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Solar car orientation

Solar car orientation

  1. 1.  NSIT Solar Car Concept is a non-profit organization, founded in 2007, which aims to build a solar powered race car and represent INDIA on an international platform. It is a student run initiative and the primary goal is to make solar power practical and affordable. The team is dedicated to build a car that demonstrates the viability of alternate sources of energy and innovation in mechanical and electrical technology. The team is currently working on its third car. It is one of the only two university level teams in India that build Solar Electric Vehicles (SEVs) and the only one that has secured a podium position at an international event.
  2. 2.  The American Solar Challenge (ASC), previously known as Sunrayce, the American Solar Challenge, and the North American Solar Challenge, is a solar car race across the United States and Canada. In the race, teams from colleges and universities throughout North America design, build, test, and race solar-powered vehicles in a long distance road rally- style event. ASC is a test of teamwork, engineering skill, and endurance that stretches across thousands of miles of public roads. The 2014 edition will have a FSGP closed circuit 3-day event and then a cross country 8-10 day race that will test the endurance and engineering of the cars and their internal systems.
  3. 3.  Provide an international platform to represent our country and institute with pride. To make an advanced solar electric vehicle. To research about solar power and technologies and to make it more efficient so that it can turn into a sustainable energy source. Promoting innovative, environmentally friendly technology as well as creating a positive learning atmosphere for student body involvement General public awareness about the green technologies available to the world, so that young people they grow to be environmentally friendly.
  4. 4.  ADVAY 1 was one of the cheapest solar cars in the world and cost a fraction of the other cars participating in the South African Solar Challenge 2009 It secured 2nd position in its category and stood 3rd in the overall rankings in SASC 2009. The car was showcased at multiple exhibitions across the country. ADVAY 2 was the second solar car of the team. It was designed and built for the World Solar Challenge. It was showcased at the National Auto Expo 2010, New Delhi and remains one of the only few student projects to be showcased at the grand event.
  5. 5. The team aims to make their third vehicle for the WORLDSOLAR CHALLENGE and the AMERICAN SOLARCHALLENGEIt will be representing INDIA and will showcase ourengineering excellence and the effort to work with non-conventional sources of energy.Preliminary designs(subject to massive change) are shownin the next two slides.
  6. 6.  Research opportunities in the field of solar energy. Innovation in the electrical and mechanical systems. First hand experience of building a solar car and being a part of a legacy.
  7. 7.  Low Energy Density On a clear day, energy from sunlight comes to Earth at a density of about 1,000 watts per square meter of area . This means if you had a one square meter solar panel that worked at 100 percent efficiency, you could run a hair dryer with it. The engine in a typical car develops about 50 kilowatts of energy. Your perfect solar panel would have to measure approximately 90 square meter to produce this much power. We have only about 6 square meters to tackle the same problem. Low Efficiency Commercially-available solar cells that produce electricity from light do not have 100 percent efficiency, but instead top out at around 18 percent. To compensate for the reduction in energy due to low efficiency, youd have to make your solar panel bigger. A Gallium Arsenic cell has a 30% efficiency but the costs are too high for us to consider it as an alternative. All this leads to the cars having High Costs and an Impractical Design And herein lie the research opportunities.
  8. 8.  Nanowire Solar Cells Practically, the efficiency of solar cells has to be increased and simultaneously the costs have to be reduced. Nanowires are a promising material system to realize this. Due to the small size of nanowires, different materials can be more easily combined compared to bulk systems, and more sophisticated tandem cells could be fabricated. In addition, light can be more efficiently absorbed by using conical nanowire shapes, and in radial nanowire geometries the optical absorption path length can be disentangled from the charge separation distance allowing more design freedom. This all may enhance the efficiency of solar cells. SPECTRAL CONVERTERS Lanthanide Ions, Quantum Dots and many luminescent solar concentrators are used as spectral converters. a) Quantum Dots to Enhance Solar Spectrum Conversion Efficiencies for PV Cells Silicon-based photovoltaics typically convert less than 30% of the solar spectrum into usable electric power. This study explores the utilization of CdSe based quantum dots as spectral converters that absorb the under utilized UV portion of the solar spectrum and fluoresce at wavelengths near the band-gap of silicon-based solar cells. A flexible 1 mm thick thin- film structure that contains an array of microfluidic channels is designed and fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using soft-lithographic technique RESEARCH IN POLYMER SOLAR CELLS A polymer solar cell is a type of flexible solar cell made with polymers, large molecules with repeating structural units, that produce electricity fromsunlight by the photovoltaic effect. Polymer solar cells include organic solar cells (also called "plastic solar cells"). They are one type of thin film solar cell, others include the currently more stable amorphous silicon solar cell.
  9. 9.  By Electronics & Electrical Department NSIT SOLAR CAR TEAM
  10. 10. Transmission of Instrumentation- Data Solar Panel Array transfer: speed, rpm, power to wheels etc.DC-DC Converter, Instrumentation : battery charging Motor and output current/voltage status MPPTBattery Managment Electrical SystemSystem and batteries Motor Controller protection
  11. 11.  Solar cars utilize sun’s energy. Solar array, a combination of solar cells, collects sun’s energy and converts it into usable electrical energy. This usable electrical energy is stored in batteries via maximum point power trackers that convert the energy collected to system voltage. Once batteries are charged, motors can be run and controlled by the use of a motor controller that adjusts the amount of energy flowing to the motor according to the throttle.
  12. 12. A solar car majorly comprises of the following electronic andelectronic components: Solar Panels/Solar Cell Arrays Maximum Power Point Trackers (MPPT) Battery and Battery Management Systems Motor and Electronic Motor Controller Instrumentation & Telemetry components General Electrical and safety components like fuses, MCBs, switches, etc.
  13. 13.  A photovoltaic array or solar array is a linked connection of solar panels which in turn is formed by joining solar cells. Solar array is mounted on upper part of chassis of the solar car which converts the incoming solar energy into electrical energy. The number of cells to use depends on the size and allowable solar area as per rules of a particular competition.
  14. 14.  Solar array voltage (i.e. voltage produced by the solar array) must be equal to system voltage of the motor for optimal working of motor. Generally, it is difficult to match these voltages accurately due to random errors and Maximum Power Point Trackers come to rescue. MPPTs allow the system to run as efficiently as possible by sampling the output of the cells and apply the proper resistance (load) to obtain maximum power for any given environmental conditions. Basically, they extract the maximum possible power from solar array.The circuitdiagram fora MPPT 
  15. 15. The batteries store energy from the solar array and make them available for themotor’s use. While choosing the batteries, we need to consider the following points: System voltage required Maximum permissible ampere-hour rating Time taken to charge the batteries Weight and Size CostBatteries that are commonly used in solar cars are Lead-acid batteries, Li-ionbatteries, Ni-MH batteries, Ni-Cd batteries, Flooded-cell batteries and Gel-cellbatteries.Lead Acid Ni-Cd Battery Li-Ion BatteryNiMH battery
  16. 16.  Motors, powered by batteries, run the solar car. Motorsgenerally employed in solar cars are either AC motors orbrushless DC motors. We intend to use brushless DC motorsbecause of its following advantages: DC motors can be overdriven for short periods of time which is great for short burst accelerations. DC motors can assimilate the ‘Regen’ feature of AC motors so that charging is possible during breaking mode of operation of motor. Efficiency of brushless DC motors is 95-98%. DC motors are cheaper than AC motors. Controller is an electronic device that controls the amount ofpower delivered to electric motor according to the signal from thepotentiometer connected to throttle pedal.
  17. 17.  One of the most important pieces of instrumentation is a state-of- charge meter. A state-of-charge meter gives information about system voltage, amp draw, battery energy remaining, and estimates the how much time remains until the battery is out of energy. The E-Meter is the do-it-all in instrumentation. Another instrument that may be useful is a speedometer. Instead of using a regular speedometer drive, use magnetic contact speedometers, found in many sports equipment stores. This option does not add drag to the solar car. To ensure that batteries are running properly, a voltmeter is connected to each of the batteries. A failed battery may show the proper voltage when the car is not running, but while the battery is under load, the voltmeter will show a lower than normal battery voltage. Nowadays, advanced controllers are available that not only can control the power delivered to the electric motor but display the number of ampere-hours left in the battery, voltage of the battery, speed of the electric motor and telemetry to the driver as well, thus reducing off-road time in analysis.
  18. 18.  The Telemetry system includes all the communication and feedback mechanisms that are employed in the car for better functionality and for the ease of the driver and the crew to monitor the efficient and safe working of the solar car. These include: Wireless Communication System Solar Charge controller Headlights & Tail lamps GPS System
  19. 19. Fuses (over current) In series with circuit Diodes (reverse current) In series with circuitMetal Oxide Varistors - MOV In parallel with circuit (over voltage)
  20. 20. The concept will first be visualized by making their 3D CAD drawings in the following 3D modelling softwares: Unigraphics NX Solidworks
  21. 21. After succesful 3D modelling of the concept car the model is simulated using analysis softwares to check its feasibility and stability. Following softwares are used for simulation: ANSYS SHARK
  22. 22.  First of all a 3D model of the concept will be modeled in NX. After successful drawing of the car the 3D file will be exported to Ansys for analysis part. Meanwhile Suspension simulation will be carried out in Shark FX. If found troublefree the model will be finalized and the Manufacturing of the concept will begin, otherwise the 3D drawing is modified as per the needs.
  23. 23.  (Separate Presentation)- Disjointed with the main presentation
  24. 24.  

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