analysis, yet at the stage of opting for certain methods of data collection you would have some idea of the analytical tools you are likely to employ.  Keep in mind the ethics of representation, especially if the research deals with sensitive issues. While you seek to unravel social reality, you cannot play with the privacy of the peoplewho are more than just the subject of research.
  58. 58.  Whatever may be the types of research works and studies, one thing that is important is that they all meet on the common ground of scientific method employed by them. One expects scientific research to satisfy the following criteria:  The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common concepts be used.  The research procedure used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement, keeping the continuity of what has already been attained.  The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that areas objective as possible. 58
  59. 59.  The researcher should report with complete frankness, flaws in procedural design and estimate their effects upon the findings.  The analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its significance and the methods of analysis used should be appropriate. The validity and reliability of the data should be checked carefully.  Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of the research and limited to those for which the data provide an adequate basis.  Greater confidence in research is warranted if the researcher is experienced, has a good reputation in research and is a person of integrity. 59

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