I wish to express my deep gratitude and sincere thanks to
the Principal, Mr. T.R. Chaudhary, Principal K.V NO.1
Jammu, for his encouragement and for all the facilities
that he provided for this project work. I sincerely
appreciate his magnanimity by taking me into his fold for
which I shall remain indebted to. I extend my hearty
thanks to Mrs. Vandana Jamwal, Chemistry teacher, who
guided me to the successful completion of this project. I
take this opportunity to express my deep sense of
gratitude for her invaluable guidance, constant
encouragement, immense motivation, which has sustained
my efforts at all the stages of this Project work.
I can’t forget to offer my sincere thanks to parents and
also to my classmates who helped me to carry out this
project work successfully and for their valuable advice and
support, which I received from them time to time.
KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA NO.1
GANDHI NAGAR JAMMU
This is to certify that SHASHVAT SHARMA, a student of
class XII-B has successfully completed the research on
the below mentioned project under the guidance of Mrs.
Vandana Jamwal (Subject Teacher) during the year 2014-
15 in partial fulfillment of chemistry practical examination
conducted by AISSCE, New Delhi.
Signature of principal Signature of chemistry teacher
WHAT IS DRUG??
Any substance, other than food, used in the prevention,
diagnosis, all aviation or treatment of a disease is called a
drug. A drug may also be defined as a chemical which,
when taken in some way alter the body function. Drug is
also known as a medicine. Generally, the term drug is
applied to any stimulating or depressing substance that
can be habituating or addictive.
MEANING OF ADDICTION
Addiction is the habitual, psychological and physiological
dependence on a substance or practice which is beyond
voluntary control. A person who is habituated to a
substance or a practice, especially a harmful one, is called
CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS
TYPE OF DRUGS EXAMPLES EFFECTS
1. Sedatives and
Make a person
alert and active,
4.Hallucinogens LSQ, Mescalin,
STRUCTURES OF SOME MENTIONED
Sedatives and Tranquillizers
COMBINATION OF DRUGS AND
Some addicts use mixtures of drugs to have immediate
‘kick’ or ‘charge’. Simultaneous use of drug and alcohol
may produce dangerous effects, including death. When
barbiturates and alcohol are taken together, each doubles
the effect of the other. A mixture of cocaine and heroin
called speed ball, gives spontaneous kick of cocaine and
prolonged pleasure of heroin.
1. Alcohol + Barbiturates. Markedly increased
2. Alcohol + Antihistamines. Marked drowsiness.
3. Alcohol + Valium. Dramatically increases
4. Alcohol + Marijuana or
increased reaction time
5. Alcohol + Aspirin.
Increased changes of
damage to gastric mucosa.
SOCIAL DISEASE - SMOKING,
DRINKING AND USE OF DRUGS
Smoking and drinking and use of drugs frequently or
regularly are social diseases. They adversely affect the
health of the addicts and the society. Young people take
to these habits for fun, show off or curiosity, as an
adventure or feeling of freedom, or as a gesture of
defiance against the elders who themselves indulge in
these activities but check the youngsters. Other factors
that make people take to these vices are inability to face
problems of life indifference shown by members of the
family, and encouragement or pressure by friends.
Temporary escape from the life problems and mental
relaxation felt on taking the drugs in the beginning
increase person’s interest in them. Soon they become
habitual and find it difficult to leave. The daily dose to get
the desired effect increases with time.
As in other countries, the menace of drug addiction is
spreading in India also. A large number of our young men
and women have taken to intoxicants. About 87.6% drug
addicts are between the ages of 14 and 25 years.
It is a native of South Africa, where the Red Indians first
started smoking. Now the tobacco plant has spread the
world over. It has large, quote to lanceloate leaves and
terminal clusters of tubular, white or pink flowers.
Effect of Nicotine
(i) Stimulates conduction of nerve impulses.
(ii) Relaxes the muscles.
(iii) Releases adrenaline, increasing heart beat rate and
(iv) Increased blood pressure due to smoking chances the
risk of heart diseases.
(v) Retards fetus growth in expecting mothers.
(vi) High concentration of nicotine paralyses nerve cells.
Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, flammable, colorless liquid
having a penetrating odor and burning taste. It is one of
the products of the distillation of fermented grains, fruit
juices and starches with the help of yeast enzymes. It is
the principal constituent and the intoxicating principle of
Modes of Use
Alcohol is taken in low concentration, as the beer, toddy
and wine and in relatively high concentration as arrack,
brandy, whisky, rum, gin, vodka etc.
Addiction to alcohol is called alcoholism. Alcoholics are
found in all sections of society. Alcohol causes intoxication
and thus, acts as a poison. The drinkers begin with small
doses, but many of them soon start consuming large
doses and become addicts. By the time they realize that
drinking is adversely affecting them; it is too late to give it
What Happens when Alcohol gets in stomach
Alcohol is quickly absorbed in the stomach and upper part
of small intestine and reaches all the tissues in minutes.
Its oxidation starts at once and a large amount of heat is
produced. Since heat is not needed in the body, it is taken
up by the blood and carried to the skin for dissipation.
Since the receptors of heat are located in the skin, the
rush of blood to the skin gives a false impression of
warmth in the body. The blood supply of internal organs is
greatly reduced resulting in fall of temperature in them.
Energy released by alcohol is not used in any life process.
Rather the energy derived from food is used up in ridding
the body of excess heat.
Soaps are the sodium and potassium salts of the long
chain carboxylic acid. A soap molecule consists of a
long hydrocarbon chain (composed of carbons and
hydrogen) with a carboxylic acid on one end which is
ionic bonded to metal ion usually a sodium or
A soap has a large non-ionic hydrocarbon group and
an ionic group COO-Na+.
EXAMPLES OF SOAPS
Sodium stearate (Chemical formula: C17H35COO-
Sodium palmitate (Chemical formula: C15H31COO-
Sodium oleate (Chemical formula: C17H33COO-
The process of making soap by the hydrolysis of fats and
oils with alkalies is called saponification.
Soap is made by heating animal fats or vegetable oil with
concentrated sodium hydroxide (NAOH).
Fat or Oil + NaOH → Soap + Glycerol
MICELLES – SOAP MOLECULES
A soap molecule has two ends with different properties.
(i) A long hydrocarbon part which is hydrophobic (i.e. it
dissolves in hydrocarbon).
(ii) A short ionic part containing COO-Na+ which is
hydrophilic (i.e. it dissolves in water).
WORKING OF MICELLES
MECHANISM OF SOAPS
When a dirty cloth is put in water containing soap
then the hydrocarbon ends of the soap molecule in
the micelle attach to the oil or grease particles
present on the surface of dirty cloth. In this way the
soap micelles entraps the oily particles by using the
hydrocarbon ends. The ionic ends of the soap
molecules remain attached to the water when the
dirty cloth is agitated in soap solution. The oily
particles present on its surface gets dispersed in the
water due to which the cloth gets clean.
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES
Soaps are eco-friendly and bio degradable.
Soaps are not suitable in the hard water.
They have weak cleansing properties than
Detergents are the sodium salts of long chain
benzene sulphuric acids.
Detergents are primarily surfactants, which could be
produced easily from petrochemicals. Surfactants
lower the surface tension of water, essentially making
it 'wetter' so that it is less likely to stick to itself and
more likely to interact with oil and grease.
The ionic group is in a detergent is so3
EXAMPLES OF DETERGENTS
Two basic examples of well-known detergents of the
sulphonate group or the sulphate group are:
CLEANSING ACTION OF
Synthetic detergents have the same type of molecular
structure as soaps i.e. a tadpole like molecule having
two parts at each end i.e., one large non-polar
hydrocarbon group that is water repelling
(hydrophobic) and one short ionic group usually
containing the or group that is water attracting
(hydrophilic). Thus the cleansing action is exactly
similar to that of soaps whereby the formation of
micelles followed by emulsification occurs. However,
synthetic detergents can lather well even in hard
water. This is because they are soluble sodium or
potassium salts of sulphonic acid or alkyl hydrogen
sulphate and similarly form soluble calcium or
magnesium salts on reacting with the calcium ions or
magnesium ions present in water. This is a major
advantage of the cleansing property of detergents
ADVANTAGES OF DETERGENTS
Since detergents are the salts of strong acids
they do not decompose in acidic medium. Thus
detergents can effectively clean fabric even if the
water is acidic.
Synthetic detergents are more soluble in water
They have a stronger cleansing action than
As detergents are derived from petroleum they
save on natural vegetable oils, which are
important as essential cooking medium
DISADVANTAGES OF DETERGENTS
Many detergents are resistant to the action of
biological agents and thus are not biodegradable.
Their elimination from municipal wastewaters by
the usual treatments is a problem.
They have a tendency to produce stable foams in
rivers that extend over several hundred meters of
the river water. This is due to the effects of
surfactants used in their preparation. Thus they
pose a danger to aquatic life.
They tend to inhibit oxidation of organic
substances present in wastewaters because they
form a sort of envelope around them.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOAPS AND
They are metal salts of long chain higher fatty
These are prepared from vegetable oils and
They cannot be used effectively in hard water as
they produce scum i.e., insoluble precipitates of
Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ etc.
These are sodium salts of long chain
hydrocarbons like alkyl sulphates or alkyl
They are prepared from hydrocarbons of
petroleum or coal.
These do not produce insoluble precipitates in
hard water. They are effective in soft, hard or