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Chemistry project on chemistry in everyday life


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It is a project work for CBSE class 12 students who want to make there project on the topic chemistry in everyday life.

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Chemistry project on chemistry in everyday life

  2. 2. Acknowledgement I wish to express my deep gratitude and sincere thanks to the Principal, Mr. T.R. Chaudhary, Principal K.V NO.1 Jammu, for his encouragement and for all the facilities that he provided for this project work. I sincerely appreciate his magnanimity by taking me into his fold for which I shall remain indebted to. I extend my hearty thanks to Mrs. Vandana Jamwal, Chemistry teacher, who guided me to the successful completion of this project. I take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude for her invaluable guidance, constant encouragement, immense motivation, which has sustained my efforts at all the stages of this Project work. I can’t forget to offer my sincere thanks to parents and also to my classmates who helped me to carry out this project work successfully and for their valuable advice and support, which I received from them time to time.
  3. 3. KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA NO.1 GANDHI NAGAR JAMMU CERTIFICATE This is to certify that SHASHVAT SHARMA, a student of class XII-B has successfully completed the research on the below mentioned project under the guidance of Mrs. Vandana Jamwal (Subject Teacher) during the year 2014- 15 in partial fulfillment of chemistry practical examination conducted by AISSCE, New Delhi. Signature of principal Signature of chemistry teacher
  5. 5. DRUGS AND ALCOHOLS WHAT IS DRUG?? Any substance, other than food, used in the prevention, diagnosis, all aviation or treatment of a disease is called a drug. A drug may also be defined as a chemical which, when taken in some way alter the body function. Drug is also known as a medicine. Generally, the term drug is applied to any stimulating or depressing substance that can be habituating or addictive. MEANING OF ADDICTION Addiction is the habitual, psychological and physiological dependence on a substance or practice which is beyond voluntary control. A person who is habituated to a substance or a practice, especially a harmful one, is called an addict.
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS TYPE OF DRUGS EXAMPLES EFFECTS 1. Sedatives and Tranquillizers Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines Depress CNS activity give feeling of calmness, relaxation, drowsiness. 2. Opiate Narcotics Opium, morphine, codeine, heroin Suppress brain activity, Relaxed pain. 3.Stimulants Amphetamines, Caffeine, cocaine Make a person more wakeful, alert and active, cause excitement. 4.Hallucinogens LSQ, Mescalin, psilocybin, Ganja, chares, Hashish Alter thoughts, feeling and perceptions.
  7. 7. STRUCTURES OF SOME MENTIONED DRUGS Sedatives and Tranquillizers Barbiturates Bbenzodiazepines
  8. 8. Opiate Narcotics MORPHINECODEINE HEROIN
  10. 10. COMBINATION OF DRUGS AND ALCOHOLS Some addicts use mixtures of drugs to have immediate ‘kick’ or ‘charge’. Simultaneous use of drug and alcohol may produce dangerous effects, including death. When barbiturates and alcohol are taken together, each doubles the effect of the other. A mixture of cocaine and heroin called speed ball, gives spontaneous kick of cocaine and prolonged pleasure of heroin. Combination Effect 1. Alcohol + Barbiturates. Markedly increased depressant effect. 2. Alcohol + Antihistamines. Marked drowsiness. 3. Alcohol + Valium. Dramatically increases sedative effect. 4. Alcohol + Marijuana or Hashish. Decreased coordination increased reaction time impaired judgment. 5. Alcohol + Aspirin. Increased changes of damage to gastric mucosa.
  11. 11. SOCIAL DISEASE - SMOKING, DRINKING AND USE OF DRUGS Smoking and drinking and use of drugs frequently or regularly are social diseases. They adversely affect the health of the addicts and the society. Young people take to these habits for fun, show off or curiosity, as an adventure or feeling of freedom, or as a gesture of defiance against the elders who themselves indulge in these activities but check the youngsters. Other factors that make people take to these vices are inability to face problems of life indifference shown by members of the family, and encouragement or pressure by friends. Temporary escape from the life problems and mental relaxation felt on taking the drugs in the beginning increase person’s interest in them. Soon they become habitual and find it difficult to leave. The daily dose to get the desired effect increases with time. As in other countries, the menace of drug addiction is spreading in India also. A large number of our young men and women have taken to intoxicants. About 87.6% drug addicts are between the ages of 14 and 25 years.
  12. 12. TOBACCO Sources It is a native of South Africa, where the Red Indians first started smoking. Now the tobacco plant has spread the world over. It has large, quote to lanceloate leaves and terminal clusters of tubular, white or pink flowers. Effect of Nicotine (i) Stimulates conduction of nerve impulses. (ii) Relaxes the muscles. (iii) Releases adrenaline, increasing heart beat rate and pressure. (iv) Increased blood pressure due to smoking chances the risk of heart diseases. (v) Retards fetus growth in expecting mothers. (vi) High concentration of nicotine paralyses nerve cells.
  13. 13. ALCOHOL Sources Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, flammable, colorless liquid having a penetrating odor and burning taste. It is one of the products of the distillation of fermented grains, fruit juices and starches with the help of yeast enzymes. It is the principal constituent and the intoxicating principle of wines. Modes of Use Alcohol is taken in low concentration, as the beer, toddy and wine and in relatively high concentration as arrack, brandy, whisky, rum, gin, vodka etc. Addiction Addiction to alcohol is called alcoholism. Alcoholics are found in all sections of society. Alcohol causes intoxication and thus, acts as a poison. The drinkers begin with small doses, but many of them soon start consuming large doses and become addicts. By the time they realize that drinking is adversely affecting them; it is too late to give it up.
  14. 14. What Happens when Alcohol gets in stomach Alcohol is quickly absorbed in the stomach and upper part of small intestine and reaches all the tissues in minutes. Its oxidation starts at once and a large amount of heat is produced. Since heat is not needed in the body, it is taken up by the blood and carried to the skin for dissipation. Since the receptors of heat are located in the skin, the rush of blood to the skin gives a false impression of warmth in the body. The blood supply of internal organs is greatly reduced resulting in fall of temperature in them. Energy released by alcohol is not used in any life process. Rather the energy derived from food is used up in ridding the body of excess heat.
  15. 15. SOAPS AND DETERGENTS SOAPS Soaps are the sodium and potassium salts of the long chain carboxylic acid. A soap molecule consists of a long hydrocarbon chain (composed of carbons and hydrogen) with a carboxylic acid on one end which is ionic bonded to metal ion usually a sodium or potassium. A soap has a large non-ionic hydrocarbon group and an ionic group COO-Na+. EXAMPLES OF SOAPS Sodium stearate (Chemical formula: C17H35COO- Na+) Sodium palmitate (Chemical formula: C15H31COO- Na+) Sodium oleate (Chemical formula: C17H33COO- Na+)
  16. 16. Saponification The process of making soap by the hydrolysis of fats and oils with alkalies is called saponification. Soap is made by heating animal fats or vegetable oil with concentrated sodium hydroxide (NAOH). Fat or Oil + NaOH → Soap + Glycerol MICELLES – SOAP MOLECULES Micelle
  17. 17. A soap molecule has two ends with different properties. (i) A long hydrocarbon part which is hydrophobic (i.e. it dissolves in hydrocarbon). (ii) A short ionic part containing COO-Na+ which is hydrophilic (i.e. it dissolves in water). WORKING OF MICELLES MECHANISM OF SOAPS
  18. 18. When a dirty cloth is put in water containing soap then the hydrocarbon ends of the soap molecule in the micelle attach to the oil or grease particles present on the surface of dirty cloth. In this way the soap micelles entraps the oily particles by using the hydrocarbon ends. The ionic ends of the soap molecules remain attached to the water when the dirty cloth is agitated in soap solution. The oily particles present on its surface gets dispersed in the water due to which the cloth gets clean.
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES Advantages Soaps are eco-friendly and bio degradable. Disadvantages Soaps are not suitable in the hard water. They have weak cleansing properties than detergents.
  20. 20. DETERGENTS Detergents are the sodium salts of long chain benzene sulphuric acids. Detergents are primarily surfactants, which could be produced easily from petrochemicals. Surfactants lower the surface tension of water, essentially making it 'wetter' so that it is less likely to stick to itself and more likely to interact with oil and grease. The ionic group is in a detergent is so3 - Na+ EXAMPLES OF DETERGENTS Two basic examples of well-known detergents of the sulphonate group or the sulphate group are:
  21. 21. CLEANSING ACTION OF DETERGENTS Synthetic detergents have the same type of molecular structure as soaps i.e. a tadpole like molecule having two parts at each end i.e., one large non-polar hydrocarbon group that is water repelling (hydrophobic) and one short ionic group usually containing the or group that is water attracting (hydrophilic). Thus the cleansing action is exactly similar to that of soaps whereby the formation of micelles followed by emulsification occurs. However, synthetic detergents can lather well even in hard water. This is because they are soluble sodium or potassium salts of sulphonic acid or alkyl hydrogen sulphate and similarly form soluble calcium or magnesium salts on reacting with the calcium ions or magnesium ions present in water. This is a major advantage of the cleansing property of detergents over soap.
  22. 22. ADVANTAGES OF DETERGENTS Since detergents are the salts of strong acids they do not decompose in acidic medium. Thus detergents can effectively clean fabric even if the water is acidic. Synthetic detergents are more soluble in water than soaps. They have a stronger cleansing action than soaps. As detergents are derived from petroleum they save on natural vegetable oils, which are important as essential cooking medium DISADVANTAGES OF DETERGENTS Many detergents are resistant to the action of biological agents and thus are not biodegradable. Their elimination from municipal wastewaters by the usual treatments is a problem. They have a tendency to produce stable foams in rivers that extend over several hundred meters of the river water. This is due to the effects of surfactants used in their preparation. Thus they pose a danger to aquatic life. They tend to inhibit oxidation of organic substances present in wastewaters because they form a sort of envelope around them.
  23. 23. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOAPS AND DETERGENTS SOAPS They are metal salts of long chain higher fatty acids. These are prepared from vegetable oils and animal fats. They cannot be used effectively in hard water as they produce scum i.e., insoluble precipitates of Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ etc. DETERGENTS These are sodium salts of long chain hydrocarbons like alkyl sulphates or alkyl benzene sulphonates. They are prepared from hydrocarbons of petroleum or coal. These do not produce insoluble precipitates in hard water. They are effective in soft, hard or salt water.